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  • Languages don't just die naturally.

    譯者: Lilian Chiu 審譯者: SF Huang

  • People abandon mother tongues, because they're forced to.

    語言並不會自然死亡。

  • Often, the pressure is political.

    人們拋棄自己的母語, 是出於被迫。

  • In 1892,

    通常,是受到政治壓力。

  • the US Army general Richard Henry Pratt

    1892 年,

  • argued that killing indigenous cultures

    美國陸軍將軍理查德‧亨利‧普拉特

  • was the only alternative to killing indigenous people.

    主張消滅原住民文化

  • "Kill the Indian," he said, "but save the man."

    是取代屠殺原住民的唯一方案。

  • And until 1978, the government did just that,

    他說:「消滅印第安文化, 但不動刀殺人。」

  • removing indigenous children from their families

    在 1978 年前, 政府就是這麼做的,

  • and forcing them into boarding schools where they were given English names

    將原住民孩童與他們的家人分離,

  • and punished for speaking their languages.

    強迫他們進入寄宿學校, 學校還會給他們英文名字,

  • Assimilation was a compliment to genocide.

    他們說母語就會被懲罰。

  • Seven thousand languages are alive today,

    以同化之名,行種族減絕之實。

  • but few are recognized by their own governments

    現今還有七千種語言存在,

  • or supported online.

    但很少被它們自己的政府承認 或在網路上獲得支持。

  • So for people from the vast majority of cultures,

    所以,對絕大多數文化的人們來說,

  • globalization remains profoundly alienating.

    全球化仍然使其越來越疏離。

  • It means giving up your language for someone else's.

    它意味著放棄你的語言 而去使用別人的語言。

  • And if nothing changes,

    如果繼續這樣下去,有三千種語言

  • as many as 3,000 languages could disappear in 80 years.

    會在八十年內消失。

  • But things are changing.

    但改變在發生。

  • Around the world,

    全世界各地

  • people are reviving ancestral languages

    都有人在復興祖先的語言

  • and rebuilding their cultures.

    並重建他們的文化。

  • As far as we know,

    據我們所知,

  • language reclamation began in the 1800s when, at a time of rising antisemitism,

    語言復興始於 反猶太主義高漲的十九世紀,

  • Jewish communities looked to their ancestral language, Hebrew,

    猶太族群用他們祖先的希伯來語,

  • as a means of cultural revival.

    作為文化復興的手段。

  • And though it had been dormant for over 1,000 years,

    雖然已經超過一千年 沒有人使用希伯來語,

  • it was well preserved in books of Jewish religion and philosophy.

    它仍然完整地保存在 猶太教和哲學的書籍中。

  • So Jewish activists studied and taught it to their children,

    所以,猶太活動家研究它、 傳授給他們的孩子,

  • raising the first native speakers in nearly 100 generations.

    培育出百代以來 第一批說希伯來母語的人。

  • Today, it's the mother tongue of five million Jews.

    現今,它是五百萬猶太人的母語。

  • And at least for me,

    至少對我這個散居海外、

  • an assimilated English-speaking member of the Jewish diaspora,

    被同化說英文的猶太人而言,

  • a pillar of cultural sovereignty.

    希伯來語就是文化主權的支柱。

  • Two thousand years later,

    兩千年後,

  • we're still here.

    我們還在這裡。

  • Now, until recently,

    一直到最近,

  • Hebrew's reawakening was an anomaly.

    希伯來語的再度興起是很反常的。

  • Few languages are as well preserved as ours was,

    很少語言像我們的一樣 保存得這麼好,

  • and the creation of Israel,

    而以色列的建國,

  • the first Jewish state in over 1,000 years,

    是一千年來的第一個猶太國家,

  • provided a space for Hebrew's daily use.

    使希伯來語能使用在每天日常生活上。

  • In other words, most cultures just weren't given a chance.

    換言之,大部分的文化連機會也沒有。

  • (Video) Good evening, I'm Elizabeth

    (影片)晚安,我是伊麗莎白,

  • and I live in Cornwall.

    我住在康瓦耳。

  • That was Cornish,

    那是康瓦耳語, 康瓦耳祖先的語言,

  • the ancestral language of Cornwall,

    現今嚴格來說, 康瓦耳是英國南方的一個郡。

  • which today is technically a county in southern England.

    二十世紀時,康瓦耳活動家 為了他們的文化而戰。

  • In the 1900s, Cornish activists fought for their culture.

    這個語言已超過一百年沒使用,

  • The language had been dormant for over 100 years,

    但他們藉由古老的書籍 和戲劇來教孩子這個語言。

  • but they used old books and plays to teach it to their children.

    然而,這個說康瓦耳語的新世代

  • However, this new generation of Cornish speakers

    散佈在康瓦耳各地,

  • was scattered across Cornwall

    無法自由地使用這個語言。

  • and unable to use the language freely.

    到九〇年代,康瓦耳語雖復興了,

  • By the 1990s, Cornish had reawakened,

    但它並沒有就此茁壯。

  • but it wasn't thriving.

    說康瓦耳語的人於 2000 年代 初期在網路上找到彼此,

  • Then, in the early 2000s, Cornish speakers found one another online

    發揮了數位空間的效用, 讓他們天天都能說康瓦耳語。

  • and leveraged digital spaces to speak on a daily basis.

    自此之後,他們舉辦每週或月的活動,

  • From there, they organized weekly or monthly events

    讓他們能在公眾場合 聚會並說著康瓦耳語。

  • where they could gather and speak in public.

    現今,有些學校會教康瓦耳語。

  • Today, some schools teach Cornish.

    有康瓦耳語的招牌、

  • There are Cornish language signs,

    冰淇淋廣告、

  • ice-cream commercials,

    維基百科,甚至迷因 (網路爆紅圖/影片)。

  • Wikipedia, and even memes.

