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  • Over the course of our lifetimes,

    譯者: Thomas Tam 審譯者: Helen Chang

  • our bodies undergo a series of extraordinary metamorphoses:

    在我們有生之年,

  • we grow,

    身體經歷了一系列非凡的變化:

  • experience puberty,

    我們成長、

  • and many of us reproduce.

    體驗青春期,

  • Behind the scenes,

    很多人會生育。

  • the endocrine system works constantly to orchestrate these changes.

    在幕後,

  • Alongside growth and sexual maturity,

    內分泌系統不斷努力協調這些變化。

  • this system regulates everything from your sleep

    除了成長和性徵成熟,

  • to the rhythm of your beating heart,

    這個系統還規範一切事情,

  • exerting its influence over each and every one of your cells.

    從睡眠到規律節奏的心跳,

  • The endocrine system relies on interactions

    對每一個細胞施加影響。

  • between three features to do its job:

    內分泌系統依賴

  • glands,

    三個屬性之間的相互作用:

  • hormones,

    腺體、

  • and trillions of cell receptors.

    激素、

  • Firstly, there are several hormone-producing glands:

    和數萬億的細胞受體。

  • three in your brain,

    首先,有幾種產生激素的腺體:

  • and seven in the rest of your body.

    三個在你的大腦中,

  • Each is surrounded by a network of blood vessels,

    七個在你身體的其餘部分。

  • from which they extract ingredients to manufacture dozens of hormones.

    每個都被血管網包圍,

  • Those hormones are then pumped out in tiny amounts,

    它們從血管中提取成分 來製造出幾十種激素。

  • usually into the bloodstream.

    然後那些激素被抽出很少量,

  • From there, each hormone needs to locate a set of target cells

    通常是進入血液。

  • in order to bring about a specific change.

    每種激素需要定位於一組目標細胞,

  • To find its targets, it's helped along by receptors,

    為之帶來特定的具體變化。

  • which are special proteins inside or on the cell's surface.

    受到受體的幫助,它們找到了目標,

  • Those receptors recognise specific hormones as they waft by,

    受體是細胞表面 或內部的特殊蛋白質。

  • and bind to them.

    受體會識別飄過的特定激素,

  • When this happens,

    並鎖定它們。

  • that hormone-receptor combination triggers a range of effects

    當這個情況發生時,

  • that either increase or decrease specific processes inside the cell

    激素受體的組合 會引發一系列的變化,

  • to change the way that cell behaves.

    增加或減少細胞內的特定進程,

  • By exposing millions of cells at a time

    改變細胞的行為。

  • to hormones in carefully-regulated quantities,

    每一次有數百萬個細胞,

  • the endocrine system drives large-scale changes across the body.

    透過精心調節數量的激素,

  • Take, for instance, the thyroid and the two hormones it produces,

    送到內分泌系統 驅動大規模的身體變化。

  • triiodothyronine and thyroxine.

    以甲狀腺及其產生的兩種激素為例,

  • These hormones travel to most of the body's cells,

    三碘甲狀腺原氨酸和甲狀腺素。

  • where they influence how quickly those cells use energy

    它們傳播到身體的大部分細胞,

  • and how rapidly they work.

    影響這些細胞使用能量的速度

  • In turn, that regulates everything from breathing rate

    以及它們的工作速度。

  • to heartbeat,

    因此,這整個過程能調節呼吸速率、

  • body temperature,

    心跳、

  • and digestion.

    體溫

  • Hormones also have some of their most visibleand familiareffects

    和消化。

  • during puberty.

    在青春期,激素也有些 最明顯和熟悉的效果。

  • In men, puberty begins when the testes start secreting testosterone.

    當男性睾丸開始分泌睾酮時, 青春期就開始了。

  • That triggers the gradual development of the sexual organs,

    這觸發了性器官的逐漸發展,

  • makes facial hair sprout,

    使面部長毛,

  • and causes the voice to deepen

    使聲音變低

  • and height to increase.

    和身高增長。

  • In women, estrogen secreted from the ovaries signals the start of adulthood.

