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  • Your attention, for example, is mediated by unconscious forcesand you know that, you know that perfectly well.

    舉例來說,你的注意力是被無意識的力量主導的,並且你自己也清楚知道這件事。

  • And this is another Freudian observation.

    這也是佛洛伊德學說中的觀察之ㄧ。

  • You know, If you're sitting down to study, for example, your conscious intent is to study.

    舉例而言,如果你正要坐下來讀書,且你的意識是想要學習的。

  • But you know perfectly well that all sorts of distraction fantasies are going to enter the theater of your imagination, non-stop, and annoyingly, and there isn't really a lot you can do about that except, maybe, wait it out.

    但你同時也知道,這時候會有突然出現各種分心的理由讓你無止盡地進入想像的故事情節中,而且煩人的是,對此你也不能做什麼,你唯一能做的就是等待它們過去。

  • So you'll be sitting there reading, and your attention will flicker away.

    所以你就會傻傻地坐那在那裡讀書,看著注意力離你遠去。

  • You'll think about, I don't know, maybe you want to watch "Jane the Virgin" on Netflix or something like that, or maybe it's time to have a peanut butter sandwich.

    你可能會想著,我不確定,也許是你想看的影集內容,或其他類似的東西,或你突然想吃吐司夾花生醬。

  • Or you should get the dust bunnies out from underneath the bed.

    或是你該把床底下佈滿灰塵的兔子玩偶拿出來。

  • Or it's time to go outside and have a cigarette, or maybe it's time for a cup of coffee.

    或是你感覺出門抽根菸、喝杯咖啡的時間到了。

  • Or it's like all these subsystems in you that would like something, aren't very happy just to sit there while you read this thing that you're actually bored by, and so they pop up and try to take control of your perceptions and your actions non-stop.

    你大腦中的這些子系統想要一些東西,它們對於坐著讀書這件事十分不滿,它們知道你對此也是感到無聊的,所以它們會跳出來,不斷地想辦法主導你的感官和你的行為。

  • Maybe you think well this is a stupid course anyways, why do I have to read this damn paper, and what am I doing in university, and what's the point of life?

    也許你現在會想,反正這堂課這麼沒用,我幹嘛讀這些文章,我幹嘛讀大學,我人生的意義在哪?

  • It's like you can really, well, you can really get going if you're trying to avoid doing your homework.

    這就是在說,當你想逃避做功課的時候,你有太多問題可以這樣不斷陷下去。

  • And then you might think, well, what is it in you that's trying to avoid because after all you took the damn course, and you told yourself to sit down.

    然後你可能會想,你為什麼要選擇逃避呢?畢竟是你自己決定要上這門課的,所以你告訴自己乖乖坐下吧!

  • Why don't you listen?

    為什麼你不能聽勸呢?

  • Well, because you're you're a mess, that's basically why.

    因為你的生活簡直一團亂,這就是主因。

  • You haven't got control over yourself at all, and no more than I have control over this laptop.

    你還沒辦法管好自己,就好像我沒辦法控制這台電腦一樣。

  • Okay, so there's the memory function of the unconscious, and there's the dissolutive function - that's an interesting one.

    好,所以在無意識當中,包含了記憶的功能以及消散的功能,這是它有趣的部分。

  • The unconscious contains habits once voluntary now automatized and dissociated elements of the personality, which may lead a parasitic existence.

    無意識包含由自願的行為成為自動化的習慣和分離化人格的一部分,這使它們成為像是寄生蟲一樣的存在。

  • That's an interesting one.

    這很有趣。

  • I would relate that more to procedural memory.

    這與程序記憶有些相關。

  • So what you've done is practice certain habits whatever they might be.

    無論具體內容為何,當你持續實踐一些習慣之後。

  • Let's call them bad habits, and you like those things to get under control but you can't, so maybe when you're speaking, for example, you use "like" and "you know" and you say "um" a lot, and you practice that so you're really good at it.

    我們先稱之為壞習慣,你可能會想讓一切都在你掌控之中,但你沒辦法。所以舉例來說,也許在你說話的時候,你常會用「像」、「你知道」、「呃」這些字,而且因為你很常用所以你很會使用它們。

  • And you'd like to stop it, but you don't get to because you've built that little machine right into your being.

    所以當你想停止的時候,你沒辦法,因為你已經在你的習慣中建立出這一套系統。

  • It's neurologically wired, and it's not under conscious control.

    它成為了神經系統的一部分,且脫離了意識能控制的範圍。

  • And anything you practice becomes that; it becomes part of you, and that's another element of the unconscious, a different part.

    任何持續實踐的習慣都是這樣,它會成為你的一部分,而這是無意識中另外的一個元素,一個不同的部分,

  • And then there's a creative part, which is that, well, you know you're sitting around and maybe you're trying to write something, or maybe you want to produce a piece of art, or a piece of music, or maybe you're just laying in bed dreaming.

    接著,這是一個有創意的部分,當你坐著嘗試要寫出一些東西的時候,或當你嘗試創作藝術、音樂,或單純只是躺在床上做夢。

  • And you have all these weird ideas and especially in dreams.

    你會冒出一些很怪的點子,尤其是在做夢的時候。

  • It's like...what? Where do those things come from?

    你會想...什麼?這些東西到底從哪跑出來的?

  • And even more strange, one of the things that's really weird about dreams and almost impossibly weird is that you're an observer in the dream - it's like a dream is something that happens to you.

