Placeholder Image

字幕列表 影片播放

  • I love a challenge, and saving the Earth is probably a good one.

    我喜歡挑戰,而拯救地球或許是個不錯的挑戰。 I love a challenge, and saving the Earth is probably a good one.

  • We all know the Earth is in trouble.

    我們都知道地球面臨危機。 We all know the Earth is in trouble.

  • We have now entered in the 6X --

    我們已進入這星球上 We have now entered in the 6X --

  • the sixth major extinction on this planet.

    第六次大規模的物種滅絕。 the sixth major extinction on this planet.

  • I often wondered if there was a United Organization of Organisms --

    我經常在想如果有一個聯合物種組織, I often wondered if there was a United Organization of Organisms --

  • otherwise known as "Uh-Oh" --

    別名為「啊哦-」 otherwise known as "Uh-Oh" --

  • (Laughter) -- and every organism had a right to vote,

    (笑聲)-並且每個物種都有權利投票, (Laughter) -- and every organism had a right to vote,

  • would we be voted on the planet or off the planet?

    我們會被票選逐出地球還是保留下來? would we be voted on the planet or off the planet?

  • I think that vote is occurring right now.

    我想這個票選正在進行。 I think that vote is occurring right now.

  • I want to present to you a suite of six mycological solutions,

    我想告訴大家一系列六種真菌法。 I want to present to you a suite of six mycological solutions,

  • using fungi, and these solutions are based on mycelium.

    這些方法以菌絲為基礎,提供利用真菌的方式。 using fungi, and these solutions are based on mycelium.

  • The mycelium infuses all landscapes,

    菌絲體存在於任何地形種。 The mycelium infuses all landscapes,

  • it holds soils together, it's extremely tenacious.

    它異常堅韌,能夠牢固土壤。 it holds soils together, it's extremely tenacious.

  • This holds up to 30,000 times its mass.

    可以固定超過自身三萬倍重量的土壤。 This holds up to 30,000 times its mass.

  • They're the grand molecular disassemblers of nature -- the soil magicians.

    它們是大自然中的巨型分子分解機--土壤魔術師。 They're the grand molecular disassemblers of nature -- the soil magicians.

  • They generate the humus soils across the land masses of Earth.

    它們生產腐質,覆蓋地球表面。 They generate the humus soils across the land masses of Earth.

  • We have now discovered that there is a multi-directional transfer

    我們目前發現植物間養分 We have now discovered that there is a multi-directional transfer

  • of nutrients between plants, mitigated by the mcyelium --

    可透過菌絲體多方向傳遞。 of nutrients between plants, mitigated by the mcyelium --

  • so the mycelium is the mother

    菌絲體就好像是 so the mycelium is the mother

  • that is giving nutrients from alder and birch trees

    不斷提供赤楊、白樺樹、鐵杉、檜木、 that is giving nutrients from alder and birch trees

  • to hemlocks, cedars and Douglas firs.

    黃杉養份的母親。 to hemlocks, cedars and Douglas firs.

  • Dusty and I, we like to say, on Sunday this is where we go to church.

    妲斯蔕和我喜歡說這是我們星期天上教堂的地方。 Dusty and I, we like to say, on Sunday this is where we go to church.

  • I'm in love with the old-growth forest,

    我愛這古老的叢林, I'm in love with the old-growth forest,

  • and I'm a patriotic American because we have those.

    而且因為我們有這些叢林,我是愛國的美國人。 and I'm a patriotic American because we have those.

  • Most of you are familiar with portobello mushrooms.

    你們大多知道蘑菇。 Most of you are familiar with portobello mushrooms.

  • And frankly, I face a big obstacle.

    坦白說,我常面臨一個問題, And frankly, I face a big obstacle.

  • when I mention mushrooms to somebody,

    就是當我向人們提起菇類, when I mention mushrooms to somebody,

  • they immediately think portobellos or magic mushrooms,

    他們立即想到的是蘑菇或是迷幻蘑菇。 they immediately think portobellos or magic mushrooms,

  • their eyes glaze over, and they think I'm a little crazy.

    他們對我翻白眼,認為我瘋了。 their eyes glaze over, and they think I'm a little crazy.

  • So I hope to pierce that prejudice forever with this group.

    所以我希望在座的人永遠不要有這樣的偏見。 So I hope to pierce that prejudice forever with this group.

