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  • Mao Zedong wan suilive 10,000 years.

    毛澤東萬歲!

  • In 1966, Mao Zedong had a problem.

    1966 年時,毛澤東遇到了一個問題。

  • The Chinese leader who had led a peasant army to victory in the Chinese Civil War, and established the communist People's Republic of China in 1949, was getting old.

    這個領導農民軍在國共內戰中取得勝利、並在 1949 年創立中國人民共和國的領導人,正逐漸老去。

  • Worse, his radical policies had devastated the country, and triggered the deadliest famine known to human history.

    更糟的是,他激進的政策破壞了中國,並導致了人類史上最嚴重飢荒的發生。

  • By the early 1960s, Mao's once-great influence and public presence were at an all-time low, and there were rumors that he was dying, or even dead already.

    到了 1960 年代早期,毛澤東曾經龐大的影響力與存在感都達到最低,甚至有謠言傳出他快死了,或是已經死了。

  • He needed to find a way to seal his legacy as the face of Chinese communism.

    他需要一個方法,讓他成中國共產主義的傳奇臉孔。

  • And a new revolution to lead.

    再領導一場新的革命。

  • It started in a river.

    一切都從一條河流開始。

  • -The Great Leap Forward was a disaster. [Chapter one: Mao loses his grip.]

    -大躍進是場災難。[第一章:毛失去控制權]

  • It was Mao's 1958 plan to quickly industrialize China by working its massive peasant population nonstop.

    大躍進是毛澤東於 1958 年施行的計畫,不間斷運用大量農民人力來加速中國的工業化。

  • He promises to transform the People's Republic into an instant paradise through the sheer force of numbers.

    他承諾要將人民共和國變為天堂,僅靠著大量的人力。

  • Forcing workers in the countryside to farm crops on government-run communes.

    運用人民公社,迫使農工植種作物。

  • And millions more to manufacture crude steel in homemade blast furnaces.

    還有數百萬計的人使用自製熔爐來製造粗鋼。

  • And even though Mao told the world that the plan was succeeding

    而即使毛澤東昭告世界,說計畫很成功...

  • Everywhere, the communists report, production records are being broken.

    共產黨報告,不管哪裡的製造都破紀錄。

  • The truth was much more desperate.

    但實際的情況嚴重多了。

  • They flood the fields, exhaust the soil, and farm production instead of going up, goes down.

    他們水淹農地、消耗土壤,農產品產量沒有上升,反而下降了。

  • The Chinese people were being forced to work tirelessly on land they once owned themselves and they were starting to lose morale.

    中國人被迫不斷地在自己曾經擁有的土地上工作,他們的開始失去鬥志。

  • And despite reports of widespread famine, with millions of people starving to death, Mao kept production quotas high.

    儘管有廣泛的飢荒發生,數百萬人要餓死了,毛澤東仍將生產定額定得很高。

  • The pace grows more frantic.

    一切變得更加狂亂。

  • Ceaselessly, without rest, one observer writes.

    不間斷地工作,沒有休息,一名觀察家如此寫道。

  • "The countryside is in convulsion.".

    「整個鄉村人仰馬翻。」

  • Mao's Great Leap Forward ended in 1962.

    毛澤東的大躍進於 1962 年結束。

  • By that time somewhere between 23 and 55 million people had died in the famine.

    當時,介於 2,300 萬至 5,500 萬的人民死於飢荒。

  • Over in the Soviet Union, a different political upheaval was happening.

    在當時的蘇聯,一場不同政治動盪正在發生。

  • Soviet leader Joseph Stalin, who Mao modeled himself after, was dead.

    毛澤東的偶像,蘇聯的領袖史達林,死了。

  • And Mao watched as Nikita Krushchev, Stalin's successor, implemented a period known as "de-Stalinization.".

