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  • So I work on trying to understand

    我的工作是試著了解

  • how the universe works at the very basic level,

    宇宙運作的基本道理,

  • the most basic level we can find.

    我們可以發現的最基本的層次。

  • So, when you try in your everyday life

    當你在日常生活中

  • to try and work out how something works,

    想試著了解某樣東西 是如何運作的,

  • what you're actually doing is you're looking for

    你實際上會去探索的是

  • what I call hidden structures.

    我稱之為「隱藏結構」的東西。

  • For example, you take something like your cell phone,

    如果我們用你的手機作為例子,

  • your smart phone,

    你的智慧型手機,

  • it's a complicated object,

    那是一個複雜的東西,

  • and you might wonder how it works.

    而你也許會好奇它如何運作。

  • Well, what you can do is go in

    你可以做的是

  • and actually take it apart.

    真的把它拆開。

  • You'll void the warranty, but that's OK.

    這會讓保固無效,但不是個大問題。

  • And you'll go in and what you'll find

    而你會進一步發現

  • is that it's made of tiny little electronic components.

    它是由許多小型電子元件組成。

  • And those electronic components are actually moving around

    而這些電子元件事實上是由

  • a certain kind of particle that we know

    一種我們熟知的粒子而驅動,

  • that's called the electron,

    它做電子,

  • and that's where the name "electronics" comes from.

    所以我們叫它「電器」。

  • So if you know the actual rules

    如果你知道

  • of how to put those things together,

    這些東西是如何組成的,

  • you can actually make your smart phone

    你就可以製作你自己的 智慧型手機

  • or you could make various other electronic devices as well.

    甚至是其它電子產品。

  • So, there are people like myself

    世界上有不少像我

  • who, actually for a living, try and do this sort of thing

    以此為業的人

  • not just for, say, a cell phone or its components,

    但不僅僅侷限於手機或它的元件,

  • but asking what, say, your hand is made of,

    而是想了解── 比方說你的手、

  • or the chair you're sitting in,

    或是所坐的椅子、

  • or the planet Earth,

    或是地球、

  • the sun,

    太陽、

  • the stars,

    星星、

  • the entire universe.

    或是整個宇宙的組成。

  • And so, using various kinds of instruments

    因此,透過各種儀器、

  • and observations

    還有觀測、

  • and experiments,

    以及實驗,

  • we've been able to probe deeper and deeper over the years,

    經年累月下來 我們已經可以探測得更為深入,

  • and we now know that the matter that we're made of

    而我們現在知道 組成我們、

  • and that we see around us

    以及圍繞著我們的物質

  • is actually made of tiny little elementary particles.

    實際上是由 極微小的基本粒子組成。

  • And elementary particles interact with each other

    而基本粒子之間會用 自然界中

  • via the forces of nature,

    基本的作用力 相互作用,

  • but we've also discovered

    但我們同時也發現

  • that those forces of nature themselves actually operate

    這些自然的作用力本身

  • by exchanging elementary particles as well.

    竟然也是藉由 交換粒子來運作。

  • They're actually particles of force that are exchanged

    實際上就是物質的粒子 在交換

  • by the particles of matter.

    力的粒子。

  • And you may have heard this year

    而你今年可能有聽過

  • that there was big news,

    有一個大新聞,

  • a major announcement in this story,

    這領域的一件大事,

  • the Large Hadron Collider, the LHC,

    就是大型強子對撞機, 或稱 LHC,

  • a huge experiment in Europe,

    在一個歐洲的大型實驗中,

  • has actually uncovered a Higgs boson,

    發現了希格斯玻色子,

  • and that particle's job is to interact

    而這個粒子的工作是

  • with the various elementary particles

    與不同基本粒子相互作用

  • and give them the masses that we observe.

    讓它們具有我們觀測到的質量。

  • So, this exciting picture is analogous

    因此,這幅令人振奮的圖像 就像是

  • to the one I showed you for the cell phone.

