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  • Attention, much like your daily allowance

    注意力,就像是你每日

  • of money is a limited resource

    資金有限的津貼。

  • And in any particular moment,

    在特定的時間裡,

  • you can only have that much of it.

    你只能有這麼多分量。

  • We live in an age of constant distractions

    我們生活在注意力不斷分散的時代,

  • nine to five is out, 24/7 is in.

    朝九晚五不復存在,全年無休啟動。

  • With my smartphone in hand I bring my work

    有了智慧型手機在身邊,

  • with me everywhere but our devices make us less attentive.

    我的工作無所不在,但這項設備讓我們更難專心。

  • Having spent 10 years doing research in neurobiology,

    花費十年研究神經生物學,

  • I wondered what technology does to our brains.

    我不禁好奇科技對我們的大腦有何影響。

  • I set out to understand the science of distractions

    我開始著手了解分心這門學問,

  • and learn how to be more focused

    並學習該如何更專心,

  • and boost our productivity.

    以及提高我們的生產力。

  • By some measures we're bombarded

    在某種程度上,我們每天

  • by more than 63 notifications a day.

    受到超過 63 件通知的轟炸。

  • We receive over 90 emails and write about 40 of them.

    我們收到超過 90 封電郵,並撰寫約 40 封電郵。

  • On average we switch tasks every three minutes.

    平均下來,我們每三分鐘就換一件差事。

  • When we face distractions two areas of the brain,

    當我們面對分心的事時,大腦的

  • the parietal cortex and the frontal cortex are

    頂葉皮質區和額葉兩個區塊

  • in a sort of tug of war with each other.

    算是彼此處於拉鋸戰中。

  • Some research suggests that the parietal cortex responds

    有些研究顯示頂葉皮質區會回應

  • to distractions, the frontal cortex which is involved

    分心的事物,額葉則會在

  • in cognitively demanding tasks helps us maintain focus.

    認知上較困難差事上保持專注。

  • So we get distracted if the activity

    因此我們要是在頂葉皮質區

  • of the parietal cortex gets through to the frontal cortex.

    通過額葉時就會分心。

  • If the frontal cortex can keep the parietal in check,

    若額葉能約束好頂葉的話,

  • you stay focused.

    你就能保持專心。

  • The brain is deciding what's important and what's not

    大腦會決定事情的輕重緩急,

  • and that takes effort.

    而這是很耗神的。

  • Even when you're cleaning your mailbox

    就算是當你在清理信箱時,

  • and you're not actually doing hard cognitive work,

    你其實並不是在做困難的認知性工作,

  • you kinda actually are, because there's all

    只能算類似在做,是因為這些

  • these essentially micro decisions.

    本質上都是些微型決策。

  • Looking at this email, do I need this,

    看看這些郵件,我需要這些嗎?

  • and so each of those decision

    因此這些決定都

  • requires a little bit more of cognitive effort

    需要一點認知上的精力。

  • and so but when you add 2,000 of those,

    所以當你將這些精力乘以兩千倍時,

  • you end up with no, no power

    你就會變得精疲力盡到

  • to make any other important decisions

    無法做任何重大決策了。

  • after that, if you deplete it.

    之後,大概就會油盡燈枯。

  • - Tell me a little bit about the study

    告訴我一些關於

  • that you did focused on email.

    你在專注於電郵上的研究。

  • What we found was that checking email more frequently

    我們發現每天從早到晚

  • throughout the day was associated

    頻繁地檢查郵件和

  • with feeling more stressed and overwhelmed.

    感受到更多壓力與不堪負荷有關連。

  • In the study, one group of people were asked

    根據研究,有一群人被要求

  • to check their email whenever they wanted throughout the day

    每天從早到晚隨他們意願查看電郵,

  • while the other group had to do it in batches.

    而另一群人必須分批查看電郵。

  • We found that people who batched their emails three

    我們發現每天分三到五次檢查電郵的人們

  • to five times a day felt less stressed and less overwhelmed.

    感受到更少的壓力與不堪負荷感。

  • Why are these tasks that seem really menial,

    為何這些看似乏味的差事

  • why are they so stressful and anxiety inducing?

    卻能產生這麼多壓力和焦慮感?

  • You're basically doing something that other people need.

