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  • I'm Keith Cohen.

    我是 Keith Cohen。

  • I'm the owner of Orwashers Bakery.

    我是 Orwashers 烘焙坊的老闆。

  • We're in one of New York City's oldest and most iconic food establishments.

    我們是紐約最有歷史、最具代表性的店家之一。

  • And this is how we make our croissants.

    而以下是我們製作可頌的方法。

  • I wanna take this opportunity to introduce Youssouf.

    我要藉機介紹一下 Youssouf。

  • He is our croissant master.

    他是我們的可頌大師。

  • Here in our giant mixer, we are gonna add flour, milk, salt, sugar, milk powder.

    在大型攪拌器裡,我們要加入麵粉、牛奶、鹽、糖與奶粉。

  • He adds milk powder because it adds -- it's dehydrated, so it acts more as a solid.

    加奶粉是因為它是脫水過的,所以可以當成固體來使用。

  • When we first met Youssouf, we tasted his croissant, so, when you look at it and you taste it, you don't change his recipe.

    第一次與 Youssouf 相遇時,嚐了他做的可頌,外表與味道都無懈可擊,完全不必更改食譜。

  • Yeast, water.

    酵母,水。

  • Ice water is very important, especially during the summer.

    冰水非常重要,尤其是夏天的時候。

  • It brings the mix temperature down.

    它能降低混合料的溫度。

  • So you don't want too hot of a dough because what's gonna happen is, A, the dough is gonna proof, but more importantly, your butter is gonna start to break down.

    你不會想要麵團太熱,因為第一點,麵團會發酵,再來,奶油會被分解。

  • And finally, butter.

    最後,奶油。

  • We source our butter from France.

    我們都用來自法國的奶油。

  • Every country has their own terroir.

    每個國家都有自己的「特產」。

  • Because butter is so integral to the taste of the croissant, we felt it necessary.

    因為奶油會融入可頌的口感裡,所以用好的奶油是必要的。

  • Once the dough is mixed, we wanna be able to pull it out and chunk it into six-kilo increments.

    當混合好麵團後,我們會把它拿出來,以六公斤為單位切成小塊。

  • Much like a lot what we do here, there's a resting period.

    就像現在所做的,我們會靜置麵團。

  • Pre-shape gives strength.

    預先塑形可以增加筋度。

  • It's one of the critical things -- almost like bread -- is you have to give strength to your dough.

    這很重要,就跟做麵包一樣,你得讓麵團有筋度。

  • In order to pre-shape it, you wanna make sure you're gentle with the dough, and you wanna fold it under itself without damaging it too much.

    為了預先塑形,確保你溫柔對待麵團,折疊時不要傷害到麵團本身。

  • That dough has to have that stretch and that shine.

    讓麵團有延展性及光澤是很重要的。

  • When we talk about letting the dough proof or rest, you'll also see about a doubling in the size of the volume.

    當談到發酵或靜置,你會看到麵團體積變大兩倍。

  • You're gonna punch the dough down after it's doubled in size.

    變大兩倍後,你得再把它壓平。

  • It's gonna give it a time to deflate, you'll take a little bit out of the gas.

    這可以給麵團一些時間「放氣」,讓一些氣體離開。

  • It will tighten up on you a little bit, and it'll be ready for the freezing process.

    它會變得比較緊實,這時候就可以冷凍了。

  • During the freezing process, because we're not doing blast freezing, the dough is still fermenting, which is also very important.

    因為我們並非使用強風冷凍,因此麵團在冷凍時依然會發酵,這非常重要。

  • One of the keys to croissants are, there's not only butter in the dough, but there's butter that gets laminated into the dough.

    製作可頌的關鍵不只是讓麵團中含有奶油,而是讓奶油一層一層融進麵團中。

  • So you're putting dough with butter sandwiched, and then you are passing it through a sheeter, which stretches out the dough and makes it a little bit thinner.

    所以在麵團中夾入奶油,然後放入延壓機,讓麵團伸展變薄。

  • Again, what you're looking for is that layered effect.

    再強調一次,要追求的是層層堆疊的效果。

  • The way you're able to do that is through folding the dough again and turning it, so it becomes exponential.

    製作方法就是不斷折疊、翻轉麵團,讓它能夠指數成長。

  • Don't hold me to my math, but once you have four layers, your next set, you will probably have somewhere around 16 layers.

    我數學不好,但你有四層後,你再完成一次,就會得到十六層左右。

  • And the sign of a good croissant is you should be able to see the laminates.

