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  • Every time there's another mass shooting in America, politicians have the same idea.

    每當美國有大規模槍擊案發生時,政治人物們說的總是同一套。

  • It's time to require a background check for anyone who wants to buy a gun.

    該是時候要求每個想買槍的人都要先做身家背景檢查了。

  • I'm one of the Republicans who does believe there should be background checks.

    我是相信應該要進行背景檢查的共和黨人之一。

  • It is an open secret that the existing background check system is broken.

    現有的背景檢查系統效用不彰已是公開的秘密。

  • Oh I have an appetite for background checks. We're going to be doing background checks.

    噢我很喜歡背景檢查這個點子。我們肯定要做背景檢查。

  • Here's what they want to change: Right now, gun buyers in the US only have to go through a background check at a gun store.

    以下是他們想要改變的現狀。目前而言,美國的槍枝購買者只需要在槍店進行一次背景檢查即可。

  • But they don't have to go through one if they buy a gun from an unlicensed dealer, like at a gun show or a private sale.

    但如果他們是從無執照的販賣者購得,例如藉由槍展或是私下買賣的方式,便不需要進行背景檢查。

  • But with universal background checks, everyone who buys a gun would go through one.

    然而在推行全面背景檢查制度之後,每個想買槍的人都得進行背景檢查。

  • Pretty much every American is in favor of this.

    幾乎所有的美國人都支持這個方案。

  • There's only one problem. Universal background checks won't solve America's gun crisis.

    然而這背後有個問題。全面背景檢查並無法解決美國的槍枝危機。

  • But there's something else that might.

    可是我們還有另一個或許可以解決的方法。

  • To understand how background checks work, it helps to imagine two very different people, who both want to buy a gun.

    要了解背景檢查的運作方式,我們可以先想像兩位截然不同,但都想要買槍的人。

  • This first person is dangerous. Maybe he has a history of domestic violence or mental illness.

    第一位購槍者非常危險。他可能有家暴或是精神疾病的經歷。

  • And most importantlyhe has a record.

    而最重要的是-他有前科。

  • And the second one is not dangerous. He just wants a gun for protection, or to go hunting, or cause shooting guns is kinda fun.

    第二位購槍者則不危險。他只是想買槍來自保,或是拿來打獵,或是單純只是享受射擊槍枝的樂趣。

  • Before either one can buy a gun, they first have to go through an FBI instant background check.

    兩人在購買槍枝之前,都得先進行一次 FBI 快速背景檢查。

  • And I mean instantit only takes an average of 108 seconds to get a response from the FBI's database.

    而這真的相當快速-平均只需要 108 秒便能從 FBI 的資料庫取得回應結果。

  • That database is made up of records sent in by state police and other agencies.

    這個資料庫整合了由各州警方與其他機關所送交的紀錄。

  • And it's checked to see if the buyer has things like a criminal record, addiction, a restraining order, or has been hospitalized for mental illness.

    背景檢查被用來確定買家是否具有例如犯罪紀錄、藥物成癮、限制令或是曾因心理疾病而入院等過往。

  • Under a universal background check system, anyone buying a gunwhether in a gun store, or through a private salewould have to be checked through that database.

    在全面背景檢查系統下,任何想買槍的人,不論是從槍店或是從私人賣家購買,都必須先通過該資料庫的檢查。

  • That means our second person walks out with a gun. And our first person, with a criminal record, doesn't.

    這代表第二個人能夠成功買到槍,而有犯罪前科的第一個人則無法買槍。

  • Or, at least he shouldn't.

    或者說,至少他不該買到槍。

  • I've done a lot of reporting on this, we have just seen time and time again that background checks just do not stop people we don't want having guns from actually getting the weapons.

    我已經在這個議題上做過很多報導了,而我們其實一直反覆看到背景檢查根本沒辦法阻止這些不該有槍的人們買到槍。

  • There are a couple problems with the background check system. One is that the FBI database is about as outdated as its logo.