    你基本上是在做他人所需的事情。

  • Let's imagine that attention is this calm lake

    我們想像這些注意力是一片平靜湖泊

  • or you know the reflecting pool

    或你所知的倒映池,

  • and then each notification is a little drop in that lake.

    而每個通知都是湖泊中的一點水滴。

  • We can think of the reflectiveness as you know the ability

    我們可以把反射性當作是

  • to actually focus on what's going on around us

    你要真正專注在身邊事物的能力,

  • but when we have all these drops all the time,

    但當我們無時無刻都有這些水滴時,

  • now you get a reflecting pool disturbed and frazzled.

    你的倒映池就會被干擾和消耗殆盡。

  • - [Daniela] If email is like rain, notifications seem

    若電郵就像雨水,通知對我們的

  • like a storm to our productivity and our ability to focus.

    生產力和專注力就像暴風雨。

  • The higher the cognitive load the more susceptible we are

    認知負荷量越高,我們就越容易受到

  • to new distractions.

    新分心事物的干擾。

  • Notifications on our phones draw our attention away

    手機上的通知將我們的注意力

  • from the task at hand so completing

    從手邊需要更多精力

  • it may ultimately require more effort.

    而未完成的差事上奪走。

  • Every time you get distracted

    每當你因為通知而分心時,

  • by a notification you have to switch your attention

    你必須轉換你的注意力

  • and switch it back, the switching in and of

    然後再轉換回來,換來換去本身

  • itself actually requires cognitive effort

    就需要認知心力。

  • and so you end up more depleted at the end of the day.

    因此你整天下來變得更疲憊不堪。

  • - So what do we do as cellphone users to mitigate that?

    那我們作為手機用戶又該如何緩解呢?

  • - Some things that I do

    我的方法是

  • is I do have scheduled do not disturb times

    我有個不受干擾的時間表,

  • which you can set on your phone

    你可以在手機上設一個

  • when you know basically no notifications come in.

    你確定基本上不會有通知的時間。

  • In general, I do keep my phone on silent.

    一般來說,我會讓我的手機保持靜音。

  • I actually am like most people a little addicted

    我其實和多數人一樣

  • to my email and a little addicted

    對電郵有些上癮,也對社群網站

  • to social media and messages,

    和訊息有些上癮。

  • so I do actually open those apps frequently enough

    因此我確實常常打開那些 app

  • that I don't need to be reminded I need

    但我不需要提醒自己

  • to open it every, every minute.

    每分每秒都要打開它們。

  • - [Daniela] So to take new technologies we may first need

    所以在使用新的科技前我們需要重新思考

  • to reconsider how and when we rely on them.

    該如何與何時依賴它們。

  • We did a study not in an organization

    我們在組織外做了一項研究,

  • but on campus where we asked students

    我們在校園中請學生

  • to find a building either with their phones

    有些人用手機,有些不用手機

  • or without the help of their phones.

    來幫他們找建築物。

  • And yes the students who relied

    確實,利用手機的學生

  • on their phones got to the building faster

    更快找到建築物,

  • but these same students actually felt less connected

    但這些學生也確實對於

  • to their community and so it's not a question

    社區的連結性更薄弱,因此問題並不在於

  • of you know should we just do away

    你是否該直接遠離這些設備,

  • with these devices but what is the price

    而是對使用這些便利設備

  • of this convenient device.

    所該付出的代價。

  • These social bonds that hold society together I think

    我想這些能將社會集結在一起的

  • are getting more and more chipped away from us.

    社會紐帶正日漸消失中。

  • Our devices and apps aren't the only way

    我們的設備和 app 並非辦公室中唯一會將

  • to crush it at the office.

    社會紐帶消磨殆盡的東西。

  • Casual conversations at work make us feel more connected,

    科學研究顯示辦公中的尋常對話讓我們

  • happier, and productive that's what science is telling us.

    更有連結感、更快樂和更有生產力。

  • (upbeat instrumental music)

    (令人精神為之一振的音樂)

Attention, much like your daily allowance

注意力,就像是你每日

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B1 中級 中文 美國腔 WSJ 電郵 手機 額葉 分心 通知

智能手機如何破壞你的大腦專注力|WSJ (How Smartphones Sabotage Your Brain's Ability to Focus | WSJ)

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    Helena 發佈於 2021 年 01 月 14 日
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