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  • Let me guess,

  • you've got Facebook albums full of photos.

  • You have photos on your computer desktop,

  • on your mobile phone,

  • on your bedroom wall.

  • You see photos in magazines and newspapers,

  • on the side of buses,

  • and of course, in your family albums.

  • We take photos for granted in a major way.

  • But, creating a picture

  • that looked exactly like the person or thing

  • that you were photographing wasn't always obvious.

  • In fact, in the past, it was a big mystery.

  • How could you, in essence,

  • take your reflection in the mirror

  • and freeze it in there?

  • In the 9th century,

  • the Arab scientist Alhazen

  • had come up with the idea

  • of using the camera obscura,

  • which was literally a dark room, or box,

  • with a single, small hole in one side that let light through.

  • This would project the image outside into the wall inside.

  • During the Renaissance,

  • artists like Leonardo DaVinci used this method

  • to introduce 3-D scenes onto a flat plane

  • so that they could copy things,

  • like perspective, more easily.

  • In 1724, Johann Heinrich Schultz discovered

  • that exposing certain silver compounds to light

  • altered their appearance

  • and left marks wherever the light touched.

  • Essentially, Schultz found a way to record the images

  • that Alhazen was able to project,

  • but only for a little while.

  • Schultz's images disappeared soon after he had made them.

  • It wasn't until 1839 that people figured out

  • how to project images onto light-sensitive surfaces

  • that would retain the image after exposure,

  • and thus, photography was born.

  • At that point, it was mostly two inventors

  • who fought for the best way to make photos.

  • One was British scientist Henry Fox Talbot,

  • whose calotype process used paper

  • and allowed many copies to be made

  • from a single negative.

  • The other inventor, Louis Daguerre,

  • was an artist and chemist in France.

  • He developed something called a daguerreotype,

  • which used a silvered plate

  • and which produced a sharper image.

  • But the daguerreotype could only make positive images

  • so copies had to be made by taking another photo.

  • In the end, the daguerreotype won out

  • as the first commercially successful photographic process

  • mostly because the government made it freely available to the public.

  • So now that photography was available,

  • getting a picture of yourself would be a snap, right?

  • Well, not exactly!

  • This process still required a whole dark room

  • at the location of the photograph,

  • which was a big hassle.

  • Picture the early photographers lugging

  • enormous trailers with all their equipment

  • wherever they wanted to take a picture.

  • Not only that, but the early processes

  • had extremely long exposure times.

  • To get a good photo, you would have to stand perfectly still

  • for up to two minutes!

  • This led to development of inventions like

  • the head holder,

  • a wire frame that would hide behind you

  • while supporting your head.

  • It's also why you don't see people smiling

  • in early photographs.

  • It's not that life was that bad,

  • it was just hard to keep a steady grin

  • for more than a few seconds,

  • so people opted for a straight-faced look.

  • And then George Eastman came along.

  • Eastman believed that everyone

  • should have access to photography,

  • and he spent many late nights

  • mixing chemicals in his mother's kitchen

  • to try to achieve a dry plate photographic process.

  • This would allow exposed negatives

  • to be stored and developed later

  • at a more convenient place

  • instead of carting those dark rooms,

  • necessary for wet plates, around.

  • After starting a business,

  • which initially made dry plates,

  • Eastman eventually discovered plastic roll film

  • that would fit in hand-held, inexpensive cameras.

  • These cameras sold by the millions under the tag line,

  • "You push the button,

  • we do the rest."

  • While Eastman was largely responsible

  • for making photography a universal past time,

  • even he could not have dreamed of the ways

  • photography had since shaped the world.

  • It's now estimated that over 380 billion photographs

  • are taken each year.

  • That's more photographs each day

  • than were taken in the first hundred years

  • after photography was invented.

  • Say cheese!

Let me guess,

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A2 初級

TED-Ed】發光的攝影。從相機暗箱到相機手機--伊娃-蒂莫西。 (【TED-Ed】Illuminating photography: From camera obscura to camera phone - Eva Timothy)

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    wikiHuang 發佈於 2021 年 01 月 14 日
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