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  • Here in the States,

    在美國,

  • I've already seen how they do intensive farming on a huge scale.

    我看到他們如何進行大型的密集式畜牧生產。

  • In the next 40 years, we'll have 9 billion people on this planet.

    未來40年,全球將會有90億人口,

  • We have to make as much food as we have made since the beginning of time.

    我們需要製造大量食物,數量相等於從遠古至現在的總和。

  • and I've seen from the air, how another farm does it even bigger.

    我也從高空看到另一個更大的乳牛場。

  • Each of these sheds has got about 3,000 cows in it, and there's 10 units spread out across this farm,

    每個牛棚有大約3,000隻牛,整個牧場共有10個牛棚,分佈在不同的角落,

  • makes my farm look like an allotment.

    相比之下,我的農場只看似一個農圃,

  • Now it's time to see it close up.

    是時候看近一點。

  • Well, seeing that farm from the air was absolutely extraordinary.

    從高空觀看這個乳牛場,絕對是非凡體驗。

  • I've now got an hour's long drive to find out what happens on ground level.

    1小時車程後,我會走進乳牛場,了解裡面是什麼一回事。

  • The farm I am about to visit has managed to turn intensive farming into a tourist attraction.

    我參觀的牧場,由大型的密集式牧場,變成一個旅遊景點。

  • Fair Oaks Farm Park receives 500,000 visitors every year.

    Fair Oaks Farm Park 每年接待500,000名遊客。

  • They come to see the 32,000 cows which produce more than 2 million pints of milk every day.

    遊客專程來看這合共32,000隻,每日生產2,000,000品脫牛奶的牛群。

  • 25 barns, most of them are 1/4 mile long, are spread over a 17,000 acre site.

    乳牛場共有25個牛棚,大部分長達1/4英里,分佈在這17,000英畝的土地上。

  • How can you possibly look after 32,000 cows?

    你怎能夠飼養32,000隻牛?

  • I mean, that's a lot of animals to look after, isn't it?

    這是個大數目,是嗎?

  • Yes, we have 32,000 cows, but every cow is an individual.

    是的,我們有32,000隻牛,但每一隻牛是一個個體。

  • In a computer record, we know everything about that cow,

    根據電腦記錄,我們知道牛隻的一切資料:

  • when she had a calf, when she had a cough, whatever.

    它何時曾誕下小牛,何時曾生病等等。

  • These cows are under 24 hour observation.

    牛群會受24小時觀察。

  • We have 450 workers that are looking after their welfare along with our veterinarians.

    我們有450工人及獸醫負責照顧牛隻。

  • and so, we invite the public to come in, see what we do,

    我們邀請公眾參觀,看我們的運作,

  • measure us againstdo they think we're taking care of our cows.

    監察我們給牛群的照顧。

  • A farm of this size must have a big environmental impact.

    牧場這麼大,一定會對環境構成影響。

  • Well, yeah, the potential environmental impact that we think we've taken that off the page.

    嗯,是的,但我們認為已經解決了潛在對環境的影響。

  • We collect 100% of our manure every day in huge vacuum cleaners that all goes to anaerobic digesters,

    我們每日有吸管收集所有牛糞,送進厭氧沼氣池,

  • and it creates a renewable energy source.

    轉化為可再生能源。

  • so 100% of our power is poo power.

    所以我們的能源,全靠牛糞發電。

  • A farm this size can produce enough electricity to power 8,000 homes.

    以這個牧場的規模,可以製造足夠電力,供8000戶家庭使用。

  • In addition it's a 58% methane gas. We can scrub that make it 100% methane. Now, that's natural gas.

    而且,氣體含58﹪甲烷。我們能將它提煉至100﹪,成為天然氣,

  • And we run all of our trucks off a compressed natural gas.

    供我們的貨車使用。

  • Do you think this is industrial farming that is very much a factory for the cows?

    你認為這種工業化的畜牧生產,像一個牛工廠嗎?

  • Are they prisoners of their own labour?

    這群牛是否好像囚犯,勞役自已?

  • Well, certainly we don't feel that way.

    嗯,當然我們不會有這種想法,

  • In terms of our love of dairy, and our love of farming, and our family involvement,

    我們對牛隻的熱愛,我們對畜牧的熱愛,我們一家的付出,

  • to us, it's just a family farm,

    對於我們,這只是一個家庭農場,

  • and we happen to grow it a little larger than the guy down the road.

    只是它碰巧比鄰家的大一點兒罷了。

  • And if you think that farming on this scale might not be heading for the UK, then think again.

    如果你認為這種規模的乳牛場不會在英國出現的話,再想想吧。

  • These british farmers are visiting Fair Oaks, to see what they can learn from intensive farming.

