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  • From parasites that pop ant's heads off, to making animal-computer-hybrid robots, here

    砍斷螞蟻的頭、製造半機械動物,

  • are 10 of the most fascinating cases of mind control in nature.

    以下將會介紹大自然裡十個會控制宿主的神奇寄生蟲。

  • 10.)

    第十:加州吸蟲

  • Euhaplorchis Californiensis The Euhaplorchis Californiensis is a parasite

    加州吸蟲

  • that is primarily found in southern California.

    主要分布於南加州,

  • These parasites live on the gut of shorebirds.

    生活在水鳥的內臟裡,

  • Once the very tiny eggs of these parasites develop, they are released into the waters

    牠們產下的卵

  • through the shorebirds' feces.

    會順著水鳥糞便流到水裡,

  • These eggs will live and develop into larva if they are swallowed up by snails.

    如果鳥糞被蝸牛吃掉,吸蟲卵會在蝸牛體內孵化為幼蟲,

  • Once the larvae reach a certain stage, they are able to escape the snails which is when

    生長到一定階段後,牠們就能離開蝸牛身體,

  • they then find killifish.

    找到新宿主─鱂魚,

  • They continue to live in the brain of the killifish, where the parasites begin to control

    吸蟲會寄生在鱂魚大腦,

  • the killifish's activity.

    開始控制鱂魚的行動,

  • Once in the brain, the mind control begins.

    吸蟲跑到鱂魚大腦後,便開始對牠精神控制,

  • The parasites make the killifish swim to the surface of the ocean where they will swim

    牠們使鱂魚游到海面,

  • in circles.

    在水面繞圈,

  • This makes it easy for the shorebirds to see the killifish, catch them, and then eat them.

    使得水鳥可以輕易發現並吃掉鱂魚,

  • Once the shorebirds have eaten an infected killifish, the cycle begins again!!

    水鳥吃掉被寄生蟲感染的鱂魚後,加州吸蟲又開始另一個生命循環。

  • 9.)

    第九名:相思樹

  • Acacia Trees Ants and acacia trees have had a relationship

    相思樹和螞蟻

  • for generations.

    一直以來都有某種關係

  • For the longest time, people just assumed this is how it was and no one really looked

    長久以來,人們都覺得這關係是裡所當然,

  • into the reasoning for this relationship.

    沒有細究形成的原因,

  • That was until some scientists discovered that the relationship is actually more one

    直到後來,科學家才發現

  • sided than what people have previously thought.

    其實其中一方比我們想得受益更多,

  • On the outside, this relationship looks to be a win-win for both the ants and the trees.

    乍看之下,螞蟻與相思樹都能受益,是雙贏關係

  • The acacia trees provide the ants with food and hollow thorns, which can be used as nests

    相思樹提供螞蟻食物與

  • for the ants.

    築巢用的中空刺,

  • In return, the ants protect the acacia trees from herbivores.

    螞蟻則保護相思樹免於被食草動物吃掉,

  • Further research has shown that the ants also keep bacteria away from the leaves of the

    進一步研究顯示螞蟻也保護相思樹葉

  • acacia trees, which helps keep the trees overall good health.

    不被細菌入侵,讓相思樹能維持整體健康,

  • However, continued research from scientists has shown that there is a bit of manipulation

    不過科學家持續探究卻發現

  • from the acacia trees to help keep this relationship strong.

    相思樹有點在操控螞蟻以維繫關係,

  • It turns out that the food the ants eat from the acacia trees actually contains a chemical

    相思樹給螞蟻的食物其實含有一種物質,

  • which will change their brain chemicals and put the ant into a defensive mode; making

    會改變螞蟻的腦內化學機制,啟動防衛模式,

  • them more likely to protect the acacia trees.

    提高螞蟻保護相思樹的機率。

  • 8.)

    第八名:蚤蠅

  • Phorid Flies Phorid flies are very tiny flies that love

    蚤蠅體型非常小,

  • to take over ants.

    喜歡在螞蟻體內寄生,

  • Over 20 species of Pseudacteon flies are known to take over fire ants in South America.