    更奇妙的是,夢有一件很怪、很難以相信的事是,你在夢中像是一個觀察者的角色,你會夢見一些發生在你身上的事。

  • Well, you're dreaming it, theoretically, so how is it that you can be an observer?

    但你明明正在做夢,理論來說是這樣,那你怎麼又能成為一個觀察者呢?

  • It's almost like you're watching a video game or a movie, but you're producing it, at least in principle.

    這幾乎就像是你在觀看一場電玩遊戲,或是一場電影,但你同時也是只做出它們的人,至少在原理上是這樣解釋的,

  • Although the psychoanalysts would say "Well, no, not exactly."

    雖然有些心理分析師會反駁說:「其實不盡然。」

  • "Your ego isn't producing it; your unconscious is producing it."

    「你的自我並沒有製造出它,是你的無意識製作出它的」

  • "It's a different thing. It's a different thing."

    「而這兩者是不同的。」

  • And of course, Jung would say, "Well It's deeper than that; the collective unconscious might be producing it."

    當然,榮格就會說:「這其中其實更複雜,它是由集體潛意識創造出來的。」

  • It's in some sense, it isn't you exactly.

    所以某種程度來說,它不算是你。

  • Or it isn't the you that you think of when you think of you.

    或是說它不是你想的那個你。

  • And that's the ego from the Freudian perspective, the you that you identify with, that's the ego.

    這是佛洛伊德理論中的自我,你認定的你本身就是自我。

  • And outside of that is the unconscious, the id.

    而在潛意識之外的,就是本我。

  • That's more the place of impulses, and you could think about those as the biological subsystems that can derail your thinking and govern things like hunger, and sex, and aggression, and your basic instincts, it's another way of putting it.

    那比較像是一些神經衝動的領域,你可以把它想作是生理上的子系統,會使你的思想偏離軌道,並主導一些事情,如飢餓感、性慾和攻擊性等等。另外一種說法就是你的基本生物直覺。

  • And it's a reasonable way of thinking about it because these are subsystems that you share with animals.

    這樣想是符合邏輯的,因為這些子系統都是你與動物們共通共有的。

  • You share them certainly with mammals, you share most of them with reptiles, you share a lot of them with amphibians, and even going all the way down to crustaceans.

    哺乳類動物當然具備它們,爬蟲類也有,許多兩棲類動物也有,甚至到甲殼類都有。

  • There is commonality, for example, in the dominance hierarchy circuits.

    這其中的共通點是,舉例來說,它是生物鏈中具優勢的一環。

  • And so these are very very old things, and the idea that you're in control of them is, well, you're not exactly in control of them.

    這些是很古老的東西,所以想要控制著它們的想法是...基本上,你幾乎不可能掌控它們。

  • And I would say the less integrated you are, the less you're in control of them, and the more they're in control of you, and that can get really out of hand.

    我會說,當你越無法整合自己,你就越無法掌控它們,而它們越能主導你的時候,就越容易讓你出現失控的情況。

  • You can be... like with people who have obsessive compulsive disorder, for example, which seems to be, I would say, that dissolutive elements in some sense of the unconscious.

    你可能會變得...舉例來說,像患有強迫症的人,他們幾乎是被無意識世界所操控的。

  • The way that it's portrayed here, poor people with obsessive-compulsive disorder, they can spend half their time doing things that they can't really control.

    這邊的說法是,患有強迫症的人可能大半輩子都在做著自己無法控制的事。

  • And they have very strong impulses to do them, and it's very hard on them to block them.

    而且他們有非常強的慾望要去做那些事,這是非常難以克制的。

  • You know, they they'll almost panic if those things are blocked, and then you have people with Tourette's syndrome.

    他們如果無法做那些事,他們是會感到恐慌的,另外我們還有患有妥瑞症的人。

  • You know that they'll be doing all sorts of weird dances, and spouting off obscenities, and imitating people without being able to control it.

    你知道他們會跳一些奇怪的舞蹈、脫口而出一些淫穢的話,或是在無法控制的情形下模仿他人。

  • And sometimes a little bit of anti-psychotic medication can dampen that down, but it's as if there are these autonomous semi spirits inside of them that grip control over the behavior, and make them do things.

    有時,一點點抗精神病的藥可以緩解這種情況,但這情況就好像是他們內部有這些半自主的精神體,操控了他們的行為並強迫他們做一些事。

  • And you know you find that to some degree in your own life because maybe you've become very attracted to someone even maybe you don't want to be attracted to the person, and then you find yourself texting them when you know perfectly well that you should be going to bed.

    你可能也會在你的生活中有類似的經驗。可能你曾經喜歡過某個你不想喜歡上的人,然後你會發現自己在本該睡覺的時間點和他傳訊息。

  • You know you are in the grip of something.

    你知道你陷入了某種情況。

  • And you can't control it, and that's all part of the unconscious and all part of what Freud was studying.

    那是某種你無法掌控的情況,而這都是你無意識世界的一部分,同時也是佛洛伊德學說在探討的內容。

Your attention, for example, is mediated by unconscious forcesand you know that, you know that perfectly well.

舉例來說,你的注意力是被無意識的力量主導的,並且你自己也清楚知道這件事。

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為什麼讓自己坐下來專心工作、唸書這麼難? 心理學教授幫你解惑! (Jordan Peterson - Why it's so Hard to Sit Down and Study/Work)

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    Helena 發佈於 2019 年 12 月 17 日
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