Placeholder Image

字幕列表 影片播放

  • >>Female Presenter: It's my privilege today to introduce Tony Wagner. Who I consider to

  • be one of the most innovative and forward thinking thought leaders in education today.

  • I could read his long list of accomplishments. His work at Harvard. His work as a teacher.

  • And as as principal. But you could read that all on his website at Tony Wagner dot com

  • if you'd like to. And I just wanna basically let you know that this book that he's written

  • "Creating Innovators: The Making of Young People Who Will Change the World" is really

  • a fabulous read. We're gonna be selling it outside, right outside there. You can buy

  • a copy and have Tony sign it afterward and he's gonna be kind of giving an overview of

  • the work he's seen in this space. So please welcome Tony Wagner.

  • [applause]

  • >>Tony Wagner: Delighted. Good morning. Thank you, thank you. It's really a pleasure to

  • be here. A lot more fun than being at Microsoft, where I was three weeks ago. I have to tell

  • you.

  • [laughter]

  • But, that's not for attribution.

  • How many of you here are parents? Raise your hands.

  • How many of you here are educators? Raise your hands.

  • OK. I love to begin with a quote from Einstein. "The formulation of the problem is often more

  • essential than the solution." We talk a lot about problem solving. Problem identification

  • is arguably the most important skill of the 21st century. For 25 years we've been talking

  • about failing schools and the need to reform education. Part of the problem is it's a little

  • bit punitive language. Anybody wanna go to reform school? Raise your hands. It's very

  • punitive. [laughter]

  • But beyond that I think that problem is not the right problem. If we merely aspire to

  • bring our disadvantaged students up to the levels of achievement of our middle class

  • students, we will fail all of our students. And put our economy in even greater jeopardy.

  • So that's what I wanna talk about.

  • Fundamentally the problem is this. Our system of education is obsolete. And needs reinventing.

  • Not reforming. And that is a completely different education problem. And guess what? Google

  • is mostly to blame for that obsolescence. I'm about to explain why. Because of Google

  • and other events, what one knows today no longer matters? How much you know is not a

  • competitive advantage. Information has become commoditized. It's like air. It's like water.

  • It's on every internet connected device, growing exponentially.

  • How many of you had to memorize the periodic table in high school? Raise your hands. How

  • many elements were there?

  • [quiet audience response]

  • I'm sorry, I didn't hear that answer.

  • [audience members call out answers loudly] [laughter]

  • Whatever answer you gave was wrong, because two more were added last week. If you don't

  • believe me Google it.

  • [laughter]

  • Ah, how many of you had to memorize the state capitals? Raise your hands. OK. Let's have

  • a competition. How many of you would like to recite them from memory while I Google

  • them and let's see who's quicker?

  • [laughter]

  • Memory is not something we need to think about educating as we have in the past. The world

  • no longer cares how much you know. What the world cares about is what you can do with

  • what you know. And that is a completely different education problem. It's not about filling

  • people up with more knowledge. It's about skill and it's about will. So I'm gonna be

  • talking about skill and will in the context of education.

  • Back in 2005, I read "The World Is Flat" by Thomas Friedman. How many of you have read

  • that? Those of you who haven't I encourage you to. Most important book I've read in at

  • least a decade. Scared the heck out of me. Because as many of you know, Friedman describes

  • a world where increasingly any knowledge, I'm sorry, any work that can be routinized

  • is very rapidly be off shored or automated. And I talked with him recently. He said he

  • got one thing wrong in that book. I said "What?" He said, "The pace of change." It's happening

  • far, far more quickly than he ever imagined.

  • So I think the question becomes in a global knowledge economy, what skills will our young

  • people need? Will your children need? To succeed. So that was a burning question for me back

  • then. And I decided to interview a very wide range of leaders. Corporate leaders from Apple

  • to Unilever. Leaders in the military. Community leaders. College teachers. Asking all of them

  • "What are the skills that matter most? What are the gaps?" And I came to understand there's

  • a set of core competencies every single student must be well on the way to mastering before

  • he or she finishes high school.

  • Some of you may have read my book "The Global Achievement Gap" that describes this. Came

  • out about four years ago. Very briefly they are: Number one, critical thinking and problem

  • solving. And fascinatingly, executives describe critical thinking first and foremost as the

  • ability to ask really good questions. Try an interesting exercise. Do a learning walk.

  • Observe classrooms. And listen for who is asking what kinds of questions.

  • Collaboration across networks and leading by influence was number two. Agility and adaptability

  • was number three. Initiative and entrepreneurialism was number four. Number five was, effective

  • oral and written communication. And it is by the way the number one complaint of both

  • college teachers and employers. Number six was accessing and analyzing information. Number

  • seven was curiosity and imagination.

  • So that book came out about three and a half years ago. And it describes the new skills.

  • And the global achievement gap is the gap between the new skills all students will need.

  • Not just for a good career, but for continuous learning and active and informed citizenship.

  • Those skills versus what is taught and tested even in our very best schools. That's the

  • global achievement gap. That gap between the new skills all students need as well as how

  • they are motivated to learn. Versus what we're teaching and testing. So that's skill.

