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  • One thing all really good birders have in common

    所有真正的好鳥人都有一個共同點

  • is that they know how to recognize birds.

    是他們懂得如何識別鳥類。

  • Sounds obvious, right?

    聽起來很明顯,對吧?

  • But you may not know is that experts

    但你可能不知道的是,專家

  • actually key into four characteristics to identify birds.

    其實鍵入四個特徵來識別鳥類。

  • That's right.

    沒錯

  • Those four keys to identification are size and shape, overall color pattern, behavior,

    這四個識別的關鍵是大小形狀、整體色澤圖案、行為。

  • and habitat. When experts use these to identify birds, they're able to identify

    和棲息地。 當專家使用這些來識別鳥類時,他們能夠識別出

  • more birds and theyre able to identify them more often.

    更多的鳥類,他們能夠更頻繁地識別它們。

  • And with some practice of these four keys,

    而在這四個關鍵的練習下。

  • youll start looking at birds differently. If you do,

    你會開始用不同的眼光看待鳥類。如果你這樣做。

  • we promise youll become a better birder.

    我們保證你會成為一個更好的捕鳥人。

  • So if you've ever wondered how that hotshot birder

    所以,如果你曾經想知道如何,熱門的捕鳥者。

  • is able to identify a bird as it flies by quickly, well,

    是能夠在鳥兒快速飛過的時候識別出它的身份,好。

  • we're going to let you in on their little secret. In this installment of "Inside Birding",

    我們'要讓你在他們的小祕密。 在這一期的"Inside Birding"中。

  • we're going to cover the first key to identification: size and shape.

    我們'將涵蓋識別的第一個關鍵:尺寸和形狀。

  • If there’s one thing I wish I knew when I was starting out,

    如果有一件事我希望在我剛開始的時候就知道的話

  • it would be the importance of using size and shape to identify birds.

    這將是利用大小和形狀來識別鳥類的重要性。

  • Like most people, I began by focusing on field marks and plumage details.

    和大多數人一樣,我開始關注田野痕跡和羽翼細節。

  • But what I didn’t realize is how variable plumages can be,

    但我沒有意識到的是,羽翼是多麼的多變。

  • especially as they change from one season to the next.

    尤其是當他們從一個賽季到下一個賽季的變化。

  • While field marks can be helpful, it’s not actually

    雖然字段標記可以起到幫助作用,但實際上並不是

  • what most experienced birders use to identify birds.

    大多數有經驗的鳥人用什麼來識別鳥類。

  • We actually identify birds in the same way we identify

    其實我們識別鳥類的方式和識別

  • things we see every day.

    我們每天看到的東西。

  • So, think of it this way. When you see a friend or family member from a distance,

    所以,你要這樣想。當你從遠處看到朋友或家人的時候。

  • you recognize them not by a detail, like their eye color or their hair style,

    你認識他們不是通過一個細節,比如他們的眼睛顏色或髮型。

  • but by their overall appearance, their height, their build,

    但通過他們的整體外觀,他們的身高,他們的身材。

  • that sort of thing. So if you can apply this same technique to birding, you'll be

    諸如此類的事情。 所以,如果你能應用這種同樣的技術來捕鳥,你'將是。

  • able to identify birds as easily as you recognize your friends.

    能夠識別鳥類,就像你認識你的朋友一樣容易。

  • This looks like a really great place to find birds. Weve got a great mix of

    這看起來是個找鳥的好地方。 我們已經得到了一個偉大的組合

  • habitat. Weve got these low grasses

    棲息地。我們已經得到了這些低草

  • and wildflowers; we've got this big bank of deciduous trees.

    和野花;我們'已經得到了這個大銀行的落葉樹。

  • We have this big conifer over here.

    我們有這個大針葉樹在這裡。

  • We have another bank of conifers over here.

    我們這裡還有一灘針葉樹。

  • What I really like are all these berry-producing shrubs.

    我真正喜歡的是這些產漿果的灌木。

  • That's gonna make this a great place to look for American Robin.

