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  • My name is Indy Neidell and this channelThe Great Waris going to cover the first world war,

    我的名字是 Indy Neidell而 偉大的戰爭這頻道是要在100年後的現在按一週週的次序

  • week by week, as it unfolded 100 years later. From today until November 2018,

    全面的介紹一次世界大戰。 由即日起至2018年11月止。

  • so you can really get a sense of just what happened as it happened. The active weeks, the passive weeks,

    所以你更能隨著各事件的發生去了解它們(事件)。 (戰事)動態的星期、(戰事)被動的星期、

  • the weeks of carnage and the weeks of hopewe'll follow them all one by one.

    死傷慘重的星期和充滿希望的星期 我們將一個接一個跟隨各週進行介紹。

  • And we've made a couple of special episodes about the prelude to war so you can get some

    我們已經做了幾個有關大戰的序幕的特輯, 所以你可以了解

  • idea of all of the forces in motion. We've also made an episode about the assassination

    有關各勢力的動態。 我們也已經做了一個有關大公和他的妻子

  • of the archduke and his wife as it was one of the pivotal

    暗殺事件的特別節目, 因為它是歷史的關鍵時刻之一

  • moments in our history. All three of these episodes will come out in the next few days.

    這三集皆將於未來幾天撥出。

  • 100 years ago today, on July 28th, 1914, the empire of Austria-Hungary declared

    在100年前的今天也就是1914年7月28日 奧匈帝國對

  • war on the Kingdom of Serbia. Now, as you are probably aware, this snowballed within days into the

    塞爾維亞王國宣戰。 正如你所知,這事件將於幾天內越滾越大

  • First World War.

    導致第一次世界大戰的發生。

  • Now people often talk of theblank check” – when Kaiser Wilhelm said on July 5th, 1914

    如同現在人們經常談論的「空頭支票」— 威廉皇帝於1914年7月5日表示

  • that he would unconditionally support Austria in whatever actions she took against Serbia,

    會無條件支持奧地利對塞爾維亞的任何敵對行為,

  • and this is seen as the main argument for Germany's responsibility for the war, but

    這被看作是德國得為一戰負責的主要論點,

  • this is a little too simple.

    雖然這論點有點太簡化了。

  • In the days following the assassination of the Austrian Archduke Franz Ferdinand in Sarajevo

    在奧地利的斐迪南大公在塞拉耶佛 被塞爾維亞人加夫里洛·普林西普

  • by the Serb Gavrilo Princip, there were anti-Serbian riots and demonstrations in much of Bosnia

    暗殺事件後的幾天, 波士尼亞出現了很多的反塞爾維亞的暴動和示威

  • and official dispatches to Vienna that there was Serbian complicity in the plot, but general

    而官方給維也納的資料是 「有塞爾維亞人同謀犯案」,但一般

  • European reactions to the killings were quite mild. Austria, however, had big ideas, many

    歐洲人對於該事件的的反應是相當平靜。 然而奧地利卻有個更大的想法,

  • of them coming from Army Chief of Staff Conrad vontzendorf. And I love that name.

    這些(想法)來自於陸軍參謀長康拉德·馮·赫岑多夫。而且我喜歡這個名字。

  • Conrad was a vehement imperialist for Austria and Austrian greatness. He's also

    康拉德是強烈支持奧地利及其偉大事蹟的帝國主義者。

  • been described as beingthe most dangerous kind of officer...both stupid and intensely energetic."

    他也被形容為 「最危險的將官...既愚蠢又強烈精力充沛」

  • There you have it.

    這樣你應該了解了。

  • In fact, in the year and a half before today, 1914, he asked his government

    事實上1914年的今日的一年半前之內, 他要求政府

  • to go to war no less than 26 times. And it's very important to note here that his main

    打仗超過26次。 而政治上平衡他的主要人物

  • counterweight, the man who repeatedly urged emperor Franz Josef against war with Russia

    也就是多次敦促皇帝法蘭茲·約瑟夫 反對與俄羅斯的戰爭

  • or war with Serbia, not to listen to Conrad, was Archduke Franz Ferdinand, now deceased.

    或與塞爾維亞的戰爭 並且不要聽從康拉德的人是斐迪南大公,現已去世。

  • The assassination was, to Conrad, a heaven sent means to curb Serbian power and ambition.

    而該暗殺對康拉德來說是個上天派來 遏制塞爾維亞的實力和雄心的手段。

  • Now to understand the next few weeks we really need to look a bit at both Germany and Russia

    為了理解接下來幾週發生的事件, 我們需要來看一下德國和俄羅斯

  • In 1912, the Kaiser had told army chief of staff von Moltke and Grand Admiral

    1912年德皇曾告訴 陸軍參謀長馮·毛奇和海軍元帥

  • von Tirpitz thatAustria had to act vigorously against the foreign Slavs... If Russia were

    馮·鐵必制說:「奧地利要積極的對抗 國外的斯拉夫人...如果俄羅斯人

  • to support the Serbs war would be inevitable for us.”

