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  • Certain things spring to mind when you think about prison...

    當你想到監獄,腦中會出現某個畫面...

  • Barbed wire, tiny jail cells, bars everywhere.

    有刺的鐵絲網、狹窄的牢房以及到處可見的鐵柵欄。

  • Well, not in Norway.

    嗯,挪威的監獄並非如此。

  • This is Halden prison, and it's the second-largest maximum security prison in Norway.

    這是哈爾登監獄,是挪威第二大擁有最高安全級別的監獄。

  • And it looks more like a resort than anything else.

    它看起來就像是座度假中心。

  • But at 20%, Norway's recidivism rate is the lowest in Scandinavia, and one of the lowest in the world.

    挪威的累犯率為 20%,是斯堪地納維亞半島國家中最低的,也是全球最低累犯率之一。

  • This is how Norway changed how we think about incarceration.

    這就是挪威如何改變了大眾對於監禁的印象和想法。

  • While Norway's two year recidivism rate is the lowest in the world, America's is one of the highest.

    挪威的兩年累犯率是全球最低,累犯率最高的則是美國。

  • A 2014 study found 67 percent of American prisoners released in 30 states were re-arrested for a crime within three years, and 75 percent were re-arrested within five years.

    一份 2014 年的研究指出,在美國三十個州的囚犯有百分之六十七於三年內都因再犯而又被抓進監獄,而百分之七十五的囚犯會在五年內再次被捕。

  • While it is tough to make direct comparisons, Norway is doing something right when it comes to incarceration.

    雖然這兩者之間難以直接做比較,不過不得不承認挪威在監禁這方面的確做得很好。

  • And it may come down to a fundamental difference in philosophy of what a prison should be.

    而監獄應該要是什麼樣子的這件事也許可以歸結到哲學上的一個根本差異。

  • Norway banned capital punishment in 1905.

    挪威於 1905 年廢除死刑。

  • 80 years later, they did away with life sentences.

    八十年後,他們也廢除了無期徒刑。

  • And in 2007, a shift in thought: a focus on "restorative justice," emphasizing rehabilitation and normality over punishment.

    而在 2007 年,思想發生了轉變:將重點放在「修復式正義」,與其懲罰囚犯,不如著重在教育改造他們。

  • What that means is when a prisoner is sentenced in Norway, the only thing they lose is their freedom, which is symbolized by these large prison walls.

    也就是說在挪威,當一名犯人被宣判罪刑時,他們會失去的唯一東西就是自由,而這些監獄高牆所象徵的就是此事。

  • Norway has two of what have been called "The Most Humane Prisons In The World."

    挪威目前擁有兩座號稱「全世界最人道的監獄」。

  • One of them is Halden Prison, where prisoners can garden, learn to cook, and tend to animals.

    其中一座就是哈爾登監獄,犯人可以在裡面從事園藝活動、精進廚藝,甚至飼養寵物。

  • They can also take vocational classes and prepare themselves for the outside world after they are released.

    監獄還提供就職訓練課程,好讓囚犯們出獄之後能夠適應外面的世界。

  • Halden holds 251 of its worst criminals, which includes rapists, murderers, and pedophiles.

    哈爾登監獄裡監禁了 251 名重罪犯,包括了強姦、謀殺和戀童癖的罪行。

  • In America, these criminals would be punished severely, kept in a small cell for most of the day with minimal time outdoors with all of their rights stripped.

    在美國,這些重罪犯會被嚴厲懲罰,他們會被關進狹小的牢房,只有極少數的時間可以出外透透氣,而且所有的權利都會被剝奪。

  • The phrase "Don't do the crime if you can't do the time" applies here.

    「你必須為自己所犯下的罪付出代價」這句警語就適用於這裡。

  • Retribution must be swift and sure for those who decide to make a career of preying on the innocent.

    針對那些決定長期進行傷害無辜者的人,嚴懲必須迅速且確實。

  • America's decades-long war on crime has resulted in 159,000 people currently serving life prison sentences.

    美國長達數十年的反犯罪戰爭已導致159,000人目前被判無期徒刑。

  • But in Norway, almost all prisoners are released.

    但是反觀挪威,幾乎所有的囚犯最終都會被釋放。

  • The maximum sentence is 21 years.

    最長的刑期頂多也只有 21 年而已。

  • At the end of the term, 5 year increments can be added indefinitely if it's assessed that the prisoner has not been rehabilitated.

    不過刑滿後,若當局仍認定該嫌犯尚未被教化,還是可以以五年為單位,無限期延長刑期。

  • Even the worst offenders, like Anders Brievik, who murdered 77 people in one of the worst massacres in history, is currently serving a 21 year sentence.

    即便重罪犯 Anders Brievik 曾殺了 77 人,是挪威有史以來最嚴重的大屠殺,也只被宣判 21 年的刑期。

  • Norway also supports prisoners after they are released: they're provided housing, employment, health care, and addiction treatment.

    囚犯被釋放之後,挪威政府仍會在居住、就業、醫療和成癮治療等方面協助他們。

  • All of this does not come cheap.

    當然,這一切的成本相當高。

  • Halden prison spends more than $93,000 per inmate per year, compared with just $31,000 on average for prisoners in the United States.

    哈爾登監獄每年平均花在一名囚犯上的錢超過了 93,000 美元,相較之下,美國則只需要花 31,000 美元。

  • But Norway incarcerates far fewer of their population.

    不過,挪威的囚犯佔全國人口的比例相當低。

  • As of 2014, just 0.08% of Norway's population was behind bars.

    好比 2014 年,只有 0.08% 的人正在服刑而已。

  • That's 75 per 100,000 people.

    也就是說十萬位挪威人當中,只有七十五名囚犯。

  • In the U.S., it's 707 for every 100,000 people or 0.7 percent.

    在美國,十萬人當中,有 707 位名囚犯,囚犯佔人口比為 0.7%。

  • And if the United States had the same rate of incarceration as Norway, it could spend as much as Norway does per inmate and still save more than $45 billion a year.

    假如美國囚犯比率和挪威一樣低,且在每個囚犯身上花的錢跟挪威一樣高,則美國政府每年還是可以省下約四百五十億美金。

  • That's the budget for the entire Department of Homeland Security.

    省下的錢都足以作為美國國土安全部的年度預算。

  • No matter how many numbers are crunched on comparing recidivism rates, or thoughts on punishment versus rehabilitation, it comes down to how society views its prisoners.

    不管在比較累犯率方面進行多少複雜的分析,或思考到底該重視懲罰還是改造教育,最終的問題都會回到整體社會是怎麼看待囚犯本身。

  • Nelson Mandela said "It is said that no one truly knows a nation until one has been inside its jails."

    Nelson Mandela 曾說過:「據說沒進過一個國家的監獄,就無法真正了解這個國家。」

  • "A nation should not be judged by how it treats its highest citizens, but by its lowest ones."

    「我們應該要著重於一個國家是如何對待社會地位較低的公民,而非高階公民。」

  • If that's the case, Norway should be applauded for its humanity.

    如果社會普遍價值是如此,那麼挪威在人道價值這方面是值得被讚賞。

Certain things spring to mind when you think about prison...

當你想到監獄,腦中會出現某個畫面...

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挪威把監獄變渡假村竟使犯罪率大減!原因是? (How Norway Reinvented Prison)

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    Annie Chien 發佈於 2019 年 12 月 15 日
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