    我先前給你看的 關於手機的那些。

  • We have the components

    我們有了這些元件,

  • and we have the rules of particle theory,

    而我們有粒子理論的基本規則,

  • as it's called,

    就像這理論名稱一樣,

  • by which these all operate

    這些粒子組成

  • and give rise to the various things.

    各式各樣的東西, 並讓它運作。

  • Now, we actually think that we've only just

    現在,我們覺得我們

  • scratched the surface of finding this quantum world,

    只沾了量子世界的邊而已,

  • the hidden structure of our world.

    就是我們宇宙中 隱藏的結構。

  • Let me give you three examples

    讓我來談談三個

  • of the puzzles we're still working on.

    我們還在努力想解開的謎團。

  • So, what I did is I gathered the particles up

    所以,我所做的是把各種粒子

  • into the patterns that they tend to form,

    湊成它們的形成的模式,

  • but we don't know where those patterns come from.

    但我們不知道這些模式是怎麼來的。

  • We know how to describe the particles,

    我們知道怎樣描述粒子,

  • but we don't know where the patterns come from.

    但是我們並不知道模式是從哪裡來的。

  • When you see patterns in science,

    當你在科學中看到各種模式,

  • you look for a hidden structure,

    你會去找隱藏結構,

  • so that's one of the things.

    這是其中一件事。

  • Also, we now know that there's a huge amount

    我們知道宇宙中有大量物質,

  • more matter out there

    這些物質遠比

  • than just the things that I was just talking about.

    我前面所說的各種物質都還多。

  • That stuff is called dark matter.

    它們叫做暗物質。

  • We don't know what it is,

    我們不知道它是什麼,

  • and we'd like to be able to get it

    而我們希望可以得到它

  • and experiment with it and figure out what it is.

    並做實驗來了解它到底是什麼。

  • And then, the other thing I'd like to talk about

    接著,另一樣我想談的事情

  • is the fact that the force of gravity,

    是重力的本質,

  • perhaps the most familiar force we know,

    這可能是我們最熟悉的作用力,

  • when you get down to the quantum level,

    當你進入到量子的世界

  • it actually doesn't operate

    重力並不會

  • according to those rules of particle theory.

    像粒子理論那般運作。

  • So, given that gravity is actually about the shape

    所以,假設重力就像是 愛因斯坦所教導我們的那樣,

  • of space and time as Einstein taught us,

    和空間與時間的形狀有關,

  • we, in working out what the quantum story of gravity is,

    我們想探索量子世界中的重力, 我們稱為量子重力,

  • which we call quantum gravity,

    在探索的過程中

  • we hope to get to groups of questions like,

    我們想要了解一些問題,像是:

  • are there particles of space and time itself

    時間和空間本身有粒子嗎?

  • and how do they fit together?

    又他們如何互相配合?

  • What are the rules?

    運作規則是什麼?

  • So, this leads us to things

    所以,這引導我們

  • like studying where it all began,

    去了解 137 億年前

  • 13.7 billion years ago,

    這些東西是怎麼開始的,

  • the Big Bang.

    也就是大爆炸理論。

  • We know matter and energy

    在我們了解這世界的生成後,

  • as we understand it was created,

    我們會了解物質和能量,

  • but also, space and time itself.

    同時也了解空間和時間。

  • So those are the sorts of things

    所以這些是一部份

  • we study in this quest.

    這領域想研究的東西。

  • Also, we have things that are around us today,

    另外,我們知道有些東西的存在,

  • such as black holes,

    像是黑洞,

  • which are very important clues.

    這是很重要的線索。

  • They're actually holes in space

    它們實際上是空間中

  • that we'd like to understand.

    我們想要了解的孔洞。

  • Also, the newly discovered dark energy,

    同樣地,新發現的暗能量,

  • which is the tendency of space

    它是空間的傾向

  • all through the universe to accelerate its expansion.

