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  • I'm going to take you on a journey

    我想要帶領你們進入一段旅程,

  • into some hidden worlds inside your own body

    藉由掃描式電子顯微鏡 讓你們看看

  • using the scanning electron microscope.

    你們自己身體裡面 潛藏的世界。

  • These microscopes use a beam of electrons

    這種顯微鏡用電子束

  • to illuminate things that are too small

    來照亮一些小到 連可見光光子

  • to be seen by the photons of visible light.

    都沒辦法看到的東西。

  • And to put this in context,

    為了讓大家更容易了解,

  • if you mentally divide one tiny millimeter

    如果你想像把小小的一毫米(millimeter)

  • into a thousand parts,

    分成一千等分,

  • each one of those parts is a micrometer,

    每一小段就是一微米(micrometer),

  • or micron for short.

    或是簡短地叫 micron。

  • If you then divide one micron

    如果你再把微米

  • into another thousand parts,

    分成一千等分,

  • each one of those is a nanometer.

    那每一段就叫做奈米(nanometer)。

  • And it's nanometers and microns

    而奈米和微米

  • that are the domain

    正是

  • of the scanning electron microscope.

    掃描式電子顯微鏡的尺度。

  • So, let's start with something on the body

    所以,讓我們從我們身上

  • that we can measure at about 100 microns wide,

    大約 100 微米寬的部份開始。

  • and that would be a human hair,

    那就是人類的頭髮,

  • which now you can see is covered with scales,

    你會看到上面佈滿鱗片,

  • just like all of our hairs,

    我們所有的毛髮都是,

  • and in fact, just like all mammal hairs.

    而實際上,所有 哺乳類動物的毛髮都是。

  • We're going to plunge into the body now,

    現在我們要 縱身跳入體內,

  • and we've landed in the thyroid gland.

    接著我們在甲狀腺上著陸。

  • Here we're looking at proteins

    在這裡我們看到許多蛋白質

  • that are being secreted into a storage chamber

    被分泌到一個貯藏室,

  • where they are going to develop

    在那裡它們會先發展成為

  • into the mature thyroid hormones

    成熟的甲狀腺荷爾蒙,

  • before being released into the body.

    才會釋放到體內。

  • And at this point you might be wondering

    這裡你可能會好奇

  • if these colors are real.

    這些顏色是真的嗎。

  • The answer is no.

    答案是不。

  • Electron images only happen in black and white.

    電子影像只有黑色與白色。

  • I often colorize my images for various reasons,

    我常常因為各種理由 幫它們染色,

  • but I don't change the structures,

    但我不會改變 它們的結構,

  • so the strucutres that you're seeing

    所以你看到的結構

  • are all exactly as they were

    真的就是我用顯微鏡

  • when I photographed them in the microscope.

    將它們拍下的樣子。

  • We're going to take a detour

    接著們要繞個路

  • and zoom in on the heart muscle now.

    放大看看心臟的肌肉。

  • And the heart muscle has this curious structure

    心臟肌肉有這種奇怪的結構

  • that's kind of like corrugated cardboard.

    有點像是瓦楞紙。

  • That's what allows the heart to expand and contract as it's beating.

    心臟跳動時 要舒張或收縮時就要靠它。

  • Let's go look at a lung with pneumonia.

    我們來看看得肺炎的肺。

  • Here we've got a white blood cell

    這裡有一個白血球

  • poking around in an air sac,

    在肺泡內遊走,

  • looking for something to clean out

    像是一臺小吸塵器

  • like a little vacuum cleaner.

    在找尋要清除的東西。

  • This is your immune systems at work.

    這就是你體內 正在工作的免疫系統。

  • So what are the kinds of things

    所以,

  • that we don't want to be breathing,

    除了細菌和病毒

  • besides bacteria and viruses?

    哪些東西是你不想吸進來的呢?

  • Well, we all know to stay away from asbestos

    嗯,我們都知道 要遠離石綿,

  • and now we can see why.

    現在我們可以看到為什麼。

  • This is a close-up view of the mineral

    這是一個石綿材質的物體

  • that asbestos is made from,

    它的近照,

  • and now you can see that it's composed of

    而你現在可以看到 它是由許多

  • many tiny, fine little needles.

    很小、很細的針組成。

  • Each one of those needles is a single crystal.

    每一根針都是 一個獨立的晶體。

  • And in this picture, they're begininng to pry apart

    而在這照片中, 它們正在散開

  • and tangle up into a spiky mess,

    然後捲成尖尖的一團,

  • not for breathing.

    讓你不能呼吸。

  • What else might we want to avoid breathing?

    你想避免吸入的 可能還有什麼?

  • Well, how about diesel fuel?

    嗯,可能是柴油?

  • We're looking here at the particles of diesel soot,

    我們這裡看到的 是一些油煙粒子,

  • and these are extraordinarily tiny.