    目前已知超過二十種蚤蠅會寄生南美洲的火蟻,

  • As an adult they are about the size of an ant's head.

    成蟲體型相當於螞蟻頭部,

  • The female fly attacks the ant to insert anywhere from 100 to 300 of its eggs into its thorax.

    雌蠅會攻擊螞蟻,注射一百至三百個卵到螞蟻胸甲內,

  • Once the eggs hatch, the larvae move to the head of the ant, take over their minds and

    蚤蠅卵孵化後,幼蟲會移動到螞蟻頭部,

  • then pop off their head from the inside.

    控制螞蟻心智,使螞蟻把自己的頭拉斷,

  • This is why they are also called ant-decapitating flies.

    因此蚤蠅也稱為螞蟻砍頭蠅,

  • The larva keeps its host functioning and stays in the relative safety of the colony.

    幼蟲讓螞蟻身體持續運作,在蟻窩安然生存,

  • Then when the maggot is ready, it makes the ant leave the colony and die in a humid, cool

    幼蟲等到即將成熟,會使螞蟻離開窩巢,

  • place.

    在陰濕的地方死去。

  • It releases a chemical that dissolves the ant's membranes, causing the ant's head

    接著幼蟲會分泌化學物質分解螞蟻的薄膜,

  • to fall off.

    使螞蟻的頭斷裂,

  • The larva then begins to pupate inside the head, and when it's ready, a new ant-decapitating

    然後開始在螞蟻頭內部化蛹,

  • fly crawls out of the ant's mouth.

    成蟲會從螞蟻的嘴巴爬出,

  • Spooky right??

    很可怕對吧?

  • These flies are now being brought into the US to control the population of black and

    人們現在會把蚤蠅帶到美國,用來控制黑火蟻與紅火蟻的數量,

  • red fire ants that have started to invade and cause millions of dollars worth of damage

    這兩種螞蟻常常入侵農田,

  • to agriculture.

    已造成數百萬美元的農業損失。

  • So if you see a bunch of severed ants heads, you'll know why!!

    如果你下次看到一團螞蟻的斷頭,應該就知道原因何在。

  • And now for number 7 but first be sure you are subscribed before you leave.

    現在要介紹第七名,不過先提醒大家離開前記得訂閱我們的頻道,

  • We have lots of new videos coming up! 7.)

    我們之後會發很多影片。

  • The Alcon Blue Butterfly There is a beautiful parasitic butterfly which

    第七名寄生蟲是一種很漂亮的蝴蝶,

  • is known to fool ants.

    會誘騙螞蟻,

  • These butterflies are called the Alcon blue butterfly and before they turn into butterflies,

    這種蝴蝶稱為霾灰蝶,幼蟲變成蝴蝶前,

  • they manipulate ants into taking care of them.

    會操控螞蟻照顧自己,

  • They basically do this in the same way that the Toxoplasma Gondii parasite in mice fools

    牠們用的方法

  • cats.

    跟老鼠體內的弓形蟲誘騙貓如出一轍。

  • When the Alcon blue butterfly is still in the caterpillar stage, the caterpillar has

    霾灰蝶還是毛毛蟲時,外皮有一種氣味

  • a smell on its outer coat which attracts the ants to it.

    會吸引螞蟻過來,

  • The ants actuallytastethis smell when their antenna touches the coat of the butterfly.

    用觸角「聞聞看」毛毛蟲的外皮,

  • This smell can actually make the ants believe that the caterpillar is one of their own larvae.

    這種特殊氣味會讓螞蟻相信這是牠們的幼蟲,

  • The caterpillar is usually brought back to the ant colony where the ants are duped into

    受騙的螞蟻通常會把毛毛蟲帶回蟻窩餵養,

  • feeding the caterpillars more than they feed their own- probably because they are larger

    餵食量會比真正的螞蟻幼蟲還多,

  • and the ants think it is a super healthy larva of their own!

    可能是因為毛毛蟲體型大,螞蟻覺得是非常健康的螞蟻幼蟲!