    支持塞爾維亞人, 對我們來說戰爭將是不可避免的。」

  • Although we think of pre-war Russia today as a backwater,

    雖然現在很多人認為 戰前的俄羅斯沒有啥動靜,

  • this was not really the case. Russia had become the world's fourth largest economy by 1914.

    但其實並非如此。 1914年俄羅斯已成為世界第四大的經濟體。

  • Okay! Shortage of money had always meant before that she had never been able to build and

    之前的資金短缺一直 讓她從來沒有能像德國一樣

  • equip her army like the Germans could, but more importantly, her railways. By 1914, though,

    組織和裝備自己的軍隊, 更不用說很重要的鐵路。1914年

  • Russian currency was on the gold standard and the railroads were booming and Russia

    俄羅斯貨幣在黃金本位,鐵路也有蓬勃發展

  • would be able to easily and quickly defend her borders in only a few years.

    僅僅幾年俄羅斯將能夠便捷地捍衛她的邊界。

  • Now this was a big fear in the German high commandsince Russia obviously had the manpower advantage,

    這對德國的最高統帥部是個極大的恐懼 - 因為俄羅斯顯然有人力優勢,

  • once her railways were a match for Germany, well... German Chancellor von Bethman Hollweg's

    等到她的鐵路足以匹敵德國時, 嗯…德國總理馮·貝特曼·霍爾維格

  • diary from July 7th tells us these thoughts: that Russia had become a nightmare, and that

    7月7日的日記寫出了這些想法: 俄羅斯已成為一個夢魘,

  • the German generals say there must be a war before it was too late. By 1917, Germany

    而德國將軍們說戰爭必須在那之前發生。 1917年德國是沒有希望的,

  • has no hope, so better 1914.

    所以1914年是更好的選擇。

  • As an aside herethis was the opinion of the generals and some government

    順帶一提 - 這是將軍和一些政府領導階層

  • leaders but it was not the opinion of the German people at large.

    的意見而非多數德國平民的想法。

  • You see Germany had the largest population of socialists in Europe and they and others comprised

    德國有人口中大部分是歐洲社會主義者, 他們和其他人組成

  • a big anti-war segment of society.

    了一個巨大的反戰群體。

  • So the Kaiser wrote on June 30, “the Serbs must

    所以德皇於6月30日寫道「必須處理

  • be disposed of, and right soon!” and he did pledge German support for Austria, and

    塞爾維亞人,而且要快!」 他並承諾德國對奧地利的支持,

  • he did tell the Austrian ambassador on July 5th that should war between Austria-Hungary

    7月5日時他也告訴奧地利大使 假使奧匈帝國與俄羅斯之間的

  • and Russia prove unavoidable, Germany would be at Austria's side. HOWEVER, and this

    戰爭確信無可避免, 則德國將站在奧地利的那邊。

  • is really important, he also told his chancellor that he did not think there was a real prospect

    但另一方面他竟然告訴他的首相 他不認為戰爭會立即發生

  • of warthat Russia was not close to being ready.

    —俄羅斯還沒準備好。這是一個重大事件。

  • The next day, he went on his annual three-week vacation cruise to Norway, which is kind of

    隔天他就出發進行每年為期三週 挪威巡航假期

  • not what you'd do if you were basically the most powerful man in the world and you

    而這並不像手握大權者在重大戰事前

  • were about to go to a major war, so in spite of it all, a world war was not on the Kaiser's mind.

    會做的事,所以這表示 德皇從沒想過世界大戰的可能。

  • So on July 7th, the Austro-Hungarian cabinet met to discuss Serbia, and they were

    7月7日時奧匈帝國 內閣開會討論塞爾維亞相關議題,

  • for a war to reduce Serbia's size and make her dependent on Austria.

    而他們支持戰爭以減少塞爾維亞的領土, 並使其更依賴奧地利。

  • On July 13th, a secret report reached Vienna from Sarajevo that there was zero evidence

    7月13日維也納從塞拉耶佛得到一個密報, 提到並無證據表明

  • the Serbian government had anything to do with the assassination. Now, this didn't really

    塞爾維亞政府與暗殺事件有任何關聯。 但這並沒有造成

  • change anything, but THIS did:

    什麼改變。 但另一事件則相反:

  • Franz Josef finally became convinced that Austria could take action against Serbia

    法蘭茲·約瑟夫終於開始相信 奧地利可以在不受到其他權力的干擾下

  • without other powers interfering, so he agreed to issue an ultimatum. The terms of the ultimatum

    對塞爾維亞採取行動, 所以他同意發出最後通牒。這最後通牒的條款

  • were finalized on July 19th. It had a total of 15 demands and it linked the Belgrade government

    於7月19日定稿。 其包含15要求並將在無證據的情況下將

  • with the assassination, even without evidence.

