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  • Every living being needs to fight off other living beings that want to feast on them.​

    每個生物都需要與那些以他們為食的生物對抗

  • Every living being needs to fight off other living beings that want to feast on them.​

    所以在多細胞生物經過了數億年的演化後, 也衍生出了保護自己的方法

  • Every living being needs to fight off other living beings that want to feast on them.​

    現今,人類擁有複雜的防禦系統

  • So as multicellular life evolved over billions of years, it came up with ways to defend itself.​

    像是物理屏障(皮膚)、防禦細胞(巨噬細胞), 以及武器生產工廠(B細胞)

  • So as multicellular life evolved over billions of years, it came up with ways to defend itself.​

    其中一個我們身體裡 但大多都還不太瞭解的防禦系統:

  • So as multicellular life evolved over billions of years, it came up with ways to defend itself.​

    補體系統

  • Today humans have a sophisticated defense network,​

    它已經演化超過7億年, 也是超過30種不同蛋白質的武裝軍隊

  • Today humans have a sophisticated defense network,​

    他們合作跳起一支複雜而優雅的舞步, 來阻止外來入侵者

  • Today humans have a sophisticated defense network,​

    總而言之,現在大約有1千5百萬兆的補體蛋白 充斥在你全身上下的液體當中

  • like physical barriers, defense cells, and weapons factories.​

    指引他們的沒有別的,全是化學

  • like physical barriers, defense cells, and weapons factories.​

    這些蛋白質是我們用來對抗入侵者的武器中 最有效的其中一種

  • like physical barriers, defense cells, and weapons factories.​

    免疫系統中的許多部份, 都只是用來活化補體系統的工具

  • But one of the most important defenses of our body is largely unknown:​

    但他同時也充滿危險性

  • But one of the most important defenses of our body is largely unknown:​

    想像一下,在你的血液中,有數兆個小炸彈 而他們隨時都有可能會爆炸

  • But one of the most important defenses of our body is largely unknown:​

    因此,我們的細胞用多種機制來防止補體意外的攻擊

  • The Complement System

    好,那他們又有什麼功用?又是為什麼讓他們看起來這麼危險呢?

  • The Complement System

    簡而言之,補體系統有3樣工作。

  • The Complement System

    它會癱瘓敵人, 它會啟動免疫系統 它會在菌體上鑿洞直到它們死亡

  • It evolved over 700 million years ago and is an army of over 30 different proteins

    但是,要怎麼做?

  • It evolved over 700 million years ago and is an army of over 30 different proteins

    畢竟,這些無意識的蛋白質們會隨意飄動 沒有任何目的或方向

  • It evolved over 700 million years ago and is an army of over 30 different proteins

    實際上這算是一種戰略

  • that work together in a complex and elegant dance to stop intruders.​

    隨意飄動的補體蛋白處於一種被動狀態

  • that work together in a complex and elegant dance to stop intruders.​

    他們沒有任何影響力,直到他們被啟動 並且改變他們的形狀

  • that work together in a complex and elegant dance to stop intruders.​

    在蛋白質的世界裡,你的形狀決定了什麼事情你可以做 什麼事情你不能做

  • All in all, about 15 quintillion of them are saturating every fluid in your body right now.​

    因為形狀決定了可以互動的對象和方式

  • All in all, about 15 quintillion of them are saturating every fluid in your body right now.​

    舉例來說,處於被動狀態的形狀下 你可能不會有任何的功能

  • All in all, about 15 quintillion of them are saturating every fluid in your body right now.​

    然而,在你啟動的狀態下 你可能可以啟動其他蛋白質的形體

  • Guided by nothing but chemistry,​

    藉此啟動他們,讓他們也可以啟動其他蛋白

  • Guided by nothing but chemistry,​

    像這樣的串聯反應的機制可以快速地擴散出去

  • Guided by nothing but chemistry,​

    想像一下這些補體蛋白就像一組互相放的很近的火柴

  • these proteins are one of the most effective weapons we have against invaders.​

    一但其中一根火柴起火了 它會立即點燃其他根靠近它的火柴

  • these proteins are one of the most effective weapons we have against invaders.​

    當它點燃的越多,突然間你就有可以有一團大火

  • these proteins are one of the most effective weapons we have against invaders.​

    要列舉出補體系統的實際機制和樣貌會很複雜

  • Many other parts of the immune system are just tools to activate the Complement System.​