    靠著宇宙加速自己的膨脹。

  • So scientists are working on these kinds of things,

    所以科學家們 在這些方向上做努力,

  • trying to understand what we think is now the case

    試著了解 那些隱藏結構,

  • that there's not just hidden structures

    我們認為它可能不只是 物質與能量

  • of matter and energy,

    的隱藏結構,

  • but also space and time.

    它同時也是空間與時間的 隱藏結構。

  • So the question is, what are the rules?

    因此問題是:「規則是什麼?」

  • And there are many approaches to this,

    有許多理論來解釋它,

  • and one of them is one you may have heard of,

    其中一種你們可能有聽過的,

  • called string theory.

    叫做弦理論。

  • And so it is one of many approaches

    它是其中一種理論,

  • and we don't know if it's right yet,

    但我們還不知道它是不是對的,

  • we're not finished developing the theory,

    我們還沒完全發展這個理論,

  • but it's given us some really exciting, tantalizing hints.

    但它已經給出許多 令人興奮、令人著迷的線索。

  • I'd like to tell you about a few of them.

    我想和你們談談它。

  • So, one of them is simply that you take away

    所以,其中一點就是摒棄

  • the idea of looking for a tiny quantum particle,

    找尋小量子的想法,

  • you look instead for an extended object,

    相對地你找尋一種延伸的物件,

  • a string, which can vibrate.

    就是弦,它可以振動。

  • And it actually gives you some exciting opportunities

    這實際上這是一個 很令人激動的契機,

  • because, for example, it would say

    因為,比如說,

  • if we've missed that hidden structure

    如果我們因為觀察不夠仔細

  • by not looking closely enough,

    而看不到隱藏結構,

  • we wouldn't realize that many different kinds of particles

    我們就沒辦法了解各種不一樣的粒子

  • are just different vibrations of the same string,

    其實就是同一個弦上 不同的振動而已,

  • which is a really exciting possibility

    這是很有趣的可能性

  • and a huge simplification.

    同時也是理論的一大簡化。

  • So that's one of the ideas.

    所以這是其中一個想法。

  • The other thing that's really exciting about string theory

    弦論另外很有趣一點是

  • is that one of those particles it describes

    其中一種粒子所描述的

  • is actually the missing quantum of gravity

    竟然就是我們 一直試著想了解

  • that we have been trying to understand.

    卻找不到的量子重力。

  • And then the other thing is that strings actually,

    另外就是, 弦並沒有只在

  • instead of one wanting just to move in the dimensions,

    幾個維度中運動,

  • the three space dimensions that we are familiar with,

    像是我們熟知的三維空間,

  • actually seem to want to move in higher dimensions.

    它實際上在高維度裡移動。

  • So we have this idea, then,

    所以我們有這種想法,那麼,

  • what would it mean for our world,

    如果這和我們的世界有任何關連,

  • if this were anything to do with our world,

    它代表什麼?

  • and we don't know that yet?

    又我們還不知道什麼?

  • Here's a way that our world would arise from that.

    這是我們的世界從它推導出來的一種方法。

  • You would have our world,

    你可以推導出我們的世界,

  • and then one of the hidden structures

    其中一個隱藏結構

  • would be hidden chunks in space time

    就是一群時間空間的隱藏結構,

  • that are not visible, those extra dimensions.

    它看不見,就是那些多出三維的維度。

  • And then the various particles that we see in the world

    那些我們所見到 不同的粒子

  • would come from being vibrations of strings

    來自弦的振動;

  • and those patterns we saw that we can't explain

    而那些我們沒辦法解釋的形態

  • come from the fact that the strings can probe

    則來自於 弦可以探測並感知

  • and feel the shape of those internal dimensions.

    那些內在維度 的這項事實。

  • So, one of the things, then, is

    所以,其中一樣就是

  • can we actually test this?