    而一個好可頌,就應該要能看到層次。

  • Once it's finalized sheeting, it's now ready for cutting.

    延壓好麵團後,就可以裁切了。

  • So we have to have a 10 foot table now so we can lay out the entire sheet.

    我們需要一張十呎長的桌子,才能打開整張麵團。

  • And again, it is about the timing, so we're able to cut it quickly.

    時機很重要,所以我們得快速裁切。

  • After it gets cut into strips, it now has to be cut on the angle so you can get that beautiful triangle.

    切成現條狀後,再從對角線切,如此就能得到美麗的三角形。

  • The shape of our croissants aren't crescent, they are oblong.

    我們的可頌不是弦月形的,而是橢圓形的。

  • Youssouf has developed, I believe it's somewhat his own technique of taking the croissant and giving it a little bit of a stretch.

    Youssouf 發展出了他自己的技術,在揉可頌時他會稍微再延展一下。

  • And with each little stretch or each little pat that you see it does, it gives a little bit extra, so you get an extra roll, and at the same time it gives it a little bit more strength.

    每個你看到的延展與輕拍,都能讓麵團再變長一些,所以就能再捲一次,同時給予它更大的筋性。

  • So in addition to our regular croissant, we do a pain au chocolat.

    除了一般可頌,我們還有巧克力可頌。

  • It's a little bit easier to roll, but again, there is a technique, the way we use the chocolate batons and making sure that it's rolled tight enough so they don't melt when they're baked.

    這比較好捲一點,但這也有技術,我們使用巧克力棒,並確保捲得緊實,這樣才不會在烤的時候融化了。

  • Once again here, temperature's working against us.

    一樣地,溫度在跟我們作對。

  • Once we're done rolling for a particular sheet, whether it's a plain croissant or a pain au chocolat, we're going to put it right back in the freezer.

    捲好麵團時,不論是一般可頌,或是巧克力可頌,我們都會馬上放回冷凍庫。

  • The proofing stage is a highly critical stage for croissants.

    發酵階段對可頌非常重要。

  • Things that get overproofed could have a tendency to collapse in the oven, and/or one of the key indicators is the butter coming out of the product.

    若過度發酵,可頌可能會在烤箱裡塌陷,且奶油可能會流出來。

  • The egg wash gives a nice shine to it, it's more aesthetics.

    刷上蛋汁能增添光澤,讓它更有美感。

  • We bake our croissants off at 350 degrees in a convection oven.

    我們以對流式烤箱,將溫度設定於 350 度來烘烤可頌。

  • What's happening now, now that the heat is starting to bake the croissant, again.

    現在,熱氣正在烘烤可頌。

  • You are getting some oven spring to it, you are developing that beautiful honeycomb interior, the butter is starting to melt throughout the product,

    你會看到一點烘焙漲力,那就是可頌在組成蜂巢狀內裡的過程,奶油會開始融化。

  • Not completely out of the product, but into the product itself, and again, through the Maillard reaction, you're getting a beautiful, crisp crust to it.

    奶油不會融化出可頌,而是融入可頌,經過梅納反應後,就能得到一個美麗、酥脆的可頌了。

  • Best time to enjoy a croissant is when it's room temperature.

    享受可頌的最好時間就是當它冷卻到室溫時。

  • You're allowing the butter to get reabsorbed into it and allow some of the gas to escape.

    這可以讓可頌重新吸收奶油,並且讓一些氣體流出。

  • It's very important to achieve all your full flavors after the product reaches room temperature.

    室溫是讓整個可頌到味的關鍵。

  • When you cut it open, you will see this beautiful honeycomb interior, and that is really one of the keys to a great croissant.

    當你切開它,你會看到美麗的蜂巢狀內裡,這也是一個好可頌的特質。

  • On a well-baked croissant, you should have a beautiful crackle to the crust.

    若一個可頌烤得好,外皮會非常酥脆。

  • And you should have a soft and supple interior, and the butter, if it's high-quality, should taste very, very neutral.

    可頌的內裡應該要非常鬆軟,若使用高品質的奶油,嚐起來應該要很和諧。

  • To me, croissants are the epitome of French baking.

    對我而言,可頌就是法式烘焙的經典。

  • And that is how croissants are made.

    這就是如何製作可頌的方法。

I'm Keith Cohen.

我是 Keith Cohen。

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B2 中高級 中文 美國腔 可頌 麵團 奶油 發酵 冷凍 折疊

紐約可頌大師教你怎麼做出美味可頌! (How Croissants Are Made•Tasty)

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    Mackenzie 發佈於 2019 年 12 月 27 日
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