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  • Penguins have long captured

    企鵝深深擄獲

  • the imagination and the hearts

    全世界大人小孩的

  • of people the world over.

    想像與喜愛。

  • But while popular culture

    主流文化普遍

  • depicts them as clumsy, adorable birds

    將企鵝描繪成笨拙、可愛

  • with endlessly abundant populations,

    且數量龐大的鳥類。

  • the truth is that penguins are exceedingly graceful,

    事實上企鵝相當的優雅,

  • often ornery,

    有時脾氣還很差,

  • and their populations are in rapid free fall.

    而牠們的數量正急速減少。

  • Their real life situation is far more precarious

    牠們面臨的危機比我們

  • than people think.

    想像中還嚴重,

  • And if current trends do not change,

    若情況遲遲無法改善,

  • it may not be long

    不久後

  • before penguins can only be found in movies.

    我們就只能從電影裡看到企鵝了。

  • There are many things about penguins

    企鵝擁有許多

  • that make them odd birds, so to speak.

    「異於常鳥」的特徵。

  • For one thing,

    首先,

  • they are one of the few bird species that cannot fly,

    牠們是少數不會飛的鳥類之一,

  • having evolved from flight-capable birds

    約莫在六千萬年前

  • about 60 million years ago.

    由會飛的鳥類演化而來。

  • Surprisingly, their closest living relative

    令人驚訝的是現有生物裡與企鵝

  • is the albatross,

    親緣關係最近的是信天翁,

  • a bird known for its enormous wingspan

    而信天翁廣為人知的地方 正是巨大的羽翼

  • and extraordinary soaring abilities.

    與優異的翱翔能力。

  • It may seem strange

    這樣說可能很怪,

  • that losing the ability to fly

    但不會飛

  • would be an evolutionary advantage,

    確實有其演化上的優勢,

  • but the penguin's short, flipper-like wings

    企鵝短、如鰭般的翅膀

  • and solid bones

    和結實的骨架

  • allow them to swim faster and dive deeper

    讓牠們比世界上其他鳥類

  • than any other bird on Earth,

    游得更快、潛得更深,

  • filling an ecological niche that no other bird can.

    在生態系統中扮演了 其他鳥類無法取代的角色。

  • Penguins inhabit the southern hemisphere,

    企鵝棲息在南半球,

  • being one of the few bird species

    是少數能在

  • able to breed in the coldest environments.

    極寒環境裡繁殖的鳥類。

  • But contrary to popular belief,

    但與一般觀點相反,

  • they are not restricted to cold regions

    企鵝並非只能在寒帶地區生存,

  • nor are there any at the North Pole.

    北極也不是沒有企鵝。

  • In fact, only 4 of the 18 penguin species

    事實上,在18種企鵝品種裡,

  • regularly live and breed in Antarctica.

    只有4種固定在南極洲棲息、繁殖,

  • Most penguins live in subtemperate

    大部分企鵝生活在亞溫帶

  • to temperate regions.

    至溫帶地區,

  • And the Galapagos penguin even lives and breeds

    而加島環企鵝甚至在南美洲沿海

  • right near the equator

    靠近赤道地區

  • off the coast of South America.

    生活與繁殖。

  • They are also found in South Africa,

    企鵝亦分布在南非、

  • Namibia,

    納米比亞、

  • Australia,

    澳洲、

  • and New Zealand,

    紐西蘭

  • as well as on a number of islands

    及一些位於

  • in the southern Atlantic,

    南大西洋、

  • Pacific,

    太平洋、

  • Indian,

    印度洋

  • and Antarctic Oceans.

    及南極海的島嶼上。

  • Although penguins spend 75% of their lives at sea,

    企鵝一生有75%的時間在海上渡過,

  • they must come to shore every year

    但每年必上岸進行

  • to reproduce and to molt their feathers.

    繁殖與換毛。

  • They do this in a variety of places,

    牠們上岸的地點很多,

  • from the temporary ice sheets of the Antarctic

    舉凡南極洲的臨時冰層、

  • to the beaches of South Africa and Namibia,

    南非及納米比亞的海灘、

  • to the rocky shores of subantarctic islands,

    次南極島嶼的岩岸,

  • to the craggy lava surfaces in the Galapagos.

    及加拉巴哥群島上崎嶇的火山岩區。

  • Different penguin species

    不同的企鵝品種

  • have different nesting practices.

    有不同的築巢方式,

  • Some dig burrows into dirt, sand, or dried guano;

    有些在泥土、沙地 或乾的鳥糞層上挖洞,

  • some nest in tussock grasses;

    有些則在草叢裡築巢,

  • some build nests out of small rocks, sticks, and bones;

    也有利用石頭、樹枝及骨頭來築巢,

  • while others don't build any nests at all.