    女性的卵巢分泌的雌激素 標誌著成年期的開始。

  • It helps the body develop,

    它有助於身體發育,

  • makes the hips widen,

    使臀部變寬,

  • and thickens the womb's lining,

    子宮內壁變厚,

  • preparing the body for menstruation or pregnancy.

    準備月經或懷孕的身體。

  • An enduring misconception around the endocrine system

    對內分泌系統的持久誤解

  • is that there are exclusively male and female hormones.

    以為男性和女性激素 為男女各自獨有。

  • In fact, men and women have estrogen and testosterone,

    事實上,男性和女性 同時都有雌激素和睾酮,

  • just in different amounts.

    只是量的多少不同。

  • Both hormones play a role in pregnancy, as well,

    兩種激素都在妊娠中起作用,

  • alongside more than 10 other hormones that ensure the growth of the fetus,

    同時另有超過十種激素 確保胎兒的生長、

  • enable birth,

    分娩,

  • and help the mother feed her child.

    和幫助母親哺乳。

  • Such periods of hormonal change are also associated with fluctuations in mood.

    這種激素變化的時期, 也與情緒的波動有關。

  • That's because hormones can influence

    那是因為激素可以影響

  • the production of certain chemicals in the brain, like serotonin.

    大腦中某些化學物質 如血清素的產生。

  • When chemical levels shift, they may cause changes in mood, as well.

    當化學物質的水平變化時, 也可能引起情緒的變化。

  • But that's not to say that hormones have unlimited power over us.

    但這並不是說 激素對我們有無限的影響力。

  • They're frequently viewed as the main drivers of our behavior,

    它們經常被視為是 我們行為的主要驅動因素,

  • making us slaves to their effects, especially during puberty.

    讓我們成為其影響的奴隸, 特別是在青春期。

  • But research shows that our behavior is collectively shaped

    但研究表明, 我們的行為是集體塑造的,

  • by a variety of influences,

    受著各種的影響,

  • including the brain and its neurotransmitters,

    包括大腦及其神經遞質、

  • our hormones,

    我們的激素

  • and various social factors.

    和各種社會因素。

  • The primary function of the endocrine system

    內分泌系統的主要功能

  • is to regulate our bodily processes, not control us.

    是為了調節我們身體的過程, 而不是控制我們。

  • Sometimes disease,

    有時疾病、

  • stress,

    壓力,

  • and even diet can disrupt that regulatory function, however,

    甚至飲食,也會破壞這種調節功能,

  • altering the quantity of hormones that glands secrete

    改變腺體分泌激素的量

  • or changing the way that cells respond.

    或改變細胞反應的方式。

  • Diabetes is one of the most common hormonal disorders,

    糖尿病是最常見的激素紊亂症之一,

  • occurring when the pancreas secretes too little insulin,

    發生在胰臟分泌的胰島素過少時;

  • a hormone that manages blood sugar levels.

    胰島素是一種管理血糖水平的激素。

  • And hypo- and hyperthyroidism

    甲狀腺機能的減退或亢進

  • occur when the thyroid gland makes too little or too much thyroid hormone.

    是當甲狀腺產生過少或過多的 甲狀腺激素時產生。

  • When there's too little thyroid hormone, that results in a slowed heart rate,

    甲狀腺激素過少會導致心率減慢、

  • fatigue,

    疲勞

  • and depression,

    和抑鬱;

  • and when there's too much thyroid hormone,

    甲狀腺激素過多時會導致

  • weight loss,

    體重下降、

  • sleeplessness,

    失眠

  • and irritability.

    和煩躁。

  • But most of the time,

    但大多數時候,

  • the endocrine system manages to keep our bodies in a state of balance.

    內分泌系統設法 使我們的身體處於平衡狀態。

  • And through its constant regulation,

    通過不斷的調節,

  • it drives the changes that ultimately help us become who we are.

    最終使我們變成現在的自己。

Over the course of our lifetimes,

譯者: Thomas Tam 審譯者: Helen Chang

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B2 中高級 中文 美國腔 TED-Ed 激素 甲狀腺 細胞 變化 受體

你的荷爾蒙是如何工作的?- 艾瑪-布萊斯 (How do your hormones work? - Emma Bryce)

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    ktyvr258 發佈於 2021 年 01 月 14 日
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