    (笑聲)

  • (Laughter)

    (笑聲)

  • (Laughter)

    隨著他們的語言再次完整,

  • And with their language once again intact,

    康瓦耳人也被認可為

  • the people of Cornwall have secured recognition

    等同愛爾蘭、蘇格蘭、 威爾斯的凱爾特民族。

  • as a Celtic nation alongside Ireland, Scotland and Wales.

    他們看著數世紀以來的強迫同化,

  • They stared down centuries of forced assimilation

    說道:「我們不是英國的一個郡。

  • and said, "We're not a county in England.

    我們是一個獨立的民族。

  • We're a people in our own right.

    我們還在這裡。」

  • And we're still here."

    他們並不是唯一。

  • And they're not the only ones.

    路易斯安那州的圖尼卡比洛克西部落 也在復興他們祖先的語言。

  • The Tunica-Biloxi tribe of Louisiana is reviving their ancestral language.

    (影片)我是提雅娜。

  • (Video) My name is Teyanna.

    我的朋友叫我「安靜的風暴」。

  • My friends, they call me "Quiet Storm."

    從八〇年代開始,

  • It started in the 1980s,

    那時唐娜‧皮亞瑞特和家人

  • when Donna Pierite and her family

    開始前往巴頓魯治及紐奧良,

  • started taking trips to Baton Rouge and New Orleans

    去影印存放在大學檔案室中的老字典。

  • to photocopy old dictionaries stored away in university archives.

    目標是要研究圖尼卡語,

  • The goal was to study Tunica

    將其傳授給孩子並與整個社區分享。

  • and teach it to the children and share it with the community.

    現今,他們引領著圖尼卡語的復興。

  • Today, they're leading a Tunica renaissance.

    2014 年起,在沉浸式語言課上 有近一百個說圖尼卡語的人,

  • Since 2014, there are nearly 100 speakers in language immersion classes,

    根據 2017 年的調查,

  • and according to a 2017 census,

    新增了 32 名說得很流利的人,

  • 32 new fluent speakers,

    當中有幾位,就像 唐娜的女兒伊麗莎白,

  • some of whom, like Donna's daughter Elisabeth,

    會教他們的孩子圖尼卡語。

  • are teaching Tunica to their children.

    這些新的母語者也在創建內容、

  • These new speakers are creating content,

    臉書影片以及網路迷因。

  • Facebook videos and also memes.

    (笑聲)

  • (Laughter)

    (笑聲)

  • (Laughter)

    (笑聲)

  • (Laughter)

    他們發佈得越多,就越能 鼓舞其他圖尼卡人參與。

  • And the more they publish,

    最近,住在德州的一位部落成員 透過臉書聯絡伊麗莎白,

  • the more they inspire other Tunica people to get involved.

    問她如何說「祝福這些土地」。

  • Recently, a tribal member living in Texas wrote Elisabeth on Facebook,

    她要做一個庭院標誌,

  • asking how to say "bless these lands."

    讓她的鄰居知道她的文化

  • It was for a yard sign,

    至今仍然存在且茁壯發展。

  • so she could show her neighbors that her culture is alive

    希伯來語、康瓦耳語、 圖尼卡語只是三個例子,

  • and thriving today.

    各大洲還有非常多的語言活動主義。

  • Now, Hebrew, Cornish and Tunica

    不論是海峽群島上說澤西語的人,

  • are just three examples from a groundswell of language activism on every continent.

    或者奈洛比中使用肯亞手語的人,

  • And whether they'rerriais speakers from the Channel Isles,

    在努力保存或恢復其語言的所有族群

  • or Kenyan sign language speakers from Nairobi,

    都有一個共通點:媒體,

  • all communities working to preserve or reclaim a language

    讓他們的語言能被分享、傳授。

  • have one thing in common: media,

    隨著網路發展,

  • so their language can be shared and taught.

    擴大了媒體的可得性及創造力,

  • And as the internet grows,

    因此,現在比以往更有機會

  • expanding media access and creation,

    保存和恢復祖先語言。

  • preserving and reclaiming ancestral languages

    所以,你祖先的語言是什麼?

  • is now more possible than ever.

    我的是希伯來語、意第緒語、 匈牙利語、蘇格蘭蓋爾語,

  • So what are your ancestral languages?

    雖然我成長過程學的是英語。

  • Mine are Hebrew, Yiddish, Hungarian and Scottish Gaelic,

    我很幸運,因為在網路上 都能找到這些語言。

  • even though I was raised in English.

    特別是希伯來語—— 我的 iPhone 本身就有內建,

  • And luckily for me, each of these languages is available online.

    Google 翻譯也有支援,

  • Hebrew in particular -- it came installed on my iPhone,

    甚至還有自動修正功能。

  • it's supported by Google Translate,

    你的語言可能沒有這麼多支援,

  • it even has autocorrect.

    但我鼓勵你去查查看, 因為有可能,

  • And while your language may not be as widely supported,

    某個地方的某個人 已經開始將它放上網路了。

  • I encourage you to investigate,

    復興你的語言,

  • because chances are, someone, somewhere, has started getting it online.

    擁抱你的文化,

  • Reclaiming your language and embracing your culture

    是在全球化的時代 保持真我的強有力方法,

  • is a powerful way to be yourself in the age of globalization,

    因為,用我最近 學會的希伯來語來說:

  • because as I recently learned to say in Hebrew,

    「'nḥnw 'dyyn k'n」——

  • "'nḥnw 'dyyn k'n" --

    我們還存在著。

  • we're still here.

    謝謝。

  • Thank you.

    (掌聲)

  • (Applause)

Languages don't just die naturally.

譯者: Lilian Chiu 審譯者: SF Huang

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