    所以我們在此會簡化它們

  • Many other parts of the immune system are just tools to activate the Complement System.​

    現在,想像一下你不小心劃傷了自己 有一群細菌從傷口的位置

  • Many other parts of the immune system are just tools to activate the Complement System.​

    進入了周圍組織

  • But it's also really dangerous.​

    補體系統C3 就會開始進行攻擊

  • But it's also really dangerous.​

    C3就會是最開始的火花,可以點燃我們的火團

  • But it's also really dangerous.​

    要點燃他,C3必須得要從被動狀態切換成啟動狀態

  • Imagine having trillions of little bombs inside your blood that could go off at any moment.​

    要解釋它如何啟動是有點複雜 在這邊當成它是隨機的

  • Imagine having trillions of little bombs inside your blood that could go off at any moment.​

    通過其他被細菌啟動的補體蛋白,或從抗體啟動的

  • Imagine having trillions of little bombs inside your blood that could go off at any moment.​

    現在你要知道C3已經分裂成2個比較小的蛋白質

  • So our cells use numerous mechanisms to prevent​ ​complement from accidentally attacking ​​them​.​

    已經被啟動的C3a和C3b

  • So our cells use numerous mechanisms to prevent​ ​complement from accidentally attacking ​​them​.​

    其中一個部分,蛋白質C3b會像一個追蹤導彈一樣 尋找特定的細菌、真菌和病毒

  • So our cells use numerous mechanisms to prevent​ ​complement from accidentally attacking ​​them​.​

    它只有不到一秒鐘的時間來找到它的敵人 不然它就會被水分子中和掉

  • Okay, what exactly does it do and what makes it so dangerous?​

    假設C3b找到一個目標 它會將自己緊緊的固定在敵人的表面且不會鬆開

  • Okay, what exactly does it do and what makes it so dangerous?​

    通過這樣做以後,蛋白質會再次變換形狀

  • Okay, what exactly does it do and what makes it so dangerous?​

    藉由這個新的形狀,它現在可以與其它蛋白質做連結 並且在啟動比較小的串聯反應

  • In a nutshell, The Complement System does three things:​

    經過多次變換它的形狀,來增加其他蛋白質在它身上

  • In a nutshell, The Complement System does three things:​

    最後,它會將它自己轉變成一個名為C3 Convertase 的招收平台

  • In a nutshell, The Complement System does three things:​

    這個專門的平台,可以將更多C3蛋白質轉換 並且重新開始整個循環

  • it cripples enemies, it activates the immune system, and it rips holes in things until they die.​

    一個增幅循環開始了

  • it cripples enemies, it activates the immune system, and it rips holes in things until they die.​

    不用多久,成千的蛋白質就包覆著細菌了

  • it cripples enemies, it activates the immune system, and it rips holes in things until they die.​

    對菌體來說,這對它非常的不利

  • But, how?​

    它們會削弱這個菌體,讓他們無法求助或是緩慢它們

  • But, how?​

    想像被好幾千隻的蒼蠅包覆著的感覺

  • But, how?​

    還不只這些呢!

  • After all, these are mindless proteins randomly drifting around without will or direction.​

    你還記得C3的另一部分嗎? C3a蛋白質

  • After all, these are mindless proteins randomly drifting around without will or direction.​

    C3a就像是一個求救信標

  • After all, these are mindless proteins randomly drifting around without will or direction.​