  • The ants are now in an evolutionary race with this butterfly species as colonies that have

    現在螞蟻正和霾灰蝶以演化的方式比賽,

  • been duped have been changing their chemical signature so that it doesn't happen again.

    因為受騙的螞蟻群落會改變化學分泌,未來不會再被欺騙,

  • In the meantime, the caterpillar is changing its chemical signature to dupe other species

    同時霾灰蝶幼蟲也正逐漸改變自己的化學特徵,哄騙其他螞蟻物種

  • of ants to not deplete the population of host ants!

    讓螞蟻宿主不會滅絕。

  • 6.)

    第六:鐵線蟲與蚱蜢

  • Hairworms and Grasshoppers A parasite known as Spinochordodes Tellinii

    鐵線蟲又稱毛細線蟲

  • or more simply the hairworm, develops inside the grasshopper.

    在蚱蜢體內生長,

  • The worm then slowly begins to eat all the grasshopper's internal organs, leaving just

    牠會慢慢吃掉蚱蜢所有內臟,

  • the legs, head, and outer shell.

    只剩下腳、頭、和外殼,

  • The worm can grow to be much bigger than the grasshopper, about three to four times bigger!!

    鐵線蟲可以長到蚱蜢身長的三到四倍,

  • Once the parasite is fully grown, it has complete control over the grasshopper.

    成熟後就能徹底控制蚱蜢,

  • It then brainwashed its host into a death dive into a body of water, which is something

    會對蚱蜢洗腦,使牠潛到水裡,

  • the grasshopper would never do on its own.

    這是蚱蜢平常根本不會做的事,

  • From there, the worm can detach itself from the grasshopper and carry on with its adventures,

    鐵線蟲在水裡會脫離蚱蜢身體,繼續探險,

  • usually looking for a mate.

    通常是找伴侶交配,

  • Once the worm is no longer attached to the grasshopper, the grasshopper is left to drown

    鐵線蟲離開後,

  • and die in the waters.

    獨留蚱蜢在水裡淹死。

  • For years, scientists have researched how and why these hairworms are able to brainwash

    這幾年科學家持續研究鐵線蟲

  • the grasshoppers to basically commit suicide.

    使蚱蜢自殺的方法。

  • Through their studies, researchers believe that the worm produces proteins which affect

    經過研究,科學家後認為鐵線蟲會分泌一種蛋白質

  • the central nervous system of the grasshopper.

    改變蚱蜢的中樞神經系統。

  • 5.)

    第五:弓形蟲

  • Toxoplasma Gondii Toxoplasma Gondii is a parasite that can actually

    弓形蟲可以改變宿主行為,

  • change your behaviour and how you act, especially towards your cat.

    尤其是貓。

  • It is more commonly called Toxoplasmosis, which is the name of the infection Toxoplasma

    弓形蟲比較常被稱為弓蟲,

  • Gondii creates.

    是以感染宿主造成的弓蟲症命名,

  • Turns out that domestic cats are the only known definitive hosts where the parasite

    許多人熟知的家貓是唯一可以讓弓形蟲唯繁殖的宿主,

  • can reproduce and the CDC says that about 40 million people in the United States alone,

    疾病管制局說美國就有大概四千萬人

  • may be infected and not even know it!!

    可能已經無意間感染弓形蟲!

  • The parasite is found all over the world, but if you are a healthy adult there are almost

    弓形蟲分布全世界,但如果你身體健康,

  • no observable symptoms but you might really, really be attracted to cats.

    幾乎不會有明顯症狀,不過你可能會特別喜歡貓。

  • Studies have shown that rats and mice infected with Toxoplasmosis changed their behavior

    研究顯示感染弓形蟲的老鼠會改變行為,

  • and were no longer afraid of cats, making it easier for them to get eaten, and then

    不再害怕貓,因此更容易被貓吃掉,

  • the parasite could infect the cat and keep on spreading.