    這將使這裡成為尋找美國羅賓的好地方。

  • I know what youre thinkingAmerican Robin, theyre too easy,

    我知道你在想什麼--美國羅賓,他們太容易了。

  • theyre too common. But here’s the thing, it makes sense to practice your

    它們太常見了。 但事情是這樣的,它是有意義的,練習你的

  • birding skills with a bird that you know you can locate, and most importantly,

    鳥類技能與鳥,你知道你可以定位,最重要的是。

  • really spend time watching it.

    真的花時間看它。

  • All right, where are they? Let’s go find some robins.

    好吧,他們在哪裡? 我們去找幾隻知更鳥吧

  • There’s a couple of phoebes up

    有一對夫婦的phoebes了。

  • just where there’s the first main rise on the left side.

    就在左手邊第一個主樓的地方。

  • Hearing some chickadees up there.

    聽到一些雞鴨的聲音

  • There’s a pretty sweet waxwing.

    有一個相當甜蜜的蠟筆小新。

  • All right, here we go, here’s a robin.

    好了,我們開始吧,這是一隻知更鳥。

  • Okay, so check it out.

    好吧,那就去看看吧。

  • Weve got a medium-sized songbird that’s definitely smaller than a crow but

    我們有一隻中等大小的鳴禽,絕對比烏鴉小,但是

  • larger than a sparrow.

    比麻雀還大。

  • So Jessie just did two really important things when identifying birds

    所以傑西在識別鳥類的時候做了兩件很重要的事情。

  • by size and shape.

    按大小和形狀。

  • First, she put the bird into the correct group or family of birds. And I know what youre

    首先,她把鳥兒歸入正確的鳥類群體或家族。 我知道你在說什麼

  • thinking, that could be pretty hard, but you probably already know more than you think you do.

    思考,這可能是相當困難的,但你可能已經知道比你認為的更多。

  • Is the bird a duck, is it a heron, is it a raptor?

    這隻鳥是鴨子,是蒼鷺,是猛禽嗎?

  • Even the most basic observations are useful. The next thing she did

    即使是最基本的觀察也是有用的。 接下來她做的事情

  • was to make a size comparison. Did you hear how she said

    是為了做一個尺寸比較。 你聽到她是怎麼說的嗎?

  • it's smaller than a crow,

    它比烏鴉還小。

  • but larger than a sparrow?

    但比麻雀大?

  • Making comparisons is key

    進行比較是關鍵

  • to identifying birds.

    識別鳥類。

  • Yeah, when were out birding, were constantly making comparisons,

    是啊,當我們在外面打鳥的時候,我們不斷地進行比較。

  • narrowing down the list of species to figure out what we're looking at.

    縮小物種列表,以弄清我們'看的是什麼。

  • Now that weve checked out size, let's look at the shape.

    現在我們已經檢查出了尺寸,讓我們看看形狀'。

  • Oh, here’s a robin, teed up,

    哦,這裡有一隻知更鳥,被綁起來了。

  • just to the left of the tall conifer.

    就在高大針葉樹的左邊。

  • Oh, yeah.

    哦,是的。

  • Oh, it’s pretty chunky,

    哦,很厚實。

  • kind of pot-bellied.

    一種大腹便便的。

  • So when observing a bird's shape, it’s important to start out with the overall

    所以在觀察鳥兒的外形時,要從整體入手。

  • impression of the bird. Jessie thought it was pretty chunky.

    印象中的鳥。 傑西覺得它很厚重。

  • The next thing shell do is key in on those parts of the bird

    接下來,她要做的就是重點關注這隻鳥的那些部位。

  • that are most useful for identification: the head,

    對識別最有用的:頭部。

  • the bill, the length of the wings and the length of the tail. All the while, she's

    喙、翅膀的長度和尾巴的長度。同時,她's

  • constantly making comparisons with the bird she sees to what she already knows.

    不斷地把她看到的鳥和她已經知道的東西進行比較。

  • Yeah, so taking a closer look at its shape,

    是啊,所以仔細看看它的外形。

  • we can see that it's got a fairly long bill,

    我們可以看到,它'的得到了一個相當長的法案。

  • rather small head,

    相當小的頭。

  • large body,

    龐大的身軀。

  • and the tail is relatively long.

