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  • Okay, so you got a new sweater. It looks great and you're getting tons of

    如果你們收到一件新毛衣。這件毛衣很好看,而且你們也聽到很多的

  • compliments. But then just one person says something snarky about it and even

    讚美。但有一個人沒禮貌地說了毛衣的不好,所以即使

  • though you got all that praise you, can't help but stew over the negative

    在先前聽到了多少的讚美,你們就一直想著那個唯一的

  • comment. Why is that? Why does our mind seem to dwell on the negative?

    批評。為什麼會這樣呢?為什麼我們的情緒似乎就深陷在負面上呢?

  • "A lot of my

    「我有

  • research focuses on how people tend to get stuck in particular ways of thinking

    很多研究都是在探討為什麼人們都傾向讓自己深陷在某個思緒之中,

  • and what enables them to get unstuck." Alison Ledgerwood is a psychology

    並且是什麼原因讓他們會無法抽離呢」。在加利福尼亞大學戴維斯分校的

  • professor at UC Davis. "I get to study how humans think and how we could maybe

    心理學教授 Alison Ledgerwood 指出:「我有機會來研究人類的思考模式,以及我們如何

  • think better." We all know the expression about seeing a glass as half-full or

    思考得更好」。我們都聽過看到還有半杯的水或是只剩下半杯水的

  • half-empty. It isn't just what you see but how you

    說法。這不是攸關你們看到些什麼,而是你們  

  • see it. And the way describe that glass to people can really change how they

    怎麼看待這件事情。而人們描述那水杯的方式真的會改變他們

  • feel about it. Alison wanted to know what happens when you try to switch your way

    對它的感受。 Alison 想要探討當你們試著把那些正面的思考方式轉換成負面思考

  • of thinking from the positive frame to the negative frame — or vice versa. Her

    會發生什麼事情呢-或是負面的思考方式轉換成正面思考呢。她的

  • research team brought two groups of people into the lab and told them about

    研究團隊選了兩組人到實驗室中,並告訴他們有關

  • a new surgical procedure. Group one was told that the procedure has a 70%

    一個新型手術。第一組人被告知手術有

  • success rate. For group two, they framed it as a 30 percent failure rate.

    百分之 70 的成功率。第二組人則被告知手術有可能有百分之 30 的失敗率。

  • "It's the same exact procedure and they're giving you the exact same

    「這個手術步驟都是相同的,而他們也都給你們相同的

  • information, but one doctor is focusing on the part of the glass that's full and

    資訊,但一位醫生指出杯子還有 70 分滿的水和

  • the other doctor is focusing on the part of the glass that's empty." So, no surprise:

    另一個醫生指出杯子裡沒裝滿的那 30 分水」。所以呢,不用說的是:

  • People like the procedure when it's described in positive terms and they

    人們都喜歡這個手術因為它是由一個正面的方式來陳述,而他們

  • don't like it when you focus on the failure rate, but then the researchers

    會因為深陷於失敗的機率,而不會喜歡這個手術。不過研究家們

  • pointed it out to the first group that you could also think of the procedure as

    指出第一組的參與者們也可以想看看手術也會有

  • failing 30% of the time. Suddenly people didn't like it anymore. And when they

    百分之 30 的失敗率。他們因此立刻改變想法,不再喜歡這個手術。不過當他們

  • tried a similar thing with group two, pointing out that the procedure had a

    對第二組的參與者宣佈一件相同的事情:手術有百分之

  • 70% success rate, people didn't change their mind. "And over and over again in

    70 的成功率,但他們並不會就此改變他們的心意」。一次又一次的研究下,

  • studies like that we find that people seem to get stuck in the negative way of

    我們發現人們似乎都會深陷在一個負面情緒的

  • thinking about it and it's hard for them to flip and focus on the positive." So

    思考方式,而使得他們很難就此轉向正面性地思考」。所以

  • once you frame something negatively, it really sticks. "It makes sense from an

    一旦你們負面地想著某件事情,那它就無法再改變了。「不過由進化論和功能論來看

  • evolutionary or functional perspective that our minds are built to look for

    的話是合理的,在一個環境中,我們的思緒就會先

  • negative information in the environment and to hold on to it once we find it."

