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  • You're overseeing the delivery of crucial supplies to a rebel base

    你負責監管將重要補給品 遞送到反抗軍基地的過程,

  • deep in the heart of enemy territory.

    基地位在敵人領土 深處的心臟地帶。

  • To get past Imperial customs, all packages must follow a strict protocol:

    若要通過帝國的海關,所有的包裹 都要遵循一項嚴格的協定:

  • if a box is marked with an even number on the bottom,

    如果箱子的底部標記了偶數數字,

  • it must be sealed with a red top.

    它就必須要用紅色的蓋子來封裝。

  • The boxes are already being loaded onto the transport

    在箱子全被放上運輸交通工具後,

  • when you receive an urgent message.

    你才收到一則緊急訊息。

  • One of the four boxes was sealed incorrectly,

    四個箱子中有一個的封裝不正確,

  • but they lost track of which one.

    但他們已經無法追蹤是哪一個。

  • All the boxes are still on the conveyor belt.

    所有的箱子都還在輸送帶上。

  • Two are facing down: one marked with a four,

    兩個箱子被反過來放: 一個標記了「4」,

  • and one with a seven.

    另一個標記了「7」。

  • The other two are facing up:

    另外兩個箱子是正著放的:

  • one with a black top,

    一個是黑色箱蓋,

  • another with a red one.

    另一個是紅色箱蓋。

  • You know that any violation of the protocol

    你知道只要違反了協定

  • will get the entire shipment confiscated and put your allies in grave danger.

    就會讓整批貨被沒收,

  • But any boxes you pull off for inspection won't make it onto this delivery run,

    還會讓盟友陷入危險。

  • depriving the rebels of critically needed supplies.

    若你把某個箱子拿下來查驗, 它就趕不上這次遞送,

  • The transport leaves in a few moments, with or without its cargo.

    反抗軍就得不到迫切需要的補給品。

  • Which box or boxes should you grab off the conveyor belt?

    運輸交通工具馬上就要離開了, 不論有沒有貨都會開走。

  • Pause the video now if you want to figure it out for yourself!

    你應該從輸送帶上取下 哪一個或哪幾個箱子?

  • Answer in: 3

    如果你想要試著自己解題, 請在這裡暫停!

  • Answer in: 2

    答案即將公佈:3

  • Answer in: 1

    答案即將公佈:2

  • It may seem like you need to inspect all four boxes

    答案即將公佈:1

  • to see what's on the other side of each.

    看起來似乎你會需要 查驗所有四個箱子,

  • But in fact, only two of them matter.

    看看每個箱子的另一面是什麼。

  • Let's look at the protocol again.

    但,事實上,當中 只有兩個才是要緊的。

  • All it says is that even-numbered boxes must have a red top.

    咱們來再看一次協定。

  • It doesn't say anything about odd-numbered boxes,

    它只有說,偶數數字的箱子 需要用紅色箱蓋。

  • so we can just ignore the box marked with a seven.

    它沒有提到奇數數字的 箱子要如何處理,

  • What about the box with a red top?

    所以我們可以忽略 標記為「7」的箱子。

  • Don't we need to check that the number on the bottom is even?

    那麼紅色箱蓋的箱子呢?

  • As it turns out, we don't.

    我們不需要確認一下 它底下的數字是不是偶數嗎?

  • The protocol says that if a box has an even number,

    結果發現,的確不需要。

  • then it should have a red top.

    協定說,如果箱子是偶數數字,

  • It doesn't say that only boxes with even numbers can have red tops,

    它就應該用紅色箱蓋。

  • or that a box with a red top must have an even number.

    它並沒有說只有標記 偶數數字的箱子才能用紅色箱蓋,

  • The requirement only goes in one direction.

    也沒說紅色箱蓋的箱子一定 得是標記偶數數字的箱子。

  • So we don't need to check the box with the red lid.

    要求是單向的。

  • We do, however, need to check the one with the black lid,

    所以我們不用去檢查 紅色箱蓋的箱子。

  • to make sure it wasn't incorrectly placed on an even-numbered box.