    而且尾巴比較長。

  • Yeah, good description.

    是的,很好的描述。

  • So if I were to compare this bird to other birds I know,

    所以如果要把這隻鳥和我認識的其他鳥做比較。

  • I’d say that it has a shorter tail than a mockingbird but it has a larger body.

    我想說的是,它的尾巴比知更鳥短,但它的身體卻更大。

  • It doesn’t have a crest like a Blue Jay or cardinal would.

    它不像藍鴉或紅雀那樣有一個徽章。

  • And check out how long those wings are,

    看看這些翅膀有多長

  • nothing like a House Wren’s stubby wings.

    沒有什麼能比得上家鷦鷯的粗壯翅膀。

  • I don't think I can overstate the importance of making comparisons when

    我不'認為我不能過分強調進行比較的重要性,當。

  • you're out birding.

    你'出去打鳥。

  • Now I know this is going to sound a little bit weird,

    我知道這聽起來有點奇怪。

  • but one of the best type of comparisons that you can make

    但其中一個最好的類型的比較,你可以使

  • is to compare the bird to itself.

    就是把鳥兒和自己相比。

  • And that's a subject of today's "pro insight".

    而這'就是今天'的一個主題"親見"。

  • Comparing an individual bird’s body parts with one another,

    將單個鳥類的身體部位相互比較。

  • for example the length of the wings relative to the length of the tail,

    例如,翅膀的長度相對於尾巴的長度。

  • can be a particularly good way to identify birds that appear very similar.

    可以是一個特別好的方法來識別那些看起來非常相似的鳥類。

  • A perfect example of this -

    一個完美的例子--

  • Hairy and Downy Woodpecker.

    啄木鳥和啄木鳥。

  • Here's what we're talking about. We have a Hairy Woodpecker

    這就是我們所說的。 我們有一個毛啄木鳥

  • on the side of the feeder.

    在餵食器的一側。

  • Now we have a Downy Woodpecker on the side of the same feeder.

    現在,我們在同一個餵食器的邊上有一隻啄木鳥。

  • In both cases, they're males; you can tell by the red on the top of the head.

    在這兩種情況下,它們'是雄性的;你可以通過頭頂的紅色來判斷。

  • And just for comparison, now we have a female Downy Woodpecker,

    為了便於比較,現在我們有一隻雌性啄木鳥。

  • no red on the back of the head.

    後腦勺上沒有紅色。

  • You can see how confusing these two species can be.

    可見這兩個物種是多麼的混亂。

  • They really look very similar to each other.

    他們看起來真的很像。

  • Now, let’s take a closer look at a couple of still images.

    現在,讓我們仔細看看幾張靜態圖片。

  • Here on the left, we have a Downy Woodpecker and on the right, a Hairy Woodpecker.

    左邊這只是唐尼啄木鳥,右邊這只是毛啄木鳥。

  • Again, it's really easy to see why these species are commonly confused,

    同樣,它'真的很容易看到為什麼這些物種通常被混淆。

  • but when you have them right next to each other, like we do now,

    但當你讓他們緊挨著對方,就像我們現在這樣。

  • the first thing that really jumps out is how much larger the Hairy Woodpecker is.

    首先真正讓人眼前一亮的是毛啄木鳥的體型大了許多。

  • The problem of course is that we'd never see birds like this in the field,

    當然問題是,我們'永遠不會在野外看到這樣的鳥。

  • so what we're going to do is compare the bird to itself.

    所以我們'要做的是將鳥兒與自己進行比較。

  • Let's zoom in and see what I'm talking about.

    讓我們'放大看看我在說什麼。

  • Here on the Downy Woodpecker the length of the bill is clearly shorter,

    這裡的唐尼啄木鳥的喙長度明顯較短。

  • relative to the width of the head.

    相對於頭部的寬度。

  • If you were to take the bill and rotate it one hundred and eighty degrees,

    如果你拿著鈔票把它旋轉180度。

  • the bill would barely extend past the eye.