    尋找負面的資訊,一旦找到它就會深陷其中」。

  • Imagine your prehistoric ancestors. You don't want to forget that there might be

    想像你們史前時代的祖先們。你們會記得,在某處可能會有一個

  • a predator lurking around. "In many situations, we want our minds to be

    掠食者在附近埋伏著。「在很多情況下,我們都會把自己的內心

  • grabbed by the negative information so that we can fix problems when they're

    深陷在一個負面的環境中,所以一旦事情發生的話,我們都知道要怎麼

  • there." But then there are other situations, where we want to get over

    處理」。「但還是有些情況,像幾個小瑕疵或是幾件壞消息,

  • some small imperfection or a bit of bad news, when it's not helpful to fixate

    我們都會想要克服掉,因為讓自己一直陷入在負面情緒中

  • on the negative. What do we do then? "what I really take away from this research

    是沒有幫助的。那我們該做些什麼呢?「我從這個研究

  • for my own life is that it's difficult to see the upside and that it takes work,

    深深了解到的人生諫言是:很難正面地看待事情,需要努力才能看到正面的效果,

  • literally, that we have to put effort into looking at the bright side of

    也就是說,我們必須要努力讓自己看到事情的

  • things. So we can't assume that our mind is just going to do that automatically

    正面。所以我們不可以理所當然地認為,我們的情緒會自己自動恢復,

  • and that it's very easy to just keep tilting back towards the negatives." And

    這樣會非常容易又讓自己回到一個負面情緒中」。而

  • this is something you can counteract with practice. Like, spending a few

    這件事情是你們練習就可以達到的。像是每天都花幾

  • minutes each day thinking about the things you're grateful for. Doing this

    分鐘想想你們想感謝的事情。規律地

  • regularly can help it become a habit. And it turns out that this negative bias can

    做這件事情,就可以變成一個習慣。過一段時間後,我們可以發現,這個負面情緒化

  • change over time. Remember when you were younger and any bad experience

    的情況是可以改變的。你們記不記得自己年輕的時候,只要經歷到一個不好的

  • felt like the end of the world? "So this kind of pervasive negativity bias starts

    事情就像是世界末日呢?「這一種負面情緒的影響會慢慢地

  • to diminish and so in our research we've we find that the stickiness of a

    減少,研究指出,我們發現深陷於負面

  • negative frame seems to disappear entirely by the time people are in their

    思考模式的情況似乎會在人們 70 多歲的時候

  • seventies. They seem to flow back and forth between negatives and positives

    完全消失。他們似乎可以在負面和正面之間

  • much more easily." So maybe that's something we can all be grateful forthat

    轉換得宜」。所以這可能是我們都該感謝的事情-就是實際上

  • there are actually some good things about getting older. How do you get out

    變老還是有些好處的。你們是怎麼樣擺脫

  • of negative ways of thinking? Let us know in the comments below and be sure to

    負面情緒的呢?在下面留言處留言讓我們知道,並且也歡迎你們

  • check out our other video all about the teenage brain. Remembering all the things

    看看我們其他所有有關青少年大腦的影片。想到年輕時期

  • you did as a teenager might make you cringe but neuroscientists are learning

    做的一些事情可能會讓你們覺得錯愕不堪,但神經科學家們指出

  • that some of the most puzzling teenage behavior may actually serve an

    年輕人幾個最令人困惑的行為可能實際上是一個

  • evolutionary purpose.

    大腦進化的過程。

Okay, so you got a new sweater. It looks great and you're getting tons of

如果你們收到一件新毛衣。這件毛衣很好看,而且你們也聽到很多的

字幕與單字

影片操作 你可以在這邊進行「影片」的調整,以及「字幕」的顯示

B1 中級 中文 負面 手術 深陷 思考 指出 毛衣

你的大腦是有線的消極想法。這裡是如何改變它。 (Your brain is wired for negative thoughts. Here’s how to change it.)

  • 109 3
    林宜悉 發佈於 2021 年 01 月 14 日
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