  • We call it mycophobia,

    我們稱之為菇類恐懼症: We call it mycophobia,

  • the irrational fear of the unknown when it comes to fungi.

    當談到菌類時產生的非理性恐懼。 the irrational fear of the unknown when it comes to fungi.

  • Mushrooms are very fast in their growth.

    菇類生長的速度是非常快的。 Mushrooms are very fast in their growth.

  • Day 21, day 23, day 25.

    第21天、第23天、第25天。 Day 21, day 23, day 25.

  • Mushrooms produce strong antibiotics.

    菇類會生產非常強的抗生素。 Mushrooms produce strong antibiotics.

  • In fact, we're more closely related to fungi than we are to any other kingdom.

    實際上,與其他生物王國相比我們與真菌類更接近些。 In fact, we're more closely related to fungi than we are to any other kingdom.

  • A group of 20 eukaryotic microbiologists

    大約20位真核微生物學家 A group of 20 eukaryotic microbiologists

  • published a paper two years ago erecting opisthokonta --

    在兩年前發表了一篇論文建立「後鞭毛生物」-- published a paper two years ago erecting opisthokonta --

  • a super-kingdom that joins animalia and fungi together.

    一個聯繫起動物與真菌的超大族群。 a super-kingdom that joins animalia and fungi together.

  • We share in common the same pathogens.

    我們有共同的病原體。 We share in common the same pathogens.

  • Fungi don't like to rot from bacteria,

    真菌不喜歡被細菌侵蝕, Fungi don't like to rot from bacteria,

  • and so our best antibiotics come from fungi.

    所以我們最有效的抗生素來自真菌。 and so our best antibiotics come from fungi.

  • But here is a mushroom that's past its prime.

    但這是個過了黃金時期的菇。 But here is a mushroom that's past its prime.

  • After they sporulate, they do rot.

    他們形成孢子後會死亡。 After they sporulate, they do rot.

  • But I propose to you that the sequence of microbes

    但我要提出,菇類死亡後, But I propose to you that the sequence of microbes

  • that occur on rotting mushrooms

    接下來在菇上生存的微生物 that occur on rotting mushrooms

  • are essential for the health of the forest.

    對健康和叢林有絕對的重要性。 are essential for the health of the forest.

  • They give rise to the trees,

    它們使樹木成長, They give rise to the trees,

  • they create the debris fields that feed the mycelium.

    它們創造餵養菌絲體的腐質。 they create the debris fields that feed the mycelium.

  • And so we see a mushroom here sporulating.

    我們看這裡一株菇正在形成孢子。 And so we see a mushroom here sporulating.

  • And the spores are germinating,

    孢子正在發芽, And the spores are germinating,

  • and the mycelium forms and goes underground.

    然後菌絲體就形成並且深入地下。 and the mycelium forms and goes underground.

  • In a single cubic inch of soil, there can be more than eight miles of these cells.

    在一立方英吋的土壤中,可能含有超過8英里長的細胞。 In a single cubic inch of soil, there can be more than eight miles of these cells.

  • My foot is covering approximately 300 miles of mycelium.

    我的腳掌現在正踩著大約300英里的菌絲體。 My foot is covering approximately 300 miles of mycelium.

  • This is photo-micrographs from Nick Read and Patrick Hickey.

    這是一張尼克瑞得和帕特里克希基所拍攝的顯微照片。 This is photo-micrographs from Nick Read and Patrick Hickey.

  • And notice that as the mycelium grows,

    注意當菌絲成長時, And notice that as the mycelium grows,

  • it conquers territory and then it begins the net.

    它擴張領地並建立網路。 it conquers territory and then it begins the net.

  • I've been a scanning electron microscopist for many years,

    我用掃描式電子顯微鏡很多年了, I've been a scanning electron microscopist for many years,

  • I have thousands of electron micrographs,

    我有數千張的電子顯微照片。 I have thousands of electron micrographs,

  • and when I'm staring at the mycelium

    當我注視着菌絲體的圖像時, and when I'm staring at the mycelium

  • I realize that they are microfiltration membranes.

    我意識到它們是微孔過濾薄膜。 I realize that they are microfiltration membranes.

  • We exhale carbon dioxide, so does mycelium.

    我們呼出二氧化碳,菌絲體也是。 We exhale carbon dioxide, so does mycelium.

  • It inhales oxygen, just like we do.

    它們也像我們一樣吸入氧氣。 It inhales oxygen, just like we do.

  • But these are essentially externalized stomachs and lungs.