    然而,我們確實需要檢查 黑色箱蓋的那個箱子,

  • If you initially assumed the rules imply a symmetrical match

    來確保沒有不小心將黑色箱蓋 蓋在偶數數字的箱子上。

  • between the number on the box and the type of lid, you're not alone.

    如果你一開始就假設 這些規則意味著箱子上的數字

  • That error is so common, we even have a name for it:

    和箱蓋的類型之間有著 對稱的配對,你並不孤單。

  • affirming the consequent,

    那種錯誤非常常見, 它甚至被起了個名字:

  • or the fallacy of the converse.

    肯定後件,

  • This fallacy wrongly assumes

    或是相反謬誤。

  • that just because a certain condition is necessary for a given result,

    這種謬誤是一種錯誤假設,

  • it must also be sufficient for it.

    誤認為當某一個條件 必然會導致某個結果時,

  • For instance, having an atmosphere is a necessary condition

    光是有它就足以導致這個結果。

  • for being a habitable planet.

    比如,「有大氣」是星球適合居住的

  • But this doesn't mean that it's a sufficient condition

    必要條件。

  • planets like Venus have atmospheres but lack other criteria for habitability.

    但這並不表示有這個條件就充分了。

  • If that still seems hard to wrap your head around,

    像金星也有大氣, 但它缺乏其他居住條件。

  • let's look at a slightly different problem.

    如果你仍然覺得很難懂,

  • Imagine the boxes contain groceries.

    咱們來看一個不太一樣的問題。

  • You see one marked for shipment to a steakhouse

    想像這些箱子中放的是食品雜貨。

  • and one to a vegetarian restaurant.

    你看到一個箱子上寫著 要運送到一間牛排屋,

  • Then you see two more boxes turned upside down:

    另一個箱子則是要 運送到素食餐廳。

  • one labeled as containing meat,

    接著你又看到兩個 反過來放的箱子。

  • and another as containing onions.

    其中一個標示著內有肉品,

  • Which ones do you need to check?

    另一個則是內有洋蔥。

  • Well, it's easy

    你需要檢查哪一個?

  • make sure the meat isn't being shipped to the vegetarian restaurant,

    嗯,這很容易,

  • and that the box going there doesn't contain meat.

    確保肉品不要被運送到素食餐廳,

  • The onions can go to either place,

    以及運送到素食餐廳的 那個箱子中沒有肉品。

  • and the box bound for the steakhouse can contain either product.

    洋蔥運送到這兩個地方都沒關係,

  • Why does this scenario seem easier?

    要運送到牛排屋的箱子 也可以裝這兩種食品。

  • Formally, it's the same problem

    為什麼這個情境似乎就容易多了?

  • two possible conditions for the top of the box,

    形式上,它也是同樣的問題——

  • and two for the bottom.

    箱蓋有兩種可能的條件,

  • But in this case, they're based on familiar real-world needs,

    箱底也有兩種。

  • and we easily understand that while vegetarians only eat vegetables,

    但在這個例子中,這些條件 是根據真實世界的需求來設計,

  • they're not the only ones who do so.

    我們很容易了解素食者只吃蔬菜,

  • In the original problem, the rules seemed more arbitrary,

    而吃蔬菜的人不只有素食者。

  • and when they're abstracted that way,

    原始問題的規則似乎隨意許多,

  • the logical connections become harder to see.

    當它們被抽象化成那樣時,

  • In your case, you've managed to get enough supplies through

    會比較難看出當中的邏輯連結。

  • to enable the resistance to fight another day.

    在你的情況中,你得以 讓足量的補給品通關,

  • And you did it by thinking outside the box

    使得反抗軍能再繼續奮戰。

  • both sides of it.

    而你能辦到,就是因為 你的思考能跳脫箱子——

You're overseeing the delivery of crucial supplies to a rebel base

你負責監管將重要補給品 遞送到反抗軍基地的過程,

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B1 中級 中文 美國腔 TED-Ed 箱子 數字 紅色 條件 素食

你能解開叛軍補給的謎題嗎?- Alex Gendler (Can you solve the rebel supplies riddle? - Alex Gendler)

  • 101 7
    ally.chang 發佈於 2021 年 01 月 14 日
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