    有些甚至連巢都不用。

  • Although most penguins lay a clutch of two eggs,

    大部分企鵝一次下兩顆蛋,

  • the two largest species,

    但體型最大的兩種企鵝

  • the King and the Emperor,

    國王企鵝與帝王企鵝

  • lay a single egg

    一次只下一顆蛋,

  • that they incubate on top of their feet

    因此牠們在腳上孵蛋,

  • for approximately two months.

    孵蛋期約兩個月左右。

  • Unfortunately, 15 of the 18 penguin species

    不幸的是,在18種企鵝裡,

  • are currently listed as threatened,

    有15種已被列為受威脅、

  • near-threatened,

    近威脅

  • or endangered

    或瀕危物種,

  • by the International Union for Conservation of Nature.

    這是出自世界自然保護聯盟的資料。

  • In the last several decades,

    在過去幾十年間,

  • we have seen the world populations

    我們發現絕大部分

  • of most penguin species decline

    的企鵝品種

  • by up to 90%,

    其數量減少90%左右。

  • with two of them,

    其中兩種──

  • the Yellow-eyed and Galapagos penguins,

    黃眼企鵝及加環島企鵝,

  • down to just a few thousand birds.

    數量僅剩幾千隻。

  • Penguins are an indicator species,

    企鵝是指標生物,

  • the proverbial "canary in the coal mine."

    就像俗話說煤礦坑裡的金絲雀,

  • Simply put, if penguins are dying,

    簡單來說,沒了企鵝,

  • it means our oceans are dying.

    代表海洋環境也壞得差不多了。

  • And sadly, most of this decline is attributable

    遺憾的是企鵝數量減少

  • to human activities.

    大部分可歸咎於人類活動。

  • Historically, penguins have had to deal

    企鵝一直以來不斷的面臨

  • with multiple disturbances.

    各種騷擾。

  • The mass collection of penguin eggs

    人類大量的採集企鵝蛋

  • and the harvesting

    並挖取

  • of the seabird guano they nested in

    牠們築巢時所需的海鳥糞,

  • caused the dramatic decline

    導致多種企鵝數量

  • of several penguin species.

    急速下降。

  • If you're wondering

    你可能會想

  • what humans would want with seabird poop,

    我們挖海鳥糞要做什麼?

  • it was used as an ingredient

    鳥糞曾被用做

  • in fertilizer and in gunpowder,

    肥料及火藥的原料,

  • being so valuable

    相當珍貴,

  • that in the 19th century,

    因此在19世紀時

  • it was known as white gold.

    還被稱做白金。

  • Current threats to penguins include the destruction

    企鵝目前面臨的威脅包括

  • of both marine and terrestrial habitats,

    海洋及陸地的棲息地遭到破壞、

  • introduced predators,

    外來的掠食者、

  • entrapment in fishing nets,

    受困於魚網

  • and pollution from plastics and chemicals.

    及塑膠與化學物質的汙染。

  • There have also been several large-scale oil spills

    在過去五十年間,曾發生數次

  • over the past 50 years

    大規模漏油事件,

  • that have killed or impacted

    造成全世界數以萬計的企鵝

  • tens of thousands of penguins around the world.

    死亡或受到重大影響。

  • But the two major threats to penguins today

    目前企鵝主要面臨兩項威脅:

  • are global warming

    全球氣候暖化

  • and overfishing.

    與過度捕撈。

  • Global warming impacts penguins in multiple ways,

    全球氣候暖化對企鵝造成很多影響,

  • from interrupting the production of krill

    南極洲海冰量的的減少

  • due to decreased sea ice formation in the Antarctic,

    阻礙了磷蝦的繁殖,

  • to increasing the frequency

    風暴的頻率

  • and severity of storms

    與強度不斷增加,

  • that destroy nests,

    摧毀了企鵝的巢。

  • to shifting the cold water currents

    海洋裡冷水流向的轉變

  • carrying the penguins' prey too far away

    將企鵝的獵物帶向他方,

  • from penguin breeding and foraging grounds.

    遠離企鵝繁殖與覓食的場域。

  • Even though humans

    人類或許是

  • may be the greatest threat to penguins,

    企鵝最大的威脅,

  • we are also their greatest hope.

    但也是牠們最大的希望。

  • Many research and conservation projects

    許多研究與保育計畫

  • are underway to protect penguin habitats

    正致力於保護企鵝棲地、

  • and restore vulnerable populations.

    復育瀕臨絕種物種。

  • With a little help from us

    我們可付出一點努力、

  • and some changes in the practices

    改變以往會對地球與海洋

  • that impact our planet and oceans,

    造成危害的行為模式,

  • there is hope that our tuxedo-clad friends

    這樣我們才有機會在下個世紀

  • will still be around in the next century.

    看到這群穿燕尾服的朋友。

Penguins have long captured

企鵝深深擄獲

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B1 中級 中文 TED-Ed 企鵝 繁殖 鳥類 數量 南極洲

【TED-Ed】企鵝的人氣、困境與糞便 (Penguins: Popularity, peril and poop - Dyan deNapoli)

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    VoiceTube 發佈於 2014 年 01 月 08 日
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