    這些英國農夫也在牧場考察,研究這種大型密集式乳牛場有否值得借鏡的地方。

  • What we've seen in this trip today is that, you can look after cows, in a very favorable way in large numbers.

    今天我們見到了,原來是有一個的良好辦法,可以照料大量牛隻。

  • and something that we've come here to see how the Americans look after a large number of cows.

    這正是我們來看美國人養殖大量乳牛的原因。

  • We've got so much to learn from them, from a management point of view,

    我們有很多地方要向他們學習,特別是管理。

  • That's the whole reason we are over here, really.

    這是考察的真正目的。

  • And I think the management and welfare standards are so good,

    我覺得,他們的管理及護理的水平是多麽好,

  • because they are big, they can't get away with anything less.

    正因他們的規模大,不能省功夫,

  • Really, I'm trying and learn from these guys

    真的,我想學他們,

  • and see if we can implement their management techniques in our farms.

    想在我們的農場,運用他們的管理技巧。

  • Despite its size, Fair Oaks has encountered little opposition from locals.

    雖然Fair Oaks 乳牛場佔地大,但他們遇到當地居民反對的聲音,並不算多。

  • But that's not the case for all huge farming operations.

    但並非所有大型乳牛場都有這種厚待。

  • This dairy farm is the biggest in Wisconsin.

    這是威斯康星州最大的乳牛場,

  • It has 8,000 cows and it's a similar size to the one proposed in Nocton in Lincolnshire.

    飼養了8000隻牛,佔地相當於在英國林肯郡諾克頓的乳牛場選址。

  • Since it opened 2 years ago, it has been causing a stink with some of the neighbors.

    從2年前開業到現在,乳牛場為部分居民帶來臭味問題。

  • So what sort of problems have you been experiencing?

    你們遇到哪些問題?

  • I've had a number of neighbors contact me,

    有很多鄰居聯絡我,

  • and a described symptoms of pounding headaches, migraines and new symptoms of asthma,

    並描述病徵如強烈頭痛,偏頭痛,及哮喘等症狀,

  • just since the dairy has been in operation.

    自乳牛場開業便出現了。

  • So, it's the slurry, the smell?

    那麽,臭味是來自化糞池的嗎?

  • It's actually, I call it the stench. It's more than a smell.

    是的,其實我會稱它為惡臭,它比臭味還要臭。

  • and when it hits you, it overpowers you.

    當你吸入它,它會壓倒你。

  • If you think about the chemicals that are causing the odor,

    試想想,形成臭味的化學物質,

  • it's HAM: hydrogen sulphide, ammonia, and methane, all being released. They are all toxic gases,

    它們是硫化氫,氨和甲烷,在空氣流動。它們是有毒的。

  • and you certainly don't want to breathe them in.

    你一定不想吸入這些氣體。

  • They would be regulated if it were ordinary industry.

    如果在一般行業,這些氣體會受規管的。

  • so, what advice would you give to the people in the UK who may end up with these mega dairies next to them?

    那麼,對於那些快要跟大型乳牛場為鄰的英國居民,你們有什麼忠告?

  • I think that if you have a sense of ethics, and moral responsibility to the future generation,

    我認為,如果你有道德責任,及為下一代著想的話。

  • then you will do everything you can to prevent the spread of industrial size mega farms.

    你會竭盡所能,去避免大型工業式畜牧場繼續擴散。

  • The number of dairies in the US like this one with 2,000+ cows has tripled in the last 10 years,

    在美國,這類飼養超過2,000隻乳牛的農場數目,近10年間升了3倍 。

  • whilst the number of small farms has nearly halved.

    而小型牧場的數量幾乎減少了一半。

  • Those who run these massive farms though, say welfare hasn't suffered and they are more heavily policed.

    經營大型牧場的負責人,却聲稱環境無受影響,因他們受到較多規管。

  • We have probably been the most regulated dairy ever. We follow a 4,000 page document, if you will.

    我們應該是歷來最受規管的牧場,我們跟從一份4,000頁的文件。

  • It tells us when we can spread, where we can spread, how much we can spread.

    規定我們廢物處理的時間,地點,以至數量。

  • Obviously, it's cow manure, and it's going to smell once in a while.

    很明顯,廢物是牛糞,它們偶爾會帶些氣味。

  • and the smell, you know, they claimed that there's smells of sulphur,

    那些氣味,你知道嗎,居民聲稱它是硫磺的氣味,

  • it gets to the back of your throat, and they've got to stay in their houses.

    吸入會使喉部不適,他們要躲在家裡。

  • Is there any way you can work with them and help them?

    你有無方法可以幫助他們解決問題?