    成千上萬的湧出戰場,引起大量的注意

  • Well, this is actually part of the strategy.​

    被動的免疫細胞注意到這些C3a以後

  • Well, this is actually part of the strategy.​

    會從休眠狀態甦醒過來 並且跟著蛋白質的軌跡到達感染的部位

  • Well, this is actually part of the strategy.​

    當接觸到越多的求救信標蛋白,它們就會越具有侵略性

  • Complement proteins float around in a sort-of passive mode.​

    用這種方式 補體蛋白可以正確的引導他們到最需要增援的地方

  • Complement proteins float around in a sort-of passive mode.​

    到現在,補體蛋白已經成功求救並拖住入侵者了

  • Complement proteins float around in a sort-of passive mode.​

    現在開始,它們要開始積極地幫助到殺死敵人

  • They do nothing, until they get activated and change their shape.​

    第一批到達戰場的免疫細胞是吞噬細胞

  • They do nothing, until they get activated and change their shape.​

    這代表著,吞噬細胞會把你整個吞掉 把你關在一個小監牢裡,再用酸殺掉你

  • They do nothing, until they get activated and change their shape.​

    但是要吞掉一個敵人,它們必須要先抓到敵人才行

  • In the world of proteins, your shape determines what you can and cannot do.​

    這不太簡單,因為細菌不喜歡被抓住,而且它們滑滑的

  • In the world of proteins, your shape determines what you can and cannot do.​

    但是現在,補體蛋白已經將自己固定在細菌身上

  • In the world of proteins, your shape determines what you can and cannot do.​

    當作一個像是膠水一樣 讓免疫細胞可以輕易抓住它們的敵人

  • Because shape determines what you can interact with and in what way.​

    更好的是

  • Because shape determines what you can interact with and in what way.​

    想像一下! 你又一次被一堆蒼蠅給包覆著

  • Because shape determines what you can interact with and in what way.​

    現在,這些蒼蠅變成了黃蜂

  • For example, in your passive shape you might do nothing.​

    另一個串聯反應要開始了

  • For example, in your passive shape you might do nothing.​

    另一個串聯反應要開始了

  • For example, in your passive shape you might do nothing.​

    在這個菌體的表面,C3 Convertase 再次地變換它的形狀

  • In your active shape, however, you might, for example, change the shape of other proteins

    並且開始招募新的蛋白質

  • In your active shape, however, you might, for example, change the shape of other proteins

    他們會變成一個比較大的結構: 膜攻擊複合物

  • In your active shape, however, you might, for example, change the shape of other proteins

    一片一片的,新的蛋白質(C9)將長得像矛的自己扎進細菌膜裡

  • activating them so they can activate others.​

    直到他們撐開出無法修復的大洞

  • activating them so they can activate others.​

    流體衝入菌體以後,他們的內部也就隨之溢出

  • activating them so they can activate others.​

    如同流血致死

  • Mechanisms like this one can start cascades that spread very quickly.​

    剩下的菌體也因為被補體騷擾而分心,甚至重傷

  • Mechanisms like this one can start cascades that spread very quickly.​

    馬上就被到場的免疫細胞給解決掉了

  • Mechanisms like this one can start cascades that spread very quickly.​

    在入侵變得更危險之前,這次的攻擊行動就已經被剷除了

  • Imagine the complement proteins as being like millions of matches very close together.​

    你可能都還沒有注意到

  • Imagine the complement proteins as being like millions of matches very close together.​

    細菌也只是很不喜歡補體而已

  • Imagine the complement proteins as being like millions of matches very close together.​

    實際上補體對抗病毒更為有效

  • Once one catches fire, it ignites the ones around it.​

    病毒有一個大問題,它們必須得要在細胞之間移動

  • Once one catches fire, it ignites the ones around it.​

    病毒在細胞外基本上以只能祈禱希望以極小的機率撞到且感染細胞

  • Once one catches fire, it ignites the ones around it.​

    在這裡,他們是完全沒有防禦的

  • They ignite more and suddenly you have a big fire.​

    在此,補體就可以直接攔截並削弱他們

  • They ignite more and suddenly you have a big fire.​

    讓它們變得無害並引導免疫系統來吞噬它們

  • They ignite more and suddenly you have a big fire.​

    如果沒有補體,病毒感染會變得非常致命

  • To show the actual mechanisms of The Complement System is a tad complicated and overwhelming.​

    等等,如果我們有這麼有效的武器 為什麼我們還會生病?

  • To show the actual mechanisms of The Complement System is a tad complicated and overwhelming.​

    問題是在戰爭之中,雙方都會互相適應

  • To show the actual mechanisms of The Complement System is a tad complicated and overwhelming.​