  • So two things happened when that book came out three and a half years ago. Number one,

  • I got a kind of affirmation frankly that stunned me. From literally from Taiwan to Singapore

  • to Helsinki to Bahrain to Thailand to Birmingham, England. Around the world, people saying "Yep,

  • these are exactly the right skills, would you come and talk to our audiences about them?"

  • From Wall Street to West Point, same message exactly. But then the other thing happened.

  • The global financial collapse. I saw students with a BA degree and about 30,000 dollars

  • of debt on average coming home to no job. Now they had seemingly mastered many of these

  • skills. But what was missing? Why weren't they able to find jobs? Or create jobs? Right

  • now today, the un- and under-employment rate among college graduates 2005 and more recent

  • is 44 percent.

  • [pause]

  • About 22 percent are completely unemployed. The other 22 percent have jobs that do not

  • require a college education. What's the problem? Well, as I came to try to understand it and

  • come to grips with the global economic collapse. And mind you, I'm a recovering high school

  • English teacher. So what I knew about economics four years ago you could put in a thimble.

  • But I really studied it and I came to understand a couple of things. Number one, our economy

  • has become a more and more and more dependent upon consumer spending as the engine of our

  • economy. Back at the end of World War II, nearly 50 percent of all jobs were manufacturing

  • related. Now we don't make so much as we do buy stuff other people have made. That's point

  • one.

  • Point two, that consumer economy has been fueled by debt. People putting money on their

  • credit cards as fast as they can. Pulling the money out of their houses as fast as they

  • could. The savings rate in 2007 was minus two percent. Leading me to conclude that perhaps

  • we've created an economy based on people frequently spending money they do not have, to buy things

  • they may not need, threatening the planet in the process. Now, the question becomes,

  • how do we become less reliant on consumer spending? Which is not sustainable economically,

  • environmentally, or spiritually in my opinion. How do we become less reliant on that? What's

  • gonna replace it? What's gonna be the engine of growth? What's gonna create jobs in the

  • future? So I read, over and over again, one word kept coming up. Innovation.

  • Now let me be clear, we're not just talking about breakthroughs in science technology,

  • engineering and math. Innovation as I'm using it is broadly defined. Becoming a country

  • that produces young people who have more better ideas to solve more different kinds of problems

  • than what we have today. Young people who are creative problem solvers. That's the simplest

  • definition of innovation. Someone who is a creative problem solver. First of all, a problem

  • identifier, and then a creative problem solver.

  • Now, we've always been known as a country that's been highly innovative. But is that

  • because of or in spite of our education system?

  • [audience chuckles]

  • [unintelligible] percent question for the day. Are you ready for this? I'm gonna say

  • it so fast you won't have time to Google it. What do Bill Gates, Edwin Land the inventor

  • of the Polaroid instant camera, Bonnie Raitt the folk singer, and Mark Zuckerberg all four

  • have in common?

  • They were not college drop outs, I'm sorry. They were Harvard college dropouts.

  • [laugher]

  • That's different. I mean, you know, Steve Jobs, he was just a college dropout. Michael

  • Dell, he was just a college dropout. These guys were Harvard college dropouts.

  • So I decided to take on a very different kind of research. I wanted to try to understand,

  • what must we do differently as parents? As teachers? As mentors? And as employers? To

  • develop the capacities of many, many, many, more young people to be creative problem solvers.

  • To be innovators. In whatever they do. Not just STEM fields. Social innovators and entrepreneurs.

  • Innovators in all domains. So I first interviewed a very wide variety of young people in their

  • twenties. Who were highly innovative. But again in a broad range of fields. Some were

  • artists, musicians, social entrepreneurs. Some were in STEM fields.

  • And then I studied their ecosystems. By that I mean I went and interviewed each one of

  • their parents. Trying to see if I could discern patterns of parenting that had made a difference.

  • I asked each one of them, "Was there a teacher or a mentor?" who had made a significant difference

  • in their lives? In their development as innovators. 30 percent could not name a single teacher.

  • Almost all of those young people were from disadvantaged backgrounds. Where their schools

  • and teachers were not what one finds here. The other 70 percent could name a teacher.

  • And you know the span of teachers was elementary to graduate school. Then I went and interviewed

  • each of those teachers and mentors. From these young innovators. Profiled.

  • Talked to them and came to understand something that I still to this day find shocking. In

  • every single case, these teachers from elementary to graduate school, were themselves outliers

  • in their educational settings. Their institutions. Teaching in ways that were very different

  • than their peers. But remarkably similar to one another. And further, when I went to those

  • few schools that we have identified as doing an outstanding job of educating people to

  • be innovators, talking about High Tech High. I'm talking about Olin College of Engineering.

  • I'm talking about The D School here at Stanford. I'm talking about the MIT Media Lab. When

  • I visited those places, the kinds of teaching I saw there was totally consistent across

  • those schools. And completely congruent with the ways in which these young, these outlier

  • teachers whom I had interviewed were teaching. And so I came to understand that the culture

  • of learning that produces innovators. The work culture which we've been talking about.