    而毛澤東看到了史達林的繼任者,赫魯雪夫施行了「去史達林化」。

  • Where Krushchev set out to reverse many of Stalin's policies and dismantle the personality cult that had formed around him.

    赫魯雪夫推翻了許多史達林的政策,並逐漸取消掉此前集中於史達林本人的崇拜。

  • Mao saw his own legacy potentially suffering the same fate.

    毛澤東看見他的未來也可能會是如此。

  • His communist revolution was long over, and his ideas weren't taken as seriously after the disaster of the Great Leap Forward.

    他的共產革命早就結束了,而且他的點子在大躍進失敗後就不再那麼有份量。

  • It was starting to look like Mao's place in the pantheon of powerful communist figures, like Vladimir Lenin and Karl Marx, was in peril.

    看起來,如果有個共產代表人物的萬神殿,如列寧與馬克思等,那毛澤東的位置可能不保了。

  • This is where the river comes in. [Chapter two: the swim.]

    這就是那條河出場的時候了。[第二章:游泳]

  • Mao had a reputation for being a strong swimmer.

    毛澤東出名了地會游泳。

  • And even used it as a symbol of his ideology.

    這甚至成了他意識形態的一部分。

  • In 1956, he swam across China's biggest river, the Yangtze, in three highly-publicized swims.

    1956 年,毛澤東三次在公開游泳活動中,泳渡中國最大的河流——長江。

  • To demonstrate that big things, like U.S. imperialism, didn't intimidate him.

    他以此來展現如美國帝國主義般的事情嚇不了他。

  • 10 years later, Mao took on the Yangtze again, to dispel rumors of his failing health.

    十年後,毛澤東再度上長江,驅散關於他病危的謠言。

  • This time with cheering crowds swimming alongside him.

    這次,有無數為他歡呼的群眾與他共游。

  • He brought his personal photographer, who snapped this photo of the aging dictator in the river.

    他帶了自己的私人攝影師,拍下了這張在河中的年邁獨裁者。

  • And another one showing Mao waving to his fellow swimmers, with the landmark Wuhan Yangtze River Bridge behind him.

    另一張照片,毛澤東對著一起游泳的群眾揮手,背景是地標武漢長江大橋。

  • An iconic architectural achievement of the communist government, and proof that he was at the Yangtze.

    一個共產政府的亮眼建築成就,更是毛澤東真的到了長江的證據。

  • The swim made the front page of China's state newspaper, reporting that Mao swam around 15 kilometers, a little more than 9 miles, in a span of 65 minutes.

    此次游泳登上了中國的國家報紙,上頭提到毛澤東僅花 65 分鐘,便游了 15 公里,比 9 英里稍微多一些。

  • Which meant the 72-year-old would have shattered world speed records.

    這代表,這 72 歲的老人粉碎了世界泳速紀錄。

  • A lot of people outside of China laughed at the outlandish story, but some saw the swim for what it was: a sinister sign.

    許多中國外的人對這個荒謬的故事感到好笑,但有些人則視這場游泳為一個不祥的徵兆。

  • Pointing out that Mao's swims from a decade earlier preceded the catastrophic Great Leap Forward.

    他們指出,毛澤東十年前也做過一樣的事,就在如災難般的大躍進之前。

  • Experts feared that Mao was on the verge of kicking off another disastrous period of turmoil in China.

    有專家擔心毛澤東又要在中國開起另一段混亂的時期。

  • They were right.

    他們是對的。

  • Two months before the swim, Mao had announced the beginning of his Great Proletarian Cultural Revolution. -[Chapter three: the cultural revolution.]

    在那場游泳發生前兩個月,毛澤東已經宣布文化大革命開始。[第三章:文化大革命]

  • A call to hunt down and eliminate the "bourgeoisie who had sneaked into the party.".

    呼籲要獵殺、消滅那些「潛入黨的資產階級」。

  • Basically to purge the government of anyone who strayed from principles of Maoism.