    貝爾格勒(塞爾維亞)政府 與暗殺事件連在一起。

  • Now, you can look up the demands yourself, but here are a couple that really stick out:

    你可以自己去查那些要求的詳細條文, 但其中有幾個特別顯眼的:

  • the Serbian government must condemn anti-Austrian propaganda and punish anyone who made or distributed it,

    塞爾維亞政府必須譴責反奧宣傳 和懲罰任何製作或分發者

  • and the big oneAustrian officials would participate in the judicial process.

    而最重大的一個是- 奧地利官員會參與該司法程序。

  • In Serbia. Yep, they would be in charge of justice in another country.

    是的,他們要取得在另一國也就是塞爾維亞的司法權。

  • Now, as you may guess, this ultimatum was designed to be rejected. It was sent on July

    正如你可能想,這最後通牒 是以被拒絕為前提設計的。

  • 23rd, with 48 hours for Serbia to agree to it. 6 PM on

    它於7月23日發派且要求塞爾維亞於48小時內通過

  • July 25th, Serbia answered the ultimatum. She agreed that anti-Austrian propagandists

    7月25日下午6點,塞爾維亞對最後通牒進行回覆。 該國同意懲罰反奧宣傳者

  • would be punished and subversive movement suppressed, and actually agreed to almost

    並壓制破壞行為, 塞爾維亞居然同意將近全部的要求,

  • everything else, but as to Austria participating in the judicial process within Serbia, Serbia

    但對於奧地利參於塞爾維亞境內參與司法程序這條,

  • simply asked that this demand be submitted to the tribunal in The Hague.

    塞爾維亞要求將此要求提交 至海牙國際法庭。

  • Now, everybody except Austria thought this response was just fine, but Austria was determined

    除奧地利以外大家都認為這反應就很好, 但奧地利決心開戰。

  • to go to war. Actually, Russia suggested two days later that negotiations between

    事實上兩天後俄羅斯提出

  • her and Vienna should be opened to try and sort things out. This was refused. A British attempt that same

    塞爾維亞和維也納的談判應該是公開的, 和並以理清事理為目標。這遭到了拒絕。

  • day to talk Germany into having a four-power conference to also try to sort things out

    同天英國嘗試說服德國舉辦四大勢力 會議以試圖理清事理

  • was rejected as well.

    也被被拒絕。

  • And you know what? Here's something that happened then that remained secret until after the war:

    你知道嗎? 有些事情在一戰發生那麼後仍是秘密:

  • on July 28th, 100 years ago today, Kaiser Wilhelm finally read the full

    100多年前的今天也就是7月28日, 德皇威廉才讀到奧地利的

  • text of the Austrian ultimatum and Serbia's response. And he could see no reason at all

    最終通牒全文和塞爾維亞的回覆。 他想不到任何理由

  • for Austria to declare war. Yep. After all this that had happened, The Kaiser wrote:

    奧地利會宣戰。 是的!事情發生後德皇才寫了

  • “a great moral victory for Vienna, but with it every reason for war is removed...”

    「這是維也納在道義上的重大勝利, 但所有可戰的理由也隨之消彌。」

  • And just about an hour after the Kaiser scribbled that in the margins, Emperor Franz Josef signed

    大約在德皇潦草在空白處加註的一小時後, 自信德國會支持的皇帝法蘭茲·約瑟夫

  • a declaration of war on Serbia, confident of German support. And that declaration would

    簽署了對塞爾維亞的交戰宣言。

  • turn out to be the death warrant of his own empire.

    這份聲明將成為他的帝國的死刑令。

  • We'll see you next week. Click subscribe to get each and every episode as it comes

    我們下週見。 請點擊訂閱,好在每一集出來後立刻觀看,

  • out, and if you like the show but English isn't your best language, once again, this

    如果你喜歡這節目, 但英語不是你的母語的話,我再說一次

  • show is also available in German and Polishyou can find links to those channels below.

    該節目也有德語和波蘭語版本, 你可以從下方找到那些頻道的連結。

  • Now I'm sure many of you have comments, ideas, and suggestions; we're happy to hear them.

    我相信你們很多人有各種意見、想法或建議; 我們很高興能夠聆聽他們。

  • See you next week!

    下週見。

My name is Indy Neidell and this channelThe Great Waris going to cover the first world war,

我的名字是 Indy Neidell而 偉大的戰爭這頻道是要在100年後的現在按一週週的次序

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B1 中級 中文 美國腔 塞爾維亞 奧地利 德國 俄羅斯 事件 戰爭

一戰的爆發--歐洲如何陷入大戰--第一週。 (The Outbreak of WWI - How Europe Spiraled Into the GREAT WAR - Week 1)

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