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  • In 2015, the United Nations turned 70. Since World War II, the UN has existed to foster

    在 2015 年,是聯合國成立七十週年。自從二戰後,聯合國為了

  • communication between its member states to achieve global goals, which would be impossible

    促進國際成員間的溝通,以便達到那些無法以一國之力達成的

  • individually. But how do they do this?

    全球性目標。但是要透過什麼方法做到呢?

  • How exactly does the UN work?

    究竟聯合國是怎麼運作的?

  • Well, the UN is divided into six main parts. The first is the General Assembly, which includes

    嗯,聯合國由六個主要部分組成。首先是 General Assembly,包含了

  • nearly all internationally recognized countries, making up 193 member states. The Assembly

    幾乎所有國際間所承認的 193 個成員國。

  • meets annually in September, and debates issues on security and diplomacy. In 2015 the major

    會員常會在每年九月舉行,針對安全以及外交進行辯論。在 2015 年,主題為

  • topic was climate change, and helping developing countries face the threat of global warming.

    氣候變遷以及協助開發中國家面對全球暖化的挑戰。

  • Within the General Assembly, resolutions relating to defense, as well as administrative issues

    在會員大會裡,會決定國防、行政議題,例如會員資格審查和預算審查

  • like new membership and budget, require a two-thirds vote. Most other issues only need

    而需要總會員數的三分之二同意票才能通過議案。但大多數的議案只需要贊成票多於

  • a majority. Every country, regardless of size, gets a single vote. However, there are two

    反對票即可。每一個國家,不論大小,都有一票。然而,聯合國中有兩個國家

  • states in the UN which are not actual members. The Vatican, whose government is called The

    並非實質會員國。一個是梵蒂岡,實際掌權的政府叫做 The Holy See。另一個則是巴基斯坦。

  • Holy See, and Palestine. These are called permanent non-member observer states, and

    它們稱為永久非會員觀察國,而它們並不具備投票資格,

  • while they cannot vote, they are allowed to take part in debates.

    但可以參與政策辯論。

  • The second arm of the UN is the Security Council. It exists to prevent conflict on a large scale,

    聯合國的第二隻手臂是聯合國安全理事會,存在的目的是為了阻止大規模人類衝突發生,

  • promoting peace through diplomacy or sanctions. It only has five permanent members: Russia,

    它們透過外交及制裁手段來達到目的。其中有五個常任理事國,分別為俄羅斯、

  • France, China, the UK and the US, which were the winning powers in WWII. The permanent

    法國、中國、英國以及美國,它們也都是二戰的戰勝國。常任理事國

  • members have veto power, and their use has been incredibly controversial. The US, for

    具備否決權,但否決權的使用備受爭議。舉美國為例,

  • example, has vetoed dozens of resolutions against Israel for their actions in the Middle

    曾經對聯合國針對以色列對中東的行動的制裁

  • East.

    使用否決權。

  • There are ten more members representing Africa, Asia, Eastern Europe, Latin America, and Western

    另外有十多個會員代表非洲、亞洲、東歐、拉丁美洲以及西歐。

  • Europe. Those ten are elected on a rolling basis every two years to make sure the major

    這數十個國家每兩年輪流選舉出代表這些世界主要區域的

  • world regions have representation. The security council's resolutions are carried out by

    代表。安全理事會的決議是由聯合國的維和部隊執行

  • the UN's peacekeeping force, which boasts about 100,000 soldiers.

    大約具有十萬士兵。

  • One of the most important parts of the UN is the Economic and Social Council, which

    聯合國其中一個重要的組織是經濟社會理事會,它們旨在

  • works to improve standards of living and support human rights. Most of what the UN actually

    改善生活水準以及維護人權。聯合國大部分的工作都圍繞在幫助

  • does is centered around helping developing countries. The council works with specialized

    開發中國家。理事會與特殊的機構

  • agencies like the World Health Organization and the High Commission for Refugees to make

    像是世界衛生組織以及聯合國難民救濟總署

  • that happen.

    合作推動進行協助。

  • The judicial arm of the UN is the International Court of Justice. This is where international

    聯合國中的法治機構是國際法庭。國際法庭扮演辯論以及起訴違反國際法

  • law violations are debated and prosecuted. Although countries with significant power

    的角色,雖然國際強權常常能夠

  • can often refuse to comply with the decision.

    拒絕國際法庭的判例,但還是有一定的嚇阻作用。

  • The fifth arm of the UN is actually not operational. The Trusteeship Council was created in the

    聯合國的第五個重要機構實際上並沒有辦法正常運作,聯合國託管理事會成立於

  • 1940s to help developing territories and dependencies become independent countries. After helping

    1940 年代,目的要幫助開發中的領土以及附庸國變成獨立國家。在協助超過

  • more than 70 countries gain independence, the council was suspended in 1994.

    70 個國家獨立後,在 1994 年就停止運作。

  • And finally, the Secretariat is essentially the internal, administrative workings of the

    最後,聯合國秘書處是聯合國對內的行政長官。

  • UN. They're the ones who compile reports, communicate between the different councils,

    他們彙整報告、與組織中不同理事會之間進行溝通。

  • and are headed by the UN Secretary General, Ban Ki-moon.

    現任秘書長是 Ban Ki-Moon。

  • Although the UN exists to promote global cooperation, many have criticized the greater influence

    隨然聯合國存在的目的是推廣全球合作,有些人卻批評五個常任理事國實際上

  • of the five permanent security council members. Still, the UN has seen incredible advances

    擁有極大的影響力。雖此,聯合國還是有很多顯著的成效,如在

  • in hunger, poverty, child mortality, health care, drugs, women's rights, and other global

    減少饑荒、貧窮、降低幼兒死亡率、健康照護、毒品控制、女性權利,以及其他

  • improvement areas. Without communication and cooperation, the world would be considerably

    全球性事務領域的改善方面。若沒有溝通和合作,世界會

  • worse.

    變得更糟。

  • Want to get a deep dive into why the UN Security Council has 5 permanent members?

    想知道更多關於聯合國安全理事會五個常任理事國的資訊嗎?

  • Check out Seeker Daily's video to find out more. Thanks for watching!

    到我們的 Seeker Daily's 看更多的影片。謝謝收看!

  • Be sure to subscribe for more TestTube News. We'll see you next time.

    請訂閱 TestTube News 我們下次見。

In 2015, the United Nations turned 70. Since World War II, the UN has existed to foster

在 2015 年,是聯合國成立七十週年。自從二戰後,聯合國為了

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聯合國是如何工作的? (How Does The UN Work?)

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    Mayu Okuuchi 發佈於 2021 年 01 月 14 日
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