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  • He was the first black president of South Africa.

    他是南非首位黑人總統

  • Welcome to Watchmojo.com,

    歡迎來到Watchmojo.com

  • and today we'll be taking a look at the life and accomplishments of Nelson Mandela.

    今天我們將回顧尼爾森‧曼德拉的一生及其成就

  • Born July 18th, 1918 in a South African village,

    1918年7月18日出生於南非的村莊,

  • Nelson Mandela was first in his family to attend school.

    尼爾森‧曼德拉是家中第一個入學就讀的成員

  • A talented student who showed rebellious tendencies early on,

    這名才華洋溢的學生在早期及顯現出叛逆傾向

  • he was expelled from university for his involvement in a boycott against the institution.

    他因參與反校規活動而遭大學勒令退學

  • It was expected Mandela would become chief of his tribe like his father,

    曼德拉原本有望像他父親一樣成為族長,

  • but instead he chose to study law.

    但他卻選擇研讀法律

  • It is absolutely important that you have the knowledge to serve your country and your people.

    擁有知識去服務你的國家和人民是絕對重要的

  • By 1944, Mandela joined the African National Congress, or ANC.

    1944年,曼德拉加入非洲人國民代表大會(ANC)

  • This left-wing political party wished to give equal rights and freedoms to the entire country.

    這個左翼政黨希望讓整個國家擁有平等的權力與自由

  • Within the party, Mandela was part of a group that formed the ANC Youth League,

    在這個政黨中,曼德拉是成立ANC青年聯盟的組織成員之一,

  • and this offshoot used grassroots methods to get their point across,

    這個分支團體運用草根方式來傳遞訴求,

  • including boycotts, strikes and general civil disobedience.

    包括聯合抵制、罷工以及群體不合作運動

  • At the task of the ANC was to unite the African people and help them build a nation

    ANC的任務是要團結非洲人民並協助他們建立國家

  • In 1948, the National Party was elected to government,

    1948年,國民黨被選為執政黨,

  • and following that, it instituted a legal system of racial segregation called Apartheid.

    該黨上任後成立了種族隔離制度,稱為Apartheid(南非語)

  • Meanwhile, Mandela and the ANCYL continued their non-violent protests against racist policies.

    同時,曼德拉及ANC青年聯盟持續進行非暴力抗議活動,反對種族政策

  • For example, Mandela was instrumental in 1952’s Defiance Campaign,

    例如1952年的反抗運動

  • as well as 1955’s Congress of the People.

    以及1955年的人民大會,曼德拉皆為其中重要角色

  • He also served as a lawyer for mistreated black South Africans

    他同時也為受虐的南非黑人擔任辯護律師,

  • by opening the country’s first black law practice.

    開啟國內黑人法律訴訟的首例

  • Mandela was quickly becoming an enemy of the government,

    曼德拉很快成為政府的敵人

  • and he was targeted whenever possible.

    政府以各種名目將他視為箭靶

  • At the end of 1956, Mandela and a group of about 150 protesters

    1956年底,曼德拉和其他約150名抗議群眾

  • were arrested on the suspicion of treason because of their advocacy.

    因其主張被控有叛國嫌疑,而遭到逮捕

  • After a long trial, the group was acquitted.

    經過一長串的審判,他們才得以無罪釋放

  • It was around this time that a group of militant Africans began suggesting

    也就是大約在這時,一群非洲人激進份子開始主張

  • that the peaceful approach was not working.

    認為和平方式無法奏效

  • This group formed the Pan-Africanist Congress in 1959.

    這群人士在1959年成立泛非大會

  • Soon after, Mandela changed his position

    不久之後,曼德拉改變立場

  • and proposed that armed conflict was the only way to end Apartheid rule.

    他提出武裝衝突才是終結種族隔離政策的唯一方法

  • He helped found a military offshoot of the ANC called Umkhonto we Sizwe,

    他協助成立了一個ANC分支的軍事組織,稱為「民族之矛」,

  • and this group specialized in sabotage and guerrilla warfare.

    這個組織擅長破壞及游擊戰爭

  • Not long after, on August 5th, 1962, Mandela was arrested for a strike

    不久後,在1962年8月5日,

  • he had organized the previous year.

    曼德拉因其在前一年所組織的罷工運動而遭逮捕

  • He was sentenced to five years in prison;

    他被判5年有期徒刑

  • however he ended up spending his next 27 years in jail.