    我們可以驗證它嗎?

  • This is a lovely idea, but how do we confront this

    這是一個可愛的想法, 因為我們是做科學的,

  • with real experiments and observations

    我們要如何用實際的實驗及觀測

  • because we're doing science here?

    來證實它?

  • And that's the hard thing.

    這是個困難。

  • We think that the energy you need

    我們認為要探測到

  • to probe the tiny-enough scales

    能夠看見弦 那麼小的尺度,

  • to see the strings if they're there,

    所需要的能量

  • is more than we can hope to get any time soon.

    比近期內我們期望得到的 能量都還高。

  • But what we can do is we can look

    但我們可以做的是 我們可以找看看

  • for the consequences of those hidden structures,

    這些隱藏結構所造成的結果,

  • we can look for how those things show up in physics

    我們可以找看看它們在 我們觀測得到的物理現象中

  • that we can get access to.

    是什麼樣子。

  • So, that's why we study things like

    所以這是為什麼 我們會研究

  • dark matter,

    暗物質、

  • black holes,

    黑洞、

  • dark energy,

    暗能量,

  • and we also look at remnants of the early universe,

    而我們也在觀察 早期宇宙的殘留物,

  • the cosmic microwave background that satellites.

    就是宇宙背景發出的 宇宙微波。

  • And, importantly, we look for clues

    而很重要的是,我們從

  • from the various kinds of particle physics experiments,

    各種粒子物理實驗中 在找線索,

  • like the LHC.

    像是 LHC。

  • So, one last thing, then,

    最後讓我告訴你們

  • is a new thing that's been going on.

    一件最近發生的事。

  • String theory may turn out to be useful

    弦理論可能會變得

  • in other areas of physics.

    對其它物理領域有用處。

  • There are new kinds of experiments

    有新的實驗正在展開,

  • that start out, say, with our friend the electron,

    比如說,我們的朋友電子

  • and actually show that in certain circumstances,

    被證實在某些環境下

  • the electrons interact in a way

    會以一種全新、

  • that give you completely new,

    且怪異的行為,

  • weird kinds of behavior.

    相互作用。

  • And there are models that show

    有些模型說明

  • that string theory's actually the best way.

    弦理論是最好的描述方法。

  • In some circumstances,

    在一些環境下,

  • using the rules of string theory,

    用弦理論的法則,

  • you can actually explain that sort of behavior.

    你可以解釋這類的行為。

  • So this gives us an exciting possibility,

    所以這給我們一次很好的機會,

  • there's real experiments you can do

    我們可以用些種電子

  • with these electrons

    做一些實際的實驗,

  • that will help us shape the rules

    這會幫助我們建構

  • for what string theory is.

    那些弦理論的法則。

  • And you might go,

    而你也許會說:

  • "Well, OK, that's going to give us

    「好吧,這會給我們

  • maybe some fancy new kind of electronics

    一些可能比較新潮的電子學

  • that we can make a better cell phone with."

    來製造比較好的手機。」

  • But, what I'm saying that those rules

    但是,我想說的是,

  • may actually be the same rules we're looking for

    這些法則可能正是

  • to see if string theory can help us

    那些我們正在尋找

  • with these bigger questions.

    來看看弦論是否能解決大問題 的那些法則。

  • So, at the end of the day,

    所以,最後

  • the hidden structures of the universe we're looking for,

    我們正在尋找的 宇宙隱藏結構

  • may, one day, be right under our noses.

    可能有一天 就在不遠處。

  • Thank you.

    謝謝。

So I work on trying to understand

我的工作是試著了解

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B1 中級 中文 TED-Ed 粒子 理論 隱藏 結構 物質

【TED-Ed】弦理論與宇宙的隱藏結構--克利福德-約翰遜 (【TED-Ed】String theory and the hidden structures of the universe - Clifford Johnson)

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    wikiHuang 發佈於 2021 年 01 月 14 日
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