    弓形蟲就可藉此感染貓、持續散播,

  • Once the cat is infected, their behavior starts to change and they often show more symptoms

    貓被感染後,行為也會改變,

  • of the infection than any other warm-blooded animal or human.

    症狀通常比其他恆溫動物與人類還多,

  • For instance, they become depressed, which effects their mood and behavior.

    例如牠們會變得憂慮,影響情緒與行動,

  • On top of this, other symptoms of Toxoplasmosis are loss of appetite, vomiting, seizures,

    此外還會食慾不振、嘔吐、癲癇、

  • shortness of breath, muscle weakness, and they might even become partially or completely

    呼吸短促、肌肉無力,

  • paralyzed.

    甚至會局部或全身癱瘓,

  • More recently toxoplasmosis has been linked to severe neurological disorders such as schizophrenia

    最近的研究指出弓蟲症可能是造成嚴重神經失調的原因之ㄧ,

  • and bipolar disorder.

    例如精神分裂症與躁鬱症。

  • Also people with the infection are no longer grossed out by the smell of cat urine.

    感染弓形蟲的人聞到貓尿也不會作嘔,

  • You can catch toxoplasmosis by cleaning out a litterbox of an infected cat, eating contaminated

    感染弓蟲症可能的途徑包括清理被感染的貓砂、

  • meat or shellfish, accidentally ingesting contaminated soil (like if you don't wash

    吃受汙染的肉或貝類、意外吃進被污染的土壤 (例如在花園工作後沒有洗手、

  • your hands after gardening, or you eat unwashed vegetables), and from mother to child which

    吃沒有洗過的菜),若弓形蟲從母體傳染到小孩,

  • can cause severe birth defects.

    會造成嚴重的先天缺陷。

  • Like I said before, for healthy adults you could go your whole life and never show any

    我之前提過一般健康成人儘管感染弓形蟲,還是能安然走完一生,不會出現任何症狀,

  • symptoms but for people with weak immune systems and infants it can cause some serious illnesses.

    不過對於免疫系統較弱的人和嬰兒可能會造成嚴重疾病。

  • 4.)

    第四名:棘頭蟲。

  • Spiny-Headed Worm Like the Euhaplorchis Californiensis, the

    棘頭蟲跟加州吸蟲一樣

  • Acanthocephalans is a gut dwelling parasite.

    寄生於宿主的腸道,

  • More simply known as the thorny-headed or spiny-headed worm, the adult worm dwells in

    棘頭蟲又稱大鈎頭蟲,

  • the guts of a common bird known as the starling.

    成蟲寄生在歐掠鳥的腸道,

  • This worm can vary in length as it can be several millimeters and grow up to ten centimeters

    這種蟲長度不一,從幾毫米到十公分都有,

  • (almost four inches long).

    (幾乎是四英吋長),

  • Like other parasites, the worm lays its eggs inside the bird and those larvae travel out

    如同其他寄生蟲,棘頭蟲會在鳥的體內產卵,

  • through the bird's feces.

    幼蟲會隨著鳥糞排出,

  • From there, they look for innocent pill bugs (or roly polys) on the forest floor.

    在森林地表尋找毫無警戒的潮蟲 (又稱西瓜蟲),

  • When the pill bug eats the eggs unknowingly, the larvae from the spiny-headed worm starts

    如果潮蟲無意間吃進棘頭蟲卵,

  • taking over its body and eating the pill bug from the inside out.

    幼蟲會開始從內部控制和吃掉潮蟲身體,

  • Eventually, the worms begin to take over the pillbugs brain, and alter the brain's chemistry

    最後棘頭蟲會入侵潮蟲的腦,改變腦部化學機制,

  • to make them love light.

    讓牠們喜歡光,

  • Instead of hiding under rocks, which is normal behavior for a pill bug, the bug starts to

    正常的潮蟲喜歡躲在石頭下,

  • roam around out in the open.

    但被棘頭蟲控制的潮蟲會開始在戶外閒晃,

  • This makes the pill bug easily exposed for a bird to snatch up as food and once again,

    使得潮蟲暴露在被鳥捕食的危險,

  • the starling's sharp eye finds them and eats them and the cycle continues.