    但這些是外置的胃和肺。 But these are essentially externalized stomachs and lungs.

  • And I present to you a concept that these are extended neurological membranes.

    我想帶給大家的一個概念是他們還是神經薄膜。 And I present to you a concept that these are extended neurological membranes.

  • And in these cavities, these microcavities form,

    在這些洞中,更微小的洞會形成。 And in these cavities, these microcavities form,

  • and as they fuse soils, they absorb water.

    當他們深入土壤,他們會吸收水分。 and as they fuse soils, they absorb water.

  • These are little wells.

    他們就想小井一般。 These are little wells.

  • And inside these wells, then microbal communities begin to form.

    在這些小井中,菌絲族群開始形成。 And inside these wells, then microbal communities begin to form.

  • And so the spongy soil not only resists erosion,

    所以海綿般的土壤不只防止腐化, And so the spongy soil not only resists erosion,

  • but sets up a microbial universe

    也建立一個可以讓許多其他生物生長的 but sets up a microbial universe

  • that gives rise to a plurality of other organisms.

    菌絲世界。 that gives rise to a plurality of other organisms.

  • I first proposed, in the early 1990s,

    我最早在90年代提出, I first proposed, in the early 1990s,

  • that mycelium is Earth's natural Internet.

    菌絲體是地球的天然互聯網。 that mycelium is Earth's natural Internet.

  • When you look at the mycelium, they're highly branched.

    仔細觀察菌絲體你會發現他們有非常多的分支。 When you look at the mycelium, they're highly branched.

  • And if there's one branch that is broken, then very quickly,

    如果有一個分支損壞了,很快地, And if there's one branch that is broken, then very quickly,

  • because of the nodes of crossing --

    因為這些節點互相交叉-- because of the nodes of crossing --

  • Internet engineers maybe call them hot points --

    網絡工程師可能稱之為連線熱點-- Internet engineers maybe call them hot points --

  • there's alternative pathways for channeling nutrients and information.

    提供其它可以連通養分輸送以及信息傳遞的通路。 there's alternative pathways for channeling nutrients and information.

  • The mycelium is sentient.

    菌絲體是有感知的。 The mycelium is sentient.

  • It knows that you are there.

    它可以感受到你的存在。 It knows that you are there.

  • When you walk across landscapes,

    當你在路地上行走, When you walk across landscapes,

  • it leaps up in the aftermath of your footsteps trying to grab debris.

    它緊跟著你的腳步躍上來抓取土塵。 it leaps up in the aftermath of your footsteps trying to grab debris.

  • So I believe the invention of the computer Internet

    所以我相信電腦網路的發明是 So I believe the invention of the computer Internet

  • is an inevitable consequence

    由於生物已創造出非常成功的系統後 is an inevitable consequence

  • of a previously proven biologically successful model.

    不可避免的成果。 of a previously proven biologically successful model.

  • The Earth invented the computer Internet for its own benefit,

    地球為了自己的益處而創造了它的網路, The Earth invented the computer Internet for its own benefit,

  • and we now, being the top organism on this planet,

    現在我們作為這星球上位於頂端的生物, and we now, being the top organism on this planet,

  • are trying to allocate resources in order to protect the biosphere.

    正嘗試著分配資源來保護生態圈。 are trying to allocate resources in order to protect the biosphere.

  • Going way out, dark matter conforms to the same mycelial archetype.

    擴大範圍來看,暗物質也與菌絲體的形態類似。 Going way out, dark matter conforms to the same mycelial archetype.

  • I believe matter begets life,

    我相信生命由物質產生, I believe matter begets life,

  • life becomes single cells, single cells become strings,

    生命從單個細胞開始,單細胞串接起來 life becomes single cells, single cells become strings,

  • strings become chains, chains network.

    形成鏈接,繼而形成網絡。 strings become chains, chains network.

  • And this is the paradigm that we see throughout the universe.

    我們觀察宇宙也發現相同的模式。 And this is the paradigm that we see throughout the universe.

  • Most of you may not know that fungi were the first organisms to come to land.

    在座的大多數人可能不一定知道真菌是第一種登上陸地的生物。 Most of you may not know that fungi were the first organisms to come to land.

  • They came to land 1.3 billion years ago,

    他們在13億年前來到陸地上, They came to land 1.3 billion years ago,

  • and plants followed several hundred million years later.

    植物在好幾百萬年以後才開始在陸地上生長。 and plants followed several hundred million years later.