    它們真的非常小。

  • In fact, each one of these little particles

    事實上,每一個這種粒子

  • is only about 50 nanometers wide.

    只有 50 奈米寬。

  • We'll go and look at some blood now.

    現在我們進一步看一下血液。

  • We've got a collection

    這是一群

  • of nice, fat, happy, healthy red blood cells,

    良好、肥大、 快樂、又健康的紅血球,

  • but they're all tangled up in a network of fibers.

    但是它們都被一團纖維 捲在一起。

  • This is how the body makes a blood clot.

    這就是體內 產生血栓的過程。

  • And so, it surrounds a group of red blood cells

    所以,它把一群紅血球 還有其它細胞圍住,

  • and other cells, and traps them

    困住它們,

  • so the blood can't flow.

    血就不能流動了。

  • We've got two more blood cells here,

    這裡還有另外兩個血球,

  • but they're not normal

    但它們不太正常,

  • like the ones in the blood clot image.

    跟血栓那張看到的那些不一樣。

  • These are distorted.

    這些血球變形了。

  • You can see that they're curling up

    你可以看到它們正在捲曲

  • and beginning to grow what's going to become spikes.

    準備要變成尖刺狀的東西。

  • These are sickle cells

    這些是鐮刀型紅血球,

  • and these are what cause the condition

    就是它們造成

  • of sickle cell amenia.

    鐮刀型貧血的症狀。

  • We've gone into the mouth now

    我們現在跳進嘴裡

  • and we've landed on dental plaque,

    然後在牙菌斑上著陸,

  • which you can see is covered with bacteria,

    你可以看到上面覆蓋著細菌,

  • and in fact dental plaque is host

    而事實上牙菌斑是

  • to about 1,000 different species of bacteria.

    大約 1,000 種細菌的家。

  • Lovely to think about.

    想到就很舒服,對吧?

  • And now we are on to other teeth.

    現在我們在另一顆牙齒上。

  • We're on the surfaces of the,

    我們在牙齒的表面,

  • or the internal surfaces of the teeth themselves.

    或是說它們內部的表面。

  • The smaller one is a baby tooth

    小的那張是幼童的牙齒,

  • that had just fallen out of the mouth

    是從我一個年輕朋友的嘴裡

  • of a young friend of mine,

    剛掉下來的,

  • and I want to call your attention to the little holes.

    而我想請你們注意一下那些小洞。

  • Those little holes are the tops

    那些小洞是

  • of a whole network of tiny little tubes

    一群小管束的網絡的頂端,

  • that circulate nourishing fluids inside your teeth.

    它們是用來 在你牙齒內運送養分。

  • And we can see those tubes

    我們可以發現 這些小管束

  • a little better in the larger picture

    在大張的照片裡比較明顯,

  • because some of them are in cross-section.

    因為有些還有呈現截面狀。

  • But in fact, this larger picture is showing you

    但實際上,這張大的圖

  • a portion of a tusk, which you may know

    是獠牙的一部份,你可能知道

  • is simply a great big, elongated tooth,

    就是又大又長的牙齒,

  • so you would expect to see the same features

    所以你可能期待看到一些 相同的結構

  • between your teeth and a tusk.

    在你的牙齒和獠牙上。

  • But that larger tusk picture is also rough

    但是大顆的獠牙 在和兒童牙齒比較時

  • by comparison to the young baby tooth.

    也比較粗糙。

  • That's because it's many, many thousands of years old.

    這是因為,這顆已經放了 好幾千年了。

  • It's also partly fossilized.

    它可能有點變化石了。

  • And, between these two pictures,

    接著,在這兩張照片中,

  • now you can see how your teeth relate

    你可以看出你的牙齒

  • to the tusk of an Ice Age mammoth.

    和冰河時期的猛瑪象 之間的關係。

  • We're shooting up north now into the brain,

    現在我們要向上衝, 進到腦部,

  • and we can see these pink cells down at the bottom.

    我們可以看到這些 底部粉紅色的細胞。

  • Those are the neurons of memory.

    它們是記憶的神經元。

  • And I'm going to leave you with this picture

    我會停在這個畫面,

  • because I know you're going to take

    因為我知道你們

  • a lot of happy memories away

    在 TED 這精彩的一天中

  • from your exciting day at TED

    會留下許多愉快的回憶,

  • and now you can visualize where those memories

    而現在你們 可以想像這些回憶

  • are being stored in your own brain.

    是存在你大腦的什麼地方。

  • Thank you.

    謝謝。

I'm going to take you on a journey

我想要帶領你們進入一段旅程,

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B2 中高級 中文 美國腔 TED-Ed 牙齒 顯微鏡 紅血球 看到 奈米

【TED-Ed】看見體內潛藏的世界 (Visualizing hidden worlds inside your body - Dee Breger)

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    wikiHuang 發佈於 2014 年 09 月 12 日
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