    歐掠鳥發現並吃掉潮蟲後,棘頭蟲又開始新的生命循環。

  • 3.)

    第三名:閹割藤壺。

  • Castrator Barnacles The castrator barnacles, more commonly known

    閹割藤壺又稱蟹奴,

  • as the Sacculina carcini, is a parasite that grows inside a crab.

    是一種生長在螃蟹體內的寄生蟲,

  • But as you can imagine, it's calledthe castratorfor a reason.

    但你可以想像,人們稱牠「閹割者」有一定原因,

  • The larva seek out unsuspecting crab and enters its shell from where it is the most vulnerable.

    蟹奴幼蟲會找毫無防備的螃蟹,從最脆弱的部位進入殼內,

  • It becomes a living syringe and attaches itself into the bloodstream.

    變成活體注射器,附著在血液裡,

  • The more the Sacculina grows, the more it takes control of the crab.

    蟹奴長越大,對螃蟹的控制就越多,

  • Soon, the crab no longer grows, molts, digests, or reproduces.

    過不了多久,螃蟹停止生長、脫皮、消化,也不再繁殖,

  • This is when the crab stops taking care of itself and starts taking care of the parasite

    牠轉而照顧蟹奴和牠的幼體

  • and any offspring.

    而非照顧自己,

  • All the crab's nourishments go into the Sacculina and its tendrils spread throughout

    螃蟹得到的所有營養都會進入蟹奴的身體,

  • the crab, taking over body and mind.

    蟹奴的根須延伸到螃蟹體內各處,控制螃蟹的身體和心智,

  • It castrates the crab making it no longer able to reproduce.

    並且對螃蟹去勢,使之無法繁殖,

  • The male crab's gonads shrink, its abdomen grows in order to carry the offspring of the

    雄蟹生殖腺萎縮,腹部會脹大,

  • Sacculina, and it stops developing its fighting claws.

    以承載蟹奴的後代,螯也會停止生長,

  • Once the eggs are ready to be released from the crab, the crab jumps up and down in the

    當蟹奴卵準備從螃蟹身體釋放出來,螃蟹會在水裡跳上跳下,

  • water, releasing the eggs, and then stirs the eggs around with its claws so the eggs

    釋放出蟹奴卵,用螯不停攪動,

  • can find their own host.

    讓蟹奴卵可以找到未來的宿主,

  • These body snatchers affect beyond their hosts and are affecting the rest of the environment.

    這些身體掠奪者不僅影響宿主,也會影響周圍環境。

  • 2.)

    第二名:寄生蜂

  • Glyptapanteles Wasp The Glyptapanteles is a genus of wasp that

    寄生蜂是一種

  • turn caterpillars into zombies.

    可以把毛毛蟲變成殭屍的黃蜂,

  • The female wasps inject their eggs into caterpillars which are already alive and well.

    母蜂會把卵產在健康的活毛毛蟲體內,

  • From there, the eggs hatch and the larvae start to grow.

    卵在毛毛蟲體內孵化、幼蟲開始生長,

  • As they are growing, they slowly start taking over the caterpillar, feeding on its fluids

    在這過程中他們會逐漸開始控制毛蟲,以毛蟲的體液維生,

  • and taking over its mind to turn it into a bodyguard that protects them.

    並且操縱毛蟲大腦,讓毛蟲變成自己的保鑣,

  • The caterpillar slowly starves to death as the larvae continue to grow.

    寄生蜂幼蟲持續生長,但毛毛蟲會漸漸餓死,

  • When they are ready, the larvae mature and gnaw their way out of its skin en masse!!

    幼蟲即將成熟時,會一起咬破毛蟲的皮膚跑出來!

  • It is then the caterpillar dies and the wasps go on to find a new caterpillar to use as

    毛蟲會因此死亡、而成蜂會尋找另一隻毛毛蟲

  • the host for their eggs.

    當牠們卵的宿主。

  • In recent years, scientists have brought this life cycle into their labs for study.