  • How is that possible?

    這怎麼可能呢? How is that possible?

  • It's possible because the mycelium produces oxalic acids

    因為菌絲體製造草酸 It's possible because the mycelium produces oxalic acids

  • and many other acids and enzymes,

    和其他酸性物質和酶。 and many other acids and enzymes,

  • pockmarking rock and grabbing calcium and other minerals

    使他們能夠侵蝕石塊並獲取鈣質和其他礦物 pockmarking rock and grabbing calcium and other minerals

  • and forming calcium oxalates.

    來形成草酸鈣。 and forming calcium oxalates.

  • Makes the rocks crumble, and the first step in the generation of soil.

    不斷將岩石分解稱小的細屑,這就是產生土壤的第一步。 Makes the rocks crumble, and the first step in the generation of soil.

  • Oxalic acid is two carbon dioxide molecules joined together.

    草酸是由兩個二氧化碳分子結合起來。 Oxalic acid is two carbon dioxide molecules joined together.

  • So fungi and mycelium

    所以真菌和菌絲體 So fungi and mycelium

  • sequester carbon dioxide in the form of calcium oxalates.

    以碳酸鈣的形式保存二氧化碳。 sequester carbon dioxide in the form of calcium oxalates.

  • And all sorts of other oxalates

    其他類型的草酸 And all sorts of other oxalates

  • are also sequestering carbon dioxide through the minerals

    也都是石塊中二氧化碳 are also sequestering carbon dioxide through the minerals

  • that are being formed and taken out of the rock matrix.

    和其他礦物質的保存。 that are being formed and taken out of the rock matrix.

  • This was first discovered in 1859.

    這個現象是在1859年首次發現的。 This was first discovered in 1859.

  • This is a photograph by Franz Hueber.

    這是一張弗郎茲休伯在1950年代 This is a photograph by Franz Hueber.

  • This photograph's taken 1950s in Saudi Arabia.

    於沙特阿拉伯所拍攝的照片。 This photograph's taken 1950s in Saudi Arabia.

  • 420 million years ago, this organism existed.

    420萬年前,這種生物就存在了。 420 million years ago, this organism existed.

  • It was called Prototaxites.

    它叫做原杉藻屬。 It was called Prototaxites.

  • Prototaxites, laying down, was about three feet tall.

    原杉藻屬全長約有一米。 Prototaxites, laying down, was about three feet tall.

  • The tallest plants on Earth at that time were less than two feet.

    當時地球上最高的植物不超過0.6米。 The tallest plants on Earth at that time were less than two feet.

  • Dr. Boyce, at the University of Chicago,

    芝加哥大學的伯易斯博士去年在 Dr. Boyce, at the University of Chicago,

  • published an article in the Journal of Geology

    Journal of Geology(地質學期刊)上發表了一篇文章 published an article in the Journal of Geology

  • this past year determining that Prototaxites was a giant fungus,

    確認原杉藻屬是一種巨大的真菌, this past year determining that Prototaxites was a giant fungus,

  • a giant mushroom.

    一個巨大的蘑菇。 a giant mushroom.

  • Across the landscapes of Earth were dotted these giant mushrooms.

    這些巨型蘑菇曾遍佈地球表面, Across the landscapes of Earth were dotted these giant mushrooms.

  • All across most land masses.

    存在於幾乎所有地面, All across most land masses.

  • And these existed for tens of millions of years.

    且存在了千萬年之久。 And these existed for tens of millions of years.

  • Now we've had several extinction events, and as we march forward --

    現在我們正經歷一些物種滅絕的情況 。 Now we've had several extinction events, and as we march forward --

  • 65 million years ago -- most of you know about it --

    你們大多知道六千五百萬年前, 65 million years ago -- most of you know about it --

  • we had an asteroid impact.

    地球上曾經有過一次隕石撞擊。 we had an asteroid impact.

  • The earth was struck by an asteroid,

    隕石擊中地球, The earth was struck by an asteroid,

  • a huge amount of debris was jettisoned into the atmosphere.

    大量的塵埃被拋到了大氣圈中, a huge amount of debris was jettisoned into the atmosphere.

  • Sunlight was cut off, and fungi inherited the Earth.

    陽光被阻斷了,真菌延續了地球上的生命。 Sunlight was cut off, and fungi inherited the Earth.