    背景檢查系統有兩個問題。第一個是 FBI 資料庫就像它的標誌看起來的一樣過時。

  • It's missing millions of records.

    裡面遺失了數百萬筆紀錄。

  • That's why the Charleston church shooter was able to buy a gun, despite having a record.

    這就是查爾斯敦教堂槍擊案的槍手雖然具有前科,卻仍然買到了槍枝的原因。

  • Or why the man who killed 26 Texan churchgoers was also able to pass a background check, after the Air Force failed to send his domestic abuse convictions to the FBI.

    還有殺死了 26 名德州教堂信眾的槍手能通過背景檢查的原因-因為空軍沒有將他家暴定罪紀錄送到聯邦調查局 (FBI)。

  • So even with a background check for every type of sale, there's still a chance this guy gets a gun.

    所以就算為所有種類的買賣都進行背景檢查,這傢伙仍有可能買到槍枝。

  • That's partly why study after study has found that while background checks "prevent, or make substantially more difficult, the criminal acquisition of firearms.",

    這就是許多研究雖然發現背景檢查能「防止,或是使犯罪者更加難以獲得槍械。」,

  • making them universal doesn't have any effect on the actual gun crisis in America: gun deaths.

    進行全面檢查並無法真正影響美國實際上正在面對的槍械危機:槍擊致死。

  • A Johns Hopkins study of California, where comprehensive background checks were implemented in 1991, found the law was "not associated with changes in firearm suicide or homicide.",

    約翰·霍普金斯大學一份針對加州,其在 1991 年時開始進行縝密背景檢查,所進行的研究發現該法案「與槍枝造成的自殺或是謀殺案的數量變化無關。」

  • thanks in part to those incomplete and missing records.

    部分原因便是因為這些不完全與遺失的紀錄。

  • The other problem with background checks is that they only look at "good" people and "already bad" people. But there is an in-between.

    另外一個問題則是背景檢查只會找出「善良」的人和「已經是壞人」的人。但實際上還有在這兩者之間的人。

  • The background checks are supposed to catch people who have a record already.

    背景檢查本來就應該要找到已經有前科的人。

  • It just misses all the people who haven't done anything bad yet but might do something bad in the future.

    但它與那些還沒做壞事,但有可能在未來行惡的人失之交臂。

  • German is not advocating for a Minority Report situation.

    German 並不是在說我們的未來該像《關鍵報告》那樣。

  • He's talking about someone like this guy, who is also dangerous, but who doesn't have a record.

    他的意思是,實際上可能會像是這邊這個同樣危險,但還沒有前科的人。

  • Under a universal background check system, he could get a gun. In 108 seconds.

    在全面背景調查系統之下,他在短短 108 秒便能買到一把槍。

  • But there's another system that could prevent this.

    但有另外一套系統可以避免這種狀況。

  • Twelve states and DC have gone one step further and established a licensing system.

    12 個州與華盛頓特區已經向前更進一步,採用了執照系統。

  • How's it different? Well, Here's how it works in Massachusetts.

    不同的點在哪裡?這個嘛,以下是麻薩諸塞州的購槍流程。

  • Before you ever go to a gun store, you first have to take a firearm safety course.

    在你前往槍店之前,首先得先參加一個槍械安全課程。

  • Then you have to go to the police department and submit an application, give references and give your fingerprints for a background check.

    接著要前往警察局並提交一份申請單、附上推薦人並留下指紋作為背景檢查的一部份。

  • Then not only is the FBI database checked, but all local law enforcement agencies wherever you've lived are directly contacted, along with the Department of Mental Health.

    接著他們不但會檢查 FBI 資料庫,還會連絡所有你曾居住過的當地執法機關,以及心理健康部門。

  • That entire process in Massachusetts usually takes about 3 weeks. And most peopleabout 97%, pass.

    整個流程在麻薩諸塞州約需花上 3 個禮拜。而將近 97% 的大部分的人都會通過。

  • Nothing about a licensing system will prevent a law-abiding citizen from going through the process and obtaining a firearm.

