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  • Probably no other creatures on the planet have struck as much fear and awe in our hearts as the dinosaurs.


  • The earliest dinosaurs appeared about 245 million years ago during the Triassic Period, when most of the Earth's landmasses were still joined together as the supercontinent Pangaea.

    恐龍最早大約出現在 2.45 億年前的三疊紀時期,當時地球上大部分陸地仍連接在一起,也就是超大陸「盤古大陸」。

  • Over millions of years, Pangaea split apart, causing the dinosaurs to become separated for the very first time.


  • This led the reptiles to adapt to their specific habitats and diversify, giving rise to many new dinosaur species.


  • According to some estimates, more than 1,000 species of dinosaurs have roamed the Earth.

    據估計,超過 1,000 種恐龍曾生存在地球上。

  • All dinosaurs descended from reptiles called "Archosaurs".


  • From there, dinosaurs branched out into two major groups, Saurischia and Ornithischia, based on the shape and orientation of their pelvis.


  • In Saurischian dinosaurs, such as Tyrannosaurus Rex and Brachiosaurus, the pelvis' pubis bone faces forward and down.


  • In Ornithischian dinosaurs, such as Stegosaurus and Hadrosaurs, the pubis bone faces backward and down.


  • Across both groups, dinosaurs varied greatly in size.


  • Some were small, like Compsognathus, which was barely larger than a chicken, whereas others were gigantic, like Dreadnoughtus, which was 85 feet long and weighed 65 tons, making it the largest land animal to have ever lived.

    有些很小,例如沒有比雞大多少的細頸龍,有些則很大,如長 85 英尺,重 65 噸的無畏龍,牠是有史以來最大的陸地動物。

  • Dinosaur diets varied as well.


  • Herbivores, like Hadrosaurs, evolved to have specialized teeth for grinding tough plant material.


  • Carnivores made up roughly 40% of dinosaur species.

    食肉恐龍約佔整體恐龍物種的 40%。

  • Some predators, like the raptor Deinonychus, even hunted in packs.


  • Social behaviors were also found in other dinosaurs.


  • Footprints and track ways indicate that some of the ancient reptiles traveled together.


  • Evidence also shows that herds may have made annual visits to certain sites to lay their eggs.


  • But by around 66 million years ago, most dinosaurs died out.

    但到了約 6600 萬年前,大多數恐龍都滅絕了。

  • And the reason why is still a mystery.


  • The most well-known explanation is an asteroid strike, but a multitude of factors may have contributed to this extinction.


  • In fact, the dinosaur population was already in severe decline by the time the asteroid struck.


  • However, several dinosaur species survived, and some of which evolved to become today's birds.


  • The world has never again seen land creatures as great as the dinosaurs, but through their descendants and fossils left behind, their legacy lives on.


Probably no other creatures on the planet have struck as much fear and awe in our hearts as the dinosaurs.


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