  • Those organisms that paired with fungi were rewarded,

    那些依賴真菌的生物得到了好處, Those organisms that paired with fungi were rewarded,

  • because fungi do not need light.

    因為真菌不需要光。 because fungi do not need light.

  • More recently, at Einstein University,

    最近在愛因斯坦大學, More recently, at Einstein University,

  • they just determined that fungi use radiation as a source of energy,

    學者們確認真菌會使用輻射作為能源, they just determined that fungi use radiation as a source of energy,

  • much like plants use light.

    就好像植物利用陽光一樣。 much like plants use light.

  • So the prospect of fungi existing on other planets elsewhere,

    所以關於真菌生存在其他行星上的可能性, So the prospect of fungi existing on other planets elsewhere,

  • I think, is a foregone conclusion,

    我覺得早有一個已知的結論, I think, is a foregone conclusion,

  • at least in my own mind.

    至少我是這麼認為的。 at least in my own mind.

  • The largest organism in the world is in Eastern Oregon.

    世界上最大的生物在於俄勒岡州的東部。 The largest organism in the world is in Eastern Oregon.

  • I couldn't miss it. It was 2,200 acres in size.

    我不可能沒發現它,因為它有2200英畝大。 I couldn't miss it. It was 2,200 acres in size.

  • 2,200 acres in size, 2,000 years old.

    2200英畝那麼大,2000多年的歲月。 2,200 acres in size, 2,000 years old.

  • The largest organism on the planet is a mycelial mat, one cell wall thick.

    地球上最大的生物是一張菌絲體「地毯」,一個細胞壁的厚度。 The largest organism on the planet is a mycelial mat, one cell wall thick.

  • How is it that this organism can be so large,

    這個生物怎麼可能會這麼大 How is it that this organism can be so large,

  • and yet be one cell wall thick,

    卻只有一個細胞壁厚? and yet be one cell wall thick,

  • whereas we have five or six skin layers that protect us?

    而我們卻有厚五、六層的細胞保護着我們。 whereas we have five or six skin layers that protect us?

  • The mycelium, in the right conditions, produces a mushroom --

    菌絲體在合適的條件下會產生蘑菇, The mycelium, in the right conditions, produces a mushroom --

  • it bursts through with such ferocity that it can break asphalt.

    且以能夠穿破柏油路的力量生長出來。 it bursts through with such ferocity that it can break asphalt.

  • We were involved with several experiments.

    我們之前參與一些實驗, We were involved with several experiments.

  • I'm going to show you six, if I can,

    如果時間夠,我要給你們看六個 I'm going to show you six, if I can,

  • solutions for helping to save the world.

    可以幫助拯救世界的方法。 solutions for helping to save the world.

  • Battelle Laboratories and I joined up in Bellingham, Washington,

    我在華盛頓的柏林翰和巴特爾實驗室合作。 Battelle Laboratories and I joined up in Bellingham, Washington,

  • there were four piles saturated with diesel and other petroleum waste.

    在那有四堆柴油和石油廢料: there were four piles saturated with diesel and other petroleum waste.

  • One was a control pile, one pile was treated with enzymes,

    一堆是對照組、一堆是加了催化酶的、 One was a control pile, one pile was treated with enzymes,

  • one pile was treated with bacteria

    一堆加了細菌、 one pile was treated with bacteria

  • and our pile we inoculated with mushroom mycelium.

    一堆加了蘑菇菌絲。 and our pile we inoculated with mushroom mycelium.

  • The mycelium absorbs the oil.

    菌絲體吸收了石油。 The mycelium absorbs the oil.

  • The mycelium is producing enzymes --

    菌絲體會產生催化酶-- The mycelium is producing enzymes --

  • peroxydases -- that break carbon-hydrogen bonds.

    能破壞碳氫鍵的過氧化酶。 peroxydases -- that break carbon-hydrogen bonds.

  • These are the same bonds that hold hydrocarbons together.

    這些鍵與碳水化合物的鍵結相同。 These are the same bonds that hold hydrocarbons together.

  • So the mycelium becomes saturated with the oil,

    所以菌絲體被浸在石油中。 So the mycelium becomes saturated with the oil,

  • and then, when we returned six weeks later,

    我們在六周後回來, and then, when we returned six weeks later,

  • all the tarps were removed,

    移除油布後, all the tarps were removed,

  • all the other piles were dead, dark, and stinky.

    發現其它堆都腐爛、發黑、發臭。 all the other piles were dead, dark, and stinky.