    然而,他最後卻在監獄裡度過了接下來的27年

  • While serving his five-year sentence,

    在他5年的服刑期間,

  • Mandela was also charged with sabotage,

    曼德拉又在惡名昭彰的利沃尼亞審判中,被控蓄意破壞、

  • treason, and violent conspiracy during the infamous Rivonia Trial.

    叛國以及暴力反叛等罪名

  • He was sentenced to life in prison, and barely escaped the death penalty.

    他被判終身監禁,差點難逃死刑

  • Mandela’s first years were spent in a prison on Robben Island,

    曼德拉前幾年在羅本島上的監獄服刑,

  • but he was transferred in 1982.

    但他在1982年移監至他處

  • He was treated poorly as a black prisoner;

    他因身為黑人受刑人而遭到極差的待遇,

  • however he did manage to earn a Bachelor of Laws degree

    然而他仍設法透過函授課程

  • through a correspondence program.

    取得法律學士學位

  • During this time, Mandela’s profile grew

    在這段期間,曼德拉的名聲漸漲

  • and he became an international symbol of anti-apartheid resistance.

    他成為反種族隔離的國際指標人物

  • On more than one occasion,

    不只一次,

  • the government offered Mandela his freedom

    政府提出釋放曼德拉

  • in exchange for the abandonment of his beliefs.

    但要求他放棄信念作為交換

  • Each time, he refused.

    每一次,他都拒絕了

  • After much negotiation,

    在多次協商後,

  • Mandela was finally released on February 11th, 1990

    曼德拉終於在1990年2月11日被國家的新總統釋放,

  • at the age of 72 by the country’s new president.

    當時他已72歲

  • I wish to put it plainly that the government has taken a firm decision to release Mr. Mandela unconditionally.

    我在此明確宣布,政府果斷決定無條件釋放曼德拉先生

  • Mandela then became president of the African National Congress,

    接著,曼德拉成為非洲人國民代表大會的首長,

  • and helped negotiate the end of apartheid laws.

    並幫助協商終結種族隔離政策

  • On June 17th, 1991,

    1991年6月17日,

  • the Population Registration Act was repealed,

    人口登記法廢除,

  • which meant that racial groups were no longer legally separated.

    代表種族族群在法律上不再受到區分

  • This marked the beginning of the end of apartheid rule in South Africa.

    此為南非種族隔離政策終結的開端

  • The country held its first democratic elections on April 27th, 1994,

    1994年4月27日,國家進行第一次民主選舉,

  • with the ANC taking 62 per cent of the vote.

    ANC獲得62%的投票率

  • On May 10th, 1994

    1994年5月10日,

  • Nelson Mandela was sworn in as the first black president of South Africa.

    尼爾森‧曼德拉宣誓就職,成為南非首位黑人總統

  • He spent his term rebuilding the economy and uniting the country.

    他在位期間重建經濟並團結國家

  • He even used the country’s National Rugby team as a rallying point for all citizens,

    他甚至以國家橄欖球隊號召全體國民,

  • and as a way to bring the country onto the world stage in a positive light.

    並以此方式將國家搬上國際舞台,打造正面形象

  • When his term ended in 1999,

    他的任期於1999年屆滿,

  • Mandela retired from active politics.

    曼德拉由積極的政治活動中退休

  • Despite leaving public life in 2004,

    儘管他在2004年就淡出公眾生活,

  • Mandela convened a group of world leaders calledThe Eldersin 2007.

    曼德拉仍集結世界領袖,在2007年成立「長者」組織

  • With figures like Desmond Tutu, Jimmy Carter and Kofi Annan,

    成員包括德斯蒙德·圖圖、吉米·卡特,以及科菲·安南,

  • the group aimed to resolve world problems like poverty, AIDS and climate change.

    這個組織的目標是解決貧窮、愛滋及氣候變遷等世界問題

  • Among his many honors,

    他的一生獲得眾多榮耀,

  • he was awarded the Nobel Peace Prize in 1993.

    並於1993年獲得諾貝爾和平獎

  • Even after leaving public life,

    即使離開了公眾生活,

  • Nelson Mandela is one man who continued his lifelong crusade for a better world.

    尼爾森‧曼德拉仍是那位用盡一生投入改革、改善世界的人權鬥士

He was the first black president of South Africa.

他是南非首位黑人總統

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人權鬥士永垂青史曼德拉逝世 - 成就和人生 (Nelson Mandela Biography: Life and Accomplishments of a South African Leader)

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