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  • Modern science, medicine, political freedom, the market economyall of them, we're told,

    現代科學,醫學,政治自由,市場經濟——所有這些,都告訴我們

  • are the result of a sort of miracle that took place 250 years ago.

    這是250年前所發生都奇蹟,所產生的結果。

  • That miracle is called the Enlightenment, a moment in history when philosophers suddenly

    這個奇蹟被稱為「啟蒙運動」,這是一個歷史中的時刻,當哲學

  • overthrew religious dogma and tradition and replaced it with human reason.

    推翻了宗教教義和傳統,並且用人類的理性作為替代。

  • Harvard professor Steven Pinker puts it this way: “Progress is a gift of the ideals of

    哈佛大學教授史提反平克這樣解釋:「前進(progress)是啟蒙運動所賜的觀念」。

  • the Enlightenment.”

    這種說法,唯一的問題就是

  • There's just one problem with this claim.

    :這並非是真的。

  • It isn't really true.

    以美國憲法來說,它常常被說為是啟蒙運動思想的產物。

  • Consider the U.S. Constitution, which is frequently said to be a product of Enlightenment thought.

    但是,你只要去讀英國的「普通法」——就是亞力山大翰彌頓和詹姆士麥迪舜曾經做的事,你就知道事情並非如此。

  • But you only need to read about English common lawwhich Alexander Hamilton and James Madison

    早在15世紀的時候,英國法學家約翰福特斯就曾詳細說明了「支票和結餘」的觀念、

  • certainly didto see that this isn't so.

    合法訴訟程序、和在取得個人自由和經濟成功中,

  • Already in the 15th-century, the English jurist John Fortescue elaborated the theory ofchecks

    個人財產所扮演的角色。

  • and balances,” due process, and the role of private property in securing individual

    同樣地,美國人權法案的根源出自於1600年代的英國普通法。

  • freedom and economic prosperity.

    現代科學和醫學也是如此。

  • Similarly, the U.S. Bill of Rights has its sources in English common law of the 1600s.

    比啓蒙運動更早之前,受傳統束縛的英國國王們,就已經贊助了突破性的科學組織,

  • Or consider modern science and medicine.

    如同:皇家物理學院,在1518年成立,以及

  • Long before the Enlightenment, tradition-bound English kings sponsored path-breaking scientific

    在1660年成立的倫敦協會

  • institutions such as the Royal College of Physicians, founded in 1518, and the Royal

    事實是,政治家和哲學家,特別是在英國和荷蘭,

  • Society of London, founded in 1660.

    在美國被成立的幾世紀之前,就已經清楚地制定了自由政府的諸原則。

  • The truth is that statesmen and philosophers, especially in England and the Netherlands,

    既然如此,為什麼要完全歸功於啓蒙運動呢?

  • articulated the principles of free government centuries before America was founded.

    顯然的,這是因為要承認,現代文明最好的和最重要的部分,

  • So why give the Enlightenment all the credit?

    幾乎都是從那些持守保守宗教信仰和政治理念的人而來的

  • Apparently because it doesn't look good to admit that the best and most important

    宣稱所有好東西都是從啓蒙運動而來的這種想法

  • parts of modernity were given to us by individuals who nearly all held conservative religious

    ,與18世紀德國哲學家康德有關

  • and political beliefs.

    對康德來說,「理性」是普世性的、無誤的,和獨立於經驗之外的。

  • The claim that all good things come from the Enlightenment is most closely associated with

    他那特異的哲學教義堅持認為,科學、道德和政治的每一個問題,

  • the late-18th-century German philosopher, Immanuel Kant.

    其正確的答案只能有一個

  • For Kant, reason is universal, infallible, and independent of experience.

    要達到那一個正確的答案,人類必須從過去的鏈索綑綁下釋放出來——

  • His extraordinarily dogmatic philosophy insisted that there can be only one correct answer

    就是從歷史、傳統和經歷中被釋放出來

  • to every question in science, morality and politics.

    但是,啟蒙運動的觀點,不僅是錯誤的,而且是危險的。

  • And that to reach the one correct answer, mankind had to free itself from the chains

    當人類的理性,被歷史、傳統、和經歷的約束下被鬆綁後

  • of the pastthat is, from history, tradition and experience.

    就會產生許多瘋狂的想法。

  • But this Enlightenment view is not only wrong, it's dangerous.

    啓蒙運動哲學家盧梭是一個很好的例子。

  • Human reason, when cut loose from the constraints imposed by history, tradition and experience,

    他快速地推翻來法國政府,導致法國大革命,就是恐怖統治

  • produces a lot of crazy notions.

    和拿破崙戰爭

  • The abstract Enlightenment philosophy of Jean Jacques Rousseau is a good example.

