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  • The year was 1776.

    那是 1776 年。

  • In Bavaria, new ideals of rationalism, religious freedom, and universal human rights, competed with the Catholic church's heavy influence over public affairs.


  • Across the Atlantic, a new nation staked its claim for independence on the basis of these ideas.


  • But back in Bavaria, law professor Adam Weishaupt's attempts to teach secular philosophy continued to be frustrated.

    但回到巴伐利亞,法學教授 Adam Weishaupt 在試圖教授世俗哲學時屢受挫折。

  • Weishaupt decided to spread his ideas through a secret society that would shine a light on the shortcomings of the Church's ideology.

    Weishaupt 決定透過一個祕密的社群傳播自己的想法,藉以揭露教會意識形態的缺陷之處。

  • He called his secret society the Illuminati.


  • Weishaupt modelled aspects of his secret society off a group called the Freemasons.

    Weishaupt 的秘密社群是以共濟會為範本開始的。

  • Originally an elite stone-workers' guild in the late Middle Ages, the Freemasons had gone from passing down the craft of masonry to more generally promoting ideals of knowledge and reason.


  • Over time, they had grown into a semi-secret, exclusive order that included many wealthy and influential individuals with elaborate, secret initiation rituals.


  • Weishaupt created his parallel society while also joining the Freemasons and recruiting from their ranks.

    Weishaupt 加入共濟會的同時也創造了屬於他自己的平行社群,並從共濟會的高層中招募會員。

  • He adopted the code name Spartacus for himself, after the famed leader of the Roman slave revolt.

    他採用了古羅馬時著名的奴隸起義領袖的名字,也就是 Spartacus 作為自己的代號。

  • Early members became the Illuminati's ruling council, or Areopagus.

    早期的成員就成了光明會的裁決委員會,又叫做 Areopagus。

  • One of these members, Baron Adolph Knigge, was also a Freemason, and became an influential recruiter.

    其中的一位成員 Baron Adolph Knigge 他也同時是一個共濟會會員,成了一個富有影響力的招募者。

  • With Knigge's help, the Illuminati expanded their numbers, gained influence within several Masonic chapters, and incorporated Masonic rituals.

    藉由 Knigge 的幫助,光明會開始擴張會員規模、在幾個共濟會的地方分會擴展影響力、並融入了一些共濟會的儀式。

  • By 1784, there were over 600 members, including influential scholars and politicians.

    在 1784 年,光明會有超過 600 個會員,包括了具有影響力的學者與政治家。

  • As the Illuminati gained members, the American Revolution also gained momentum.


  • Thomas Jefferson would later cite Weishaupt as an inspiration.

    Thomas Jefferson 接下來就會引用 Weishaupt 的話作為啟發。

  • European monarchs and clergy were fearful of similar revolts on their home soil.


  • Meanwhile, the existence of the Illuminati had become an open secret.


  • Both the Illuminati and the Freemasons drew exclusively from society's wealthy elite, which meant they were constantly rubbing shoulders with members of the religious and political establishment.


  • Many in the government and church believed that both groups were determined to undermine the people's religious faith.


  • But these groups didn't necessarily oppose religion; they just believed it should be kept separate from governance.


  • Still, the suspicious Bavarian government started keeping records of alleged members of the Illuminati.


  • Just as Illuminati members began to secure important positions in local governments and universities, a 1784 decree by Duke Karl Theodor of Bavaria banned all secret societies.

    就在光明會成員開始在政府和大學裡取得重要位置時,巴伐利亞的 Weishaupt 在 1784 年禁止所有秘密集會與社團。

  • While a public ban on something ostensibly secret might seem difficult to enforce, in this case it worked.


  • Only nine years after its founding, the group dissolved.


  • Their records were seized, and Weishaupt forced into exile.

    他們的文件檔案被沒收,而 Weishaupt 也被迫逃亡。

  • The Illuminati would become more notorious in their afterlife than they had ever been in their brief existence.


  • A decade later, in the aftermath of the French Revolution, conservative authors claimed the Illuminati had survived their banishment and orchestrated the overthrow of the monarchy.


  • In the United States, preacher Jedidiah Morse promoted similar ideas of an Illuminati conspiracy against the government.

    在美國,傳教士 Jedidiah Morse 也宣揚了有關光明會對抗政府的陰謀。

  • But though the idea of a secret group orchestrating political upheaval is still alive and well today, there is no evidence that the Illuminati survived, reformed, or went underground.


  • Their brief tenure is well-documented in Bavarian government records, the still-active Freemasons' records, and particularly the overlap between these two sources, without a whisper since.


  • In the spirit of rationalism the Illuminati embraced, one must conclude they no longer exist.


  • But the ideas that spurred Weishaupt to found the Illuminati still spread, becoming the basis for many Western governments today.

    但是刺激 Weishaupt 創立光明會的概念仍到處流傳,也成為當今許多西方政府的基礎。

  • These ideas didn't start or end with the Illuminati.


  • Instead, it was one community that represented a wave of change that was already underway when it was founded and continued long after it ended.


The year was 1776.

那是 1776 年。

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【TED-Ed】光明會竟然真的存在?! (Are the illuminati real? - Chip Berlet)

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    Lian 發佈於 2020 年 01 月 09 日