  • We work with some of our neighbors. We've had neighbors come to say,

    我們有幫一些鄰居。有鄰居找我們說,

  • Hey, we are going to have family reunion, Can you make sure that you don't spread near our houses?

    嗨,我們會有家庭聚會,可以確保氣味不會傳至我家嗎?

  • then we say, "No problem. We won't spread near your house that day."

    我們會答,無問題,我們當日不會傳出氣味。

  • It's a difficult balance.

    農民要作出困難的平衡。

  • These farmers don't want to fall out with their neighbors,

    一方面,他們不希望跟鄰居鬧翻,

  • but of course, they do want to make money.

    另一方面,他們想賺錢。

  • Dairying isn't the only type of farming that can cause an environmental impact, there's pig farming, too.

    除了酪農,養豬也對環境造成影響。

  • I have got a few pigs at home, but nothing like what's planned for Derbyshire,

    我家也養了一些豬,也絕不像在德比郡,

  • where they are hoping to set up the biggest pig farm in the UK.

    那個規劃中全英國最大的養豬場那樣。

  • So while I'm over here, I'm going to meet up an American guy,

    稍後,我會見一個美國人。

  • who is going to tell me all about what they call, the hog industry.

    他會向我介紹他們的養豬業。

  • Malcolm DeKryger is vice president of a company which own 12,000 sows,

    Malcolm DeKryger是這家公司的副總裁,擁有12,000隻母豬,

  • and produce 140,000 pigs for slaughter every year.

    每年生產140,000隻可屠宰的生豬。

  • Sales total $25,000,000 or £16,000,000.

    營業額達25,000,000美元,或16,000,000英鎊

  • Big, big business in anybody's money.

    對於任何人,這是一盤大生意。

  • emThese sows are in 16cm wide stalls, for about 8-10 weeks. They will be in this barn,

    嗯,這些母豬先在一個16厘米寛攤架,逗留8-10星期,然後會搬到這裡。

  • and we do the artificial semination in the breeding barn. They are in there for 6-7 weeks,

    我們會在育嬰棚作人工受孕,牠們會留6-7星期。

  • and then, they are coming here for about 8-9 weeks.

    然後會搬到這裡,逗留8-9星期。

  • and so, they just keep moving barn to barn.

    所以牠們會經常搬家。

  • And so, they stand these stalls all their lives and they can never turn around?

    那麼,牠們的一生就是站在這些攤架裡面,從來不能調頭走?

  • emThey can walk out and turn around, when they go to the next place.

    嗯,當牠們要搬家的時候,他們可以走動的。

  • In the mean time, they are very comfortable and contented.

    現在牠們很舒服,很滿足。

  • Some people would have a problem with this.

    有些人會覺得有問題。

  • The pig being an intelligent animal, how do you feel about that?

    豬是有靈性的動物。你有什麼感覺?

  • The way that we measure contentedness and well being

    我們量度滿足度和福祉,

  • emis not based on humans, because pigs are not humans.

    嗯,並不是以人作為指標,因為豬不是人。

  • Confined operations were put together for sake of the animal,

    這個密閉的運作方式是為了動物,

  • put together for the sake of human labour efficiency.

    為了生產效率。

  • And, is this how to feed the world?

    那麼,這就是養活全球人類的方法?

  • emAt this pointthis is a very effective way to produce a lot of pigs.

    嗯,到目前為止,這是非常有效地生產大量豬隻,

  • and being it's how pork is the protein of demand in the world

    而豬肉是用來滿足全球對蛋白質需求,

  • emit's the best way we know how, today.

    嗯,這是我們現時所知的最好方法。

  • She's getting a bit sunburnt, doesn't she? That one.

    她是否有點曬傷?是她。

  • Having seen that big pig farm, I came away not very happy with the way that the pigs are kept,

    看到那家養豬場,對待豬的手法,我不太高興,

  • but delighted, really, the laws in Europe, and particularly the UK,

    值得安慰的是,在歐洲,特別在英國,

  • don't allow us to keep pigs like that at home.

    法例是不容許此等的養豬手法。

  • My trip across America has been an epic. And it's been a lot to take in.

    我的美國之行好像一項壯舉,給我很多感受。

  • I need time to digest everything that I've seen and heard a minute over.

    我需要時間去消化我的所見所聞。

  • but before I head home, I'll be back later in the programme to share my thoughts on whether we could,

    回家之前,我想向大家分享我的想法,到底我們可否,

  • or even should learn anything about farming from the Americans.

    或應否向美國的農業學習?

Here in the States,

在美國,

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B1 中級 中文 英國腔 牧場 氣味 生產 英國 農場 居民

BBC 6分鐘英文-為了動物和環境 BBC - What intensive farming means -- for the animals and for the environment.

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    VoiceTube 發佈於 2013 年 03 月 23 日
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