    科學家最近已經將寄生蜂的生命歷程帶進實驗室研究,

  • Through this research we have learned that they can greatly boost their chances of survival

    發現寄生蜂在毛蟲體內寄生可以增加存活率,

  • compared to other wasps.

    比其他種黃蜂多很多,

  • But geez, these guys are hard core.

    這些傢伙也太厲害了!

  • 1.)

    第一名:半機械甲蟲

  • Cyborg Beetle Scientists from two different universities

    來自兩個大學的科學家

  • have used biology to create robots that can match the agility and efficiency of animals.

    利用生物原理製作敏捷度與效能堪比真實動物的機器,

  • The Cyborg Beetle is a little biobot that can be used for search and rescue missions

    半機械甲蟲可以用於搜救任務

  • and as a spying tool.

    或做成監視工具,

  • Researchers from the University of California, Berkley and Nanyang Technical University in

    加州、柏克萊大學與新加坡南洋理工學院的科學家在實驗中

  • Singapore attached a backpack to a giant flower beetle.

    在一隻體型龐大的花甲蟲裝一個晶片包,

  • This beetle is native to Africa and is about 2 inches long.

    這種甲蟲是非洲原生種,大約兩英吋長。

  • They are controlled through electrical stimulation, which tells the beetle's muscles when to

    科學家用電擊控制甲蟲的

  • move.

    肌肉移動,

  • First, there are electrodes inserted at certain parts of the beetle's legs, flight muscles,

    甲蟲腳、飛行肌與視神經葉的一部分

  • and optic lobes.

    會被插入電極,

  • These electrodes are connected to the microchip backpacks, which are attached to the beetles

    這些電極會連到

  • using organic beeswax.

    用有機蜜蠟附在甲蟲身上的晶片包,

  • Then, the scientists use a remote control to stimulate the muscles and make the beetle

    接著科學家會遠端操控,刺激甲蟲肌肉,

  • take off, change direction during flight, or hover.

    使甲蟲起飛、改變飛行方向、或盤旋,

  • The first remote-controlled beetle was created in 2009, and since then scientists have continued

    第一隻遠端操控的半機械甲蟲誕生於 2009 年,

  • to expand on the idea of Cyborg beetles.

    從那時起,科學家便持續延伸半機械甲蟲的想法,

  • Beetles are sturdy and can carry a heavy load including electronic sensors, microphones,

    甲蟲很強壯,可以背各種沉重裝置,例如電子感測器、麥克風、

  • thermal sensors, all kinds of things.

    熱感測器等等,

  • Researchers argue that these beetles would be cheaper and perform better than mechanical

    研究員主張使用甲蟲成本不高,

  • drones.

    表現比無人機還要好

  • Now, these animal-computer hybrid robots will start to include dragonflies and cockroaches.

    現在這種半機械動物的製作將會擴展到蜻蜓與蟑螂,

  • Cyborg beetles and could help us explore areas not accessible before, such as collapsed buildings

    半機械甲蟲可以讓我們探索人類到不了的地方,

  • and all kinds of other things.

    像是倒塌的建築物內部等等。

  • Thanks for watching!!!

    謝謝觀看!

  • Hope this didn't scare you too much!!

    希望你不會覺得太可怕,

  • See nature, is scarier than Game of Thrones sometimes!!

    大自然有時可是比權力遊戲還可怕的!

  • Remember to subscribe, and I'll see you next time!

    別忘了訂閱我們的頻道。下回見!

From parasites that pop ant's heads off, to making animal-computer-hybrid robots, here

砍斷螞蟻的頭、製造半機械動物,

字幕與單字

影片操作 你可以在這邊進行「影片」的調整,以及「字幕」的顯示

B2 中高級 中文 美國腔 螞蟻 幼蟲 蚱蜢 甲蟲 宿主 毛毛蟲

自然界中最瘋狂的精神控制案例! (CRAZIEST Cases Of MIND CONTROL In Nature!)

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    陳明頤 發佈於 2021 年 01 月 14 日
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