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  • Early into the Middle Ages, kings and rulers in Europe were fast beginning to lose power.

    在中世紀早期,國王與統治者們快速地失去王權

  • Invasions from the Vikings, Muslims and the major Arabs made it difficult to keep law, order and place.

    維京人,穆斯林,以及阿拉伯人的入侵使得律法,階級,以及地位的鞏固變得更加困難

  • People needed protection. And in their need for shelter, a new system of feudalism, evolved.

    人們需要保護,而為了因應人們對於庇護的需求,孕育出了一個名為封建制度的新體系

  • Feudalism was a loose system of law in which powerful lords divided their land holdings among lesser lords.

    封建制度是個鬆散的法律系統,讓有權勢的地主能夠將土地的所有權劃分給小地主

  • In exchange, these lesser lords pledge their service and loyalty to the greater lord.

    做為回報,這些小地主對大地主宣誓,將會輔佐並忠心於大地主

  • At the top of the feudalism chart stood the kings.

    在封建制度圖表的最上方是國王

  • They managed and ruled over the entire empire.

    他們經營並統治整個帝國

  • Below the kings came the lords, wealthy landowners who held power over the vassals and peasants by offering them protection.

    在國王之下接著的是地主,有錢有勢的地主統領諸侯與農人,並提供他們庇護

  • Faithful to the lords were the vassals or knights who offered the lords their warning services in return for their land.

    忠心於地主的則是諸侯或是騎士,他們打仗以滿足地主的戰爭需要,並以此換取領地

  • Below the vassals were the peasants or serfs.

    在諸侯之下則是農民或是奴隸

  • The serfs did all the menial jobs but they had their own piece of small land

    奴隸負責所有最卑微的雜務,但做為報酬,他們卻能有自己的一塊小土地

  • in return for protection from the manor when invaders came in.

    並在入侵者肆虐時能夠受到莊園的保護

  • Manor, which included a large house with surrounding villages was thoroughly self-sufficient.

    莊園,包含了一棟大型建築及建築周邊的小村落,是一塊完全自給自足的區域

  • The serfs produced everything that the manor needed, from furniture to weapons.

    奴隸提供莊園所需的一切,從家具到武器全都包辦

  • Serfs were taxed heavily, the lord would require a certain amount of money coming in from the estate

    奴隸被課的稅很重,地主需要從領地獲取一筆龐大的金錢

  • so the knight would ask for some taxes to be levied.

    騎士們也會徵收一些稅金

  • Knights were known for their chivalry while on duty.

    騎士以他們的高潔精神聞名

  • A knight would always help a woman and that was one of the unwritten laws of being a knight.

    ''騎士總會幫助婦孺''就是騎士們一道不成文的律法

  • Noble women were quite independent in their day as their husband would be out defending his land.

    在那個時代,貴族女人們由於丈夫常常在外打仗,其實是相當孤獨的

  • Mutual obligations were a big thing of feudalism.

    主從契約是封建主義中很重要的一環

  • Lords and vassals had a contract known as the feudal contract.

    地主與諸侯們會簽屬一種封建協定

  • The lord would give a vassal a fief of land in return for service.

    而地主則會賞賜諸侯一塊封地,作為他們努力的報償

  • Vassals had fiefs from different lords,

    諸侯可以同時擁有不同領主賞賜的封地

  • but a lead lord was the lord that the vassal would first serve.

    但諸侯必須優先侍奉身為最高領導的那個地主

  • Castles were fortified to prevent intruders from entering.

    城堡則是為了防止入侵者而層層加固的建築

  • A moat surrounding the castle and a man which surveyed the surroundings from a keep.

    城堡周邊有護城河保護,並且會派一個人眺望城堡周邊,以做看守之用

  • The family that lived in the castle would also have cell elevated stored items in case of a siege.

    住在城堡裡的家族也會在城堡裡準備大量的存貨以預防被圍攻的場面

  • The economy was boosted by the agricultural revolution with the introduction of iron ploughs as well as windmills.

    當時的經濟由於農業革命所開發出的鐵犁以及風車等等而有了大幅的進步

  • The windmilss would keed the grain turning into flour using wind energy.

    風車能運用風力不停地把小麥研磨成麵粉

  • Previously wooden ploughs were used and they were not effective in the heavy soils of Europe.

    在這之前,人們曾試著使用木作的犁,但是這種農具對於歐洲厚實的土壤並不是太有用

  • However, the best thing that happen was the introduction of the three field system.

    然而,其中最棒的發明,則是三田制的運用

  • One field had grains, the other had legumes, one wasn't planted.

    一個田種麥,另一個種豆類,剩下一個田則休耕

  • The legumes added a variety and gave the peasants strength.

    豆類不但豐富了食物的種類,更能夠提供農民所需的精力來源

  • The decline of feudalism came when rich nobles were allowed to pay for soldiers rather than to fight themselves.

    封建主義的式微,則是在那些富有的貴族們能夠付錢請士兵為他們打仗,而不必親自上戰場的時候開始的

  • The threat of the mercenaries led on to the employment of professional trained soldiers,

    這一股士兵的威脅後來轉變成了職業軍人的雇用風氣

  • the standing armies, and ultimately, to the end of feudalism.

    職業軍人,到最後,導致了封建時代的結束

Early into the Middle Ages, kings and rulers in Europe were fast beginning to lose power.

在中世紀早期,國王與統治者們快速地失去王權

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B2 中高級 中文 騎士 城堡 莊園 奴隸 入侵 國王

歐洲的封建主義 (Feudalism in Europe)

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    Bing-Je 發佈於 2021 年 01 月 14 日
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