    執照系統並不會阻止守法的公民通過整個流程,並在最後獲得槍枝。

  • That's Dr. Cassandra Crifasi, she researches health policy at Johns Hopkins, and she's one of the authors of the studies earlier.

    這位是 Cassandra Crifasi 博士,他在約翰·霍普金斯大學研究衛生政策,並且是我們先前提到的研究的作者之一。

  • She says the reason licensing works is that it's designed to do both of the big things background checks fail at.

    他表示執照制度之所以能有效運作,是因為它被設計來處理背景檢查制度失敗的兩個重點。

  • A, to properly identify and screen out people who shouldn't have guns.

    首先,妥當地辨識並篩選出不該獲得槍枝的人。

  • And B, create a system to reduce impulsive gun purchases.

    再者,建立一套能夠降低槍枝衝動性購買的系統。

  • The licensing system is more comprehensive than the one-database background check system, so our criminal will be reliably denied a gun.

    執照系統比單一資料庫背景檢查系統更加全面,因此能確實地避免犯罪者獲得槍械。

  • But because it's so meticulous, it also stands a chance of keeping our third guy, without a record, from getting a gun.

    但也因為它是如此的繁瑣,因此也有相當高的機會能夠阻止我們那位沒有前科的第三個人獲得槍械。

  • There are people who may want to impulsively acquire a firearm, for example to harm themselves or others.

    有些人可能會出於衝動而想買槍,例如想用來傷害自己或他人。

  • And the process of obtaining a license can at least delay that person during that time of crisis or, you know, maybe deter them from getting that firearm at all.

    而獲取執照的流程便能至少延後那個人在這樣的情況下獲取到槍枝的時間,或者讓他們能直接打消買槍的念頭。

  • In 1995, Connecticut implemented a licensing system.

    在 1995 年時,康乃狄克州施行了執照系統。

  • Over the next 10 years, they saw a drop in gun homicides and gun suicides.

    在接下來的十年,他們發現槍擊致死與槍擊自殺案件的數量都降低了。

  • Compare that to Missouri, which once had a licensing system, but got rid of it in 2007.

    相比之下,密蘇里州也曾施行過執照系統,但在 2007 年時廢除。

  • Over the next decade, they had a huge spike in gun homicides and gun suicides.

    在之後的十年間,他們的凶殺案與槍枝自殺案件大量上升。

  • In both states there were lots of factors involved. But researchers say this shows that licensing works.

    在兩個州背後都還潛藏著許多其他的因素。但研究者認為這顯示了執照制度是有效果的。

  • It's alsopretty popular. Among voters who live in a house with a gun, more than two-thirds think that it's a good idea.

    而且這個制度也... 頗受歡迎。以家裡有槍械的選舉人來說,超過三分之二的人認為這是個好主意。

  • Ask all Americans, and more than three-quarters support it.

    若是以全美國人來說,超過四分之三的人支持這個制度。

  • Background checks are supposed to stop bad people from getting guns. But they often don't.

    背景檢查應該要阻止壞人獲得槍枝,但通常卻沒做到這點。

  • Licensing picks up that slack.

    執照制度則能接下這個重責大任。

  • By making sure that people are crossing these hurdles, we just make sure, in a much better, stronger way, that people are not getting firearms when they shouldn't have them.

    藉由確保人們能夠克服這些障礙,我們便以一種更好、更確實的方法,使那些不該拿到槍枝的人們不獲得槍枝。

Every time there's another mass shooting in America, politicians have the same idea.

每當美國有大規模槍擊案發生時,政治人物們說的總是同一套。

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B1 中級 中文 Vox 檢查 背景 槍枝 執照 槍械

美國又有大規模槍擊事件?管制槍枝就能阻止這一切嗎? (The gun solution we're not talking about)

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    林宜悉 發佈於 2021 年 01 月 14 日
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