  • It develops the capacity to innovate. In a classroom or in a corporation indeed. Is radically

  • at odds with the culture of schooling in most classrooms. In five essential respects.

  • Number one. Culture of innovation is all about collaboration. Teamwork. Accountable teamwork.

  • All of these teachers built accountable teamwork into almost all of their assignments. Valued

  • teamwork as much as individual achievement. Number two, the culture of learning to become

  • an innovator is all about problem based learning using multiple disciplines. It's right here.

  • Judy Gilbert director of talent here at Google said to me: "If there's one thing academics

  • must understand is that problems can neither be identified, let alone solved, within the

  • bright lines of individual academic disciplines." The culture of schooling is all about becoming

  • a specialist. That's what we incent. That's what we reward. First we divide and conquer

  • the high school universe. With curriculum. Carnegie units. Which have not changed in

  • 125 years. Then when we go to college we're supposed to have a major. Oh and we want to

  • teach in college. We wanna have a, uh, doctorate. When I did my doctorate at Harvard, I was

  • told my first year that my dissertation would be a conversation between myself and one or

  • two other people in the world. Conversation with two people. For four years? I don't think

  • so.

  • [audience chuckles]

  • I chose a different path. Got through Harvard but by other means.

  • Number three. The world of innovation, learning to become an innovator is learning how to

  • make mistakes, reflect on them, and learn from them. Iterate. I was down here at IDO,

  • talked to folks there. They said "Our motto is 'Fail early and fail often.' There is no

  • innovation without trial and error."

  • A student at Olin said "You know, we don't even talk about failure here. We talk about

  • iteration." Very different world. The D School at Stanford they're sitting around the table

  • talking. "Actually, you know we were thinking, F is the new A."

  • [laughter]

  • Try that out on your parents.

  • [laughter]

  • Number four. The culture of learning to become an innovator is an active process. Where students

  • are creators. Where students are producing real products for real audiences. Solving

  • real problems. So often the culture of schooling is the absolute antithesis. It's about consuming,

  • not creating. Sit and "git". In fact, I wonder if that's where we learn to be such good little

  • consumers. We start out, that's how we get schooled 12, 16 years.

  • Number five and most important, I think. I discovered that every single one of these

  • young innovators whom I profiled from both advantaged and disadvantaged backgrounds was

  • intrinsically motivated. And then when I looked at what their parents and their teachers had

  • done they too were very focused on intrinsic motivation. Radically at odds with the culture

  • of schooling which is all about carrots and sticks. As and Fs and pizza on Fridays if

  • you get good test scores. So what do these parents do? What do these teachers do? There

  • was a pattern of play, to passion, to purpose. Parents encouraging much more exploratory,

  • discovery based play. Simple toys. Sand, blocks, clay, water, paint. Lego toys as they got

  • older. Toys without batteries. They limited screen time. They actively encouraged their

  • kids to find and pursue a passion. They gave them a rich buffet of things to try out. Making

  • sure though, that they didn't over schedule their kid's times. So the kids still had time

  • for more discovery based play. But they encouraged them to try instruments or Scouts or sports

  • or whatever. Not insisting that they put in 10,000 hours to become absolutely excellent

  • at it. But that they really give it a try and see if it's something they were interested

  • in. These parents as well as the teachers believed it was more important that these

  • kids find an pursue a passion than they simply achieve academically for its own sake.

  • Teachers building time into every single unit of study where students could investigate,

  • explore, create, invent, ask a question. And you know, the 20 percent time here at Google

  • comes immediately to mind, 'cause I think the best teachers build 20 percent time into

  • each one of their classes. To insure that students have that time to explore, invent,

  • and create. I wonder, what would happen if we said "Why shouldn't every teacher have

  • 20 percent time?"

  • [audience response "Mmmm." ]

  • To pursue his or passions in the context of teaching and learning.

  • As these young people continue to explore ideas and interests and their passions. Their

  • passions didn't stay the same. They morphed. They evolved. Tell a quick story. Kirk Phelps

  • grew up here in the Silicon Valley. Father worked at HP at the time. Passionate about

  • science. Really totally passionate about science. By the age of middle school he's sort of working

  • in labs in the summer, washing out beakers. Doesn't matter what he's doing. He's around

  • science and scientists. Parents say "Oh, wow, let's go find the best science school for

  • him 'cause that's what he's interested in now." Knowing that it may change. Got him

  • into Exeter Academy. Because it was reputed to have the best of the best science programs.

  • By the end of the 11th grade Kirk has done pretty much every science class there, and

  • he's kinda bored. The Harkness table, the famed idea of sitting around and having a

  • Socratic discussion. Well, it isn't quite like that. And Kirk says "I wanna leave. I

  • wanna drop out." What would you say as a parent to a kid who's about to drop out of the most

  • prestigious private school in the country. With no diploma.

  • Well, I can tell you what Exeter said. They said "Oh, well you'll never get into college."

  • Well, he did. He got into Stanford. For a combined BS/MS program. And he evolves. You

  • know, at first he thinks he wants to be a scientist. Then he thinks it's too lonely.