    基本上就是肅清政府內路線偏離毛主義的人。

  • And it kicked into high gear after his historic swim.

    而在他歷史性的游泳後,一切進入高潮。

  • Which prompted a craze for swimming in China, but more importantly, a craze for Mao.

    全中國開始瘋游泳,更重要的是,瘋毛澤東。

  • Especially among the group that Mao wanted to influence the most: China's youth.

    尤其是毛澤東最想影響的族群,中國青年。

  • Writer Liang Heng recalled that seeing Mao as "human flesh and blood" after the Yangtze swim resolved him to "serve him with all his heart.".

    作家梁衡稱「親身看見」毛澤東游泳,讓他「決心服侍他」。

  • Millions of Chinese youth organized into the fanatical Red Guards, a paramilitary force concentrated mostly in Chinese cities.

    數百萬中國青年組織了狂熱的紅衛兵,一個於中國各城市活動的準軍事部隊。

  • And, with Mao's blessing, they wreaked havoc in the name of Cultural Revolution.

    並且,在毛澤東的同意下,他們以文化大革命之名大搞破壞。

  • Their mission was to destroy the Four Olds.

    他們的任務是破四舊。

  • Old culture.

    舊文化。

  • Old ideology.

    舊思想。

  • Old customs.

    舊風俗。

  • Old traditionsall of the olds must be destroyed.

    與舊習慣,這四舊都得摧毀。

  • The idea was basically to tear down the vestiges of imperial China and rewrite history centered around Mao Zedong.

    中心思想基本上就是摧毀古代皇帝世代的中國,並以毛澤東為中心重寫歷史。

  • Renaming buildings and streets, destroying cultural sites, and violently humiliating, and often torturing and murdering, anyone they accused of opposing Mao's ideas.

    重新命名建築與街道,摧毀歷史遺跡,暴力羞辱、折磨甚至謀殺任何不支持毛思想的人。

  • Which they plastered all over the cities.

    他們在各城市貼滿了海報。

  • And carried in their pockets in the form of Mao's Little Red Book, a collection of his sayings and principles.

    並在口袋裡隨身攜帶「小紅書」,裡頭都是毛澤東的語錄與信條。

  • And although the violent Red Guards were basically dissolved by 1969, the Cultural Revolution is considered to have continued until Mao's death in 1976.

    雖然暴力的紅衛兵可說是在 1969 年被解散了,但文化大革命持續到了 1976 年,毛澤東死亡當年,才真正結束。

  • Ending a decade of destruction that had elevated the leader to god-like levels.

    十年的破壞年代終於結束,這將領導捧得像神一般的年代。

  • And resulted in over one million people dead.

    致使超過一百萬人喪生。

  • The chaos of the Cultural Revolution scarred China for generations.

    文革的混亂為中國留下數代的傷痕。

  • But Mao basically got what he wanted.

    但毛澤東可說是達成了他的目的。

  • Even though the Chinese Communist Party condemned the Cultural Revolution in 1981, and Chinese communism diverted away from Maoism, they didn't denounce Mao himself.

    雖然中國共產黨於 1981 年否定了文革,也將道路駛離了毛思想,但他們並沒有貶低毛澤東本人。

  • The Cultural Revolution solidified Mao's cult of personality, and that influence has lasted.

    文化大革命開啟了以毛澤東為中心的邪教,而該影響現仍存在。

  • Mao's swim, which is still commemorated each year in China, was more than a display of strength.

    毛澤東的游泳事蹟,在中國仍每年被讚揚,這象徵了他的力量。

  • It was a message: to get behind Mao as he began his last revolution.

    這是一條訊息:在毛澤東開始最後一次革命時,全力支持他。

Mao Zedong wan suilive 10,000 years.

毛澤東萬歲!

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中國文化大革命的起源是這張照片!? (This photo triggered China's Cultural Revolution)

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    Mackenzie 發佈於 2020 年 05 月 08 日
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