    該法案几乎不會超過眼睛。

  • If we turn our attention now to the Hairy Woodpecker,

    如果我們現在把注意力轉移到毛啄木鳥身上。

  • here we can see that the bill's obviously larger and longer

    在這裡,我們可以看到,該法案顯然更大,更長的時間

  • relative to the width of the head.

    相對於頭部的寬度。

  • If you were to take its bill and rotate it a hundred and eighty degrees,

    如果你拿著它的鈔票,把它旋轉一百八十度。

  • the bill would extend well past the eye.

    該法案將遠遠超過眼睛的範圍。

  • Let's take one last look at these together and it becomes clear what I'm talking about.

    我們'最後再一起看看這些,就明白我在說什麼了。

  • But these are still photos

    但這些都是照片

  • and still photos are really easy.

    和靜態照片真的很容易。

  • So now let's take a look at birds as we might see them in the field

    所以,現在讓我們來看看鳥類,因為我們可能會看到他們在現場。

  • and put this ID skill to use.

    並把這個ID技能用上。

  • This one's pretty easy.

    這個很簡單。

  • Again, look at how large the bill is. If you were to rotate that

    再來看看鈔票有多大。 如果你要旋轉那個

  • a hundred and eighty degrees, it would clearly go beyond the eye.

    一百八十度,顯然會超出眼界。

  • Any guesses?

    有什麼猜測嗎?

  • That's right, Hairy Woodpecker.

    沒錯,毛啄木鳥。

  • Now we have a bird as I tend to see them in the field with a lot of vegetation

    現在我們有了一隻鳥,因為我經常在有很多植被的田野裡看到它們。

  • between me and the bird.

    我和鳥之間。

  • But that is a tiny bill.

    但這是一個小小的賬單。

  • That's right; it's a Downy Woodpecker.

    沒錯,這是一隻唐尼啄木鳥。

  • Now this is pretty sweet. We have a bird in the nest cavity.

    現在,這是相當甜蜜。 我們有一隻鳥在巢穴裡。

  • Again, look at the length of the bill. That’s a monster.

    再來看看賬單的長度。 這是一個怪物。

  • Do you know what it is?

    你知道這是什麼嗎?

  • Hairy Woodpecker.

    毛啄木鳥。

  • Good view.

    景色不錯。

  • Again, really large bill.

    同樣,真正的大單。

  • Another Hairy Woodpecker.

    又是一隻毛啄木鳥。

  • All right, so you're probably getting the hang of this by now.

    好吧,所以你'現在可能得到這個竅門。

  • You know separating Hairy and Downy Woodpeckers is just one of many

    你知道區分毛啄木鳥和絨毛啄木鳥只是其中的一種。

  • identification challenges that can be quickly solved

    可以迅速解決的識別難題

  • using this type of comparison.

    使用這種類型的比較。

  • The great thing about it is, you don't need another object or another bird to

    最棒的是,你不需要另一個對象或另一隻鳥來。

  • make comparisons to.

    與之相比。

  • All you have to do is to compare the bird to itself.

    你要做的就是把鳥和自己比起來。

  • Whether were looking at a bird’s overall structure or were comparing

    無論我們是在觀察一隻鳥的整體結構,還是在比較

  • individual parts of the bird,

    鳥的各個部位。

  • we use size and shape more than anything else to identify birds.

    我們用大小和形狀來識別鳥類比什麼都重要。

  • So to recap, the first thing

    所以,總結一下,第一件事

  • you want to do when you find a bird is figure out what group or

    你要做的,當你發現一隻鳥是弄清楚什麼組或

  • family the bird belongs to.

    鳥類所屬的家庭。

  • Next, take a look at the overall size and shape and make comparisons to birds you already know.

    接下來,看看整體的大小和形狀,並與你已經知道的鳥類進行比較。

  • And finally, if you get a good read on the bird, take a look at the body parts and

    最後,如果你對這隻鳥有了很好的瞭解,可以看看它的身體部位和。

  • look at their size and shape and see how they relate to one another.

    看看它們的大小和形狀,看看它們之間的關係。

  • Now keep in mind,

    現在請記住:

  • size and shape alone may not be enough to enable you to identify every bird you

    僅僅是尺寸和形狀可能不足以讓你識別每一隻鳥兒