    當拿破崙的軍隊試圖在歐洲,按照啓蒙運動哲學所倡導的唯一正確的政治理論,

  • It quickly pulled down the French state, leading to the French Revolution, the Reign of Terror,

    重新建立各個政府的時候,有上數百萬的人死亡。

  • and the Napoleonic Wars.

    今天,啓蒙運動的啦啦隊卻企圖忽略這個故事。

  • Millions died as Napoleon's armies sought to rebuild every government in Europe in light

    他們也略過了一個事實:共產主義之父,馬克斯,也把自己看為

  • of the one correct political theory he believed was permitted by Enlightenment philosophy.

    是在提倡一個普世性的理想

  • Today's cheerleaders for the Enlightenment tend to skip this part of the story.

    他的新經濟「科學」結果在20世紀

  • They also pass over the fact that the father of communism, Karl Marx, saw himself as promoting

    造成了上億的人的死亡。

  • universal reason as well.

    納粹主義的科學競爭理論也是如此。

  • His newscienceof economics ended up killing tens of millions of people in the

    現代文明最大的災難,就是受到那些宣稱運用自己的理性的人所造成的。

  • 20th century.

    相反的,我們大多數的進步,都是從那些

  • So did the supposedly scientific race theories of the Nazis.

    公開懷疑人類理性的保守傳統而來的

  • The greatest catastrophes of modernity were engineered by individuals who claimed to be

    批判啟蒙運動的人包括:

  • exercising reason.

    約翰瑟爾頓,大衛休模,亞當史密斯,和埃德曼布克,強調「抽象的理性」是不可靠的

  • In contrast, most of the progress we've made comes from conservative traditions openly

    並且,極力主張我們要緊隨傳統,歷史,和所有事情的經歷。

  • skeptical of human reason.

    這些都把我們帶到今天對啟蒙運動偶像化的核心錯誤上。

  • The Enlightenment's critics, including John Selden, David

    那些帶頭領導人物,沒有持懷疑的態度,開放讓歷史和經驗來教導我們

  • Hume, Adam Smith, and Edmund Burke, emphasized the unreliability ofabstract reasoning

    他們的目的,是要創造他們自己的系統,認為是無誤的真理,與經驗是獨立的。

  • and urged us to stick close to custom, history, and experience in all things.

    在這樣的追求下,他們正如最固執的中世紀思想一樣。

  • Which brings us to the heart of what's wrong with today's idolization of the Enlightenment.

    英-蘇的保守主義人士卻持守著一種非常不同的目標。

  • Its leading figures were not skeptics open to what history and experience might teach us.

    他們維護國家和宗教的傳統的同時,他們也

  • Their aim was to create their own system of supposedly infallible truths independent of

    培養出一種所謂的「適度的懷疑」,就是一種被稱為「普通常識」的組合。

  • experience.

    這些日子中,當我看到美國和歐洲菁英們喧嚷「現在就是啟蒙運動」的時候,

  • And in that pursuit, they were as rigid as the most dogmatic medievals.

    我就常想到普通常識這件事。

  • Anglo-Scottish conservatives had a very different goal.

    他們急著要擁抱各種流行的「主義」—社會主義、女性主義、環保主義

  • They defended national and religious tradition, even as they cultivated what they called a

    等等,他們宣稱這些是具有普世確定性的,並且是「政治上正確的」想法。

  • moderate skepticism”—a combination that became known ascommon sense.”

    他們對那些不抱持和他們一樣教義的人,表現反對,把他們貼上「沒有啟蒙的人」

  • I think a lot about common sense these days, as I see American and European elites clamoring

    「不自由的人」、「可悲的人」和更糟糕的標籤。

  • forEnlightenment Now.”

    但是,這些新的教義值得受到那些古老的,英-蘇懷疑論的迎接。

  • They rush to embrace every fashionable newism”—socialism, feminism, environmentalism,

    啟蒙運動對理性過份的自信,已經太多次帶領我們走偏了路。

  • and so ondeclaring them to be universal certainties and the onlypolitically correct

    我是 尤藍哈宗尼,The Virtue of Nationalism 一書的作者, Prager University.

  • way of thinking.

  • They display contempt towards those who won't embrace their dogmas, branding themunenlightened,”

  • illiberal,” “deplorable,” and worse.

  • But these new dogmas deserve to be greeted with some of that old Anglo-Scottish skepticism.

  • Enlightenment overconfidence in reason has led us badly astray too many times.

  • I'm Yoram Hazony, author of The Virtue of Nationalism, for Prager University.

Modern science, medicine, political freedom, the market economyall of them, we're told,

現代科學,醫學,政治自由,市場經濟——所有這些,都告訴我們

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B2 中高級 中文 運動 理性 傳統 科學 主義 政治

啟蒙運動是什麼? (What Was the Enlightenment?)

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    林宜悉 發佈於 2021 年 01 月 14 日
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