    舉例來說,當牛痘病毒感染了一個細胞時

  • So, we'll simplify here.​

    它會強迫細胞制造出一種蛋白質來關閉補體蛋白

  • So, we'll simplify here.​

    用這種方式,病毒能夠在被感染的細胞周圍 形成一個安全區

  • So, we'll simplify here.​

    當病毒殺死這個細胞以後 可以有更高的機率感染附近其他的健康細胞

  • Now, let's imagine you cut yourself and a bunch of bacteria enter the wound

    或是像其他的細菌,舉例來說,它可以從血液裡抓取一些特定的分子,不觸發補體系統

  • Now, let's imagine you cut yourself and a bunch of bacteria enter the wound

    進而達成隱形的效果

  • Now, let's imagine you cut yourself and a bunch of bacteria enter the wound

    所以補體系統,是非常非常重要的

  • and make it into the surrounding tissue.​

    但是它在我們美麗並且複雜的免疫系統組織之中 只是其中一員

  • and make it into the surrounding tissue.​

    這是一個無意識的小東東 卻可以一起做一些聰明合作的漂亮例子

  • and make it into the surrounding tissue.​

    這個影片是由 你 來贊助的

  • Our complement attack begins with C3.​

    沒有你的直接支持,這個頻道就不會存在

  • Our complement attack begins with C3.​

    而且非常難形容我們對此的感激之情

  • Our complement attack begins with C3.​

    在2019年 每一部kurzgesagt的影片至少要花1200小時來製造

  • C3 is the first match, the initial spark that will start our fire.​

    我們要花上好幾個月來做研究及 寫腳本並向專家們確認

  • C3 is the first match, the initial spark that will start our fire.​

    並且製做一張一張的插圖、製成動畫 再加入原創的音樂

  • C3 is the first match, the initial spark that will start our fire.​

    依靠著贊助商

  • And to do that, C3 needs to switch from passive to active.​

    你們在Patreon上的支持還有販賣一些周邊 才有可以達成

  • And to do that, C3 needs to switch from passive to active.​

    像是我們製作了補體系統的張海報和明信片

  • And to do that, C3 needs to switch from passive to active.​

    如果你有興趣,想要支持我們

  • How this happens is complex, but let's just say it can happen randomly

    你可以觀看我們的影片 訂閱Patreon並且製作一隻專屬於你的小鳥鳥

  • How this happens is complex, but let's just say it can happen randomly

    或是購買我們的日曆或海報

  • How this happens is complex, but let's just say it can happen randomly

    製作最好的影片

  • through other complement proteins that bind to enemies or through antibodies.​

    和讓科學更靠近我們的生活 是kurzgesagt的宗旨

  • through other complement proteins that bind to enemies or through antibodies.​

    謝謝你讓這一切變得可能

  • through other complement proteins that bind to enemies or through antibodies.​

  • All you really need to know is that C3 breaks into two smaller proteins,​

  • All you really need to know is that C3 breaks into two smaller proteins,​

  • All you really need to know is that C3 breaks into two smaller proteins,​

  • C3a and C3b, that are now activated.​

  • C3a and C3b, that are now activated.​

  • C3a and C3b, that are now activated.​

  • One of these parts, the C3b protein, is like a seeker missile specialized in bacteria, fungi, and viruses.​

  • One of these parts, the C3b protein, is like a seeker missile specialized in bacteria, fungi, and viruses.​

  • One of these parts, the C3b protein, is like a seeker missile specialized in bacteria, fungi, and viruses.​

  • It has a fraction of a second to find a victim or it will be neutralized by water molecules.​

  • It has a fraction of a second to find a victim or it will be neutralized by water molecules.​

  • It has a fraction of a second to find a victim or it will be neutralized by water molecules.​

  • If C3b does find a target, it anchors itself very tightly to its surface and doesn't let go.​

  • If C3b does find a target, it anchors itself very tightly to its surface and doesn't let go.​

  • If C3b does find a target, it anchors itself very tightly to its surface and doesn't let go.​

  • By doing so, the protein changes its shape again.​

  • By doing so, the protein changes its shape again.​

  • By doing so, the protein changes its shape again.​

  • In its new shape, it's now able to grab other proteins and start a small cascade,​

  • In its new shape, it's now able to grab other proteins and start a small cascade,​

  • In its new shape, it's now able to grab other proteins and start a small cascade,​

  • changing its shape multiple times, adding other complement proteins to itself.​

  • changing its shape multiple times, adding other complement proteins to itself.​

  • changing its shape multiple times, adding other complement proteins to itself.​

  • Finally, it transforms itself into a recruiting platform known as C3 Convertase.​

  • Finally, it transforms itself into a recruiting platform known as C3 Convertase.​

  • Finally, it transforms itself into a recruiting platform known as C3 Convertase.​

  • This platform is an expert at activating more C3 proteins that start the whole cycle anew.​

  • This platform is an expert at activating more C3 proteins that start the whole cycle anew.​

  • This platform is an expert at activating more C3 proteins that start the whole cycle anew.​

  • An amplification loop begins.​

  • An amplification loop begins.​

  • An amplification loop begins.​