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  • iPhones, umbrellas, shoes.

    iPhone、雨傘、鞋子。

  • These are just some of the common items that make up the $505 billion worth of goods that are made here in China.

    這些都只是合共價值 5050 億美元中國製造的常見物品。

  • And are imported here to the United States.

    之後會進口到美國。

  • President Trump is unapologetically adding and increasing tariffs on many imports, prompting retaliation from China and others.

    美國總統川普理毫不猶豫地增加並提高進口商品的關稅,激起中國和其他國家的反擊。

  • So how do tariffs work, and what do they mean for the economy?

    所以到底關稅是怎麼運作?到底對經濟會造成什麼影響?

  • A tariff is a tax on items entering or leaving a country.

    關稅是對進口和出口物品課征的稅。

  • The money collected under a tariff is called a duty or a customs duty.

    根據關稅所收取的錢稱之為海關稅。

  • And in the United States those duties are collected by the U.S. Customs and Border Protection.

    在美國,是由美國海關及邊境保衛局徵收這些稅金。

  • Last year, U.S. import duties totaled up to $33.1 billion.

    去年美國進口稅總共徵收了 331 億美元。

  • That's 1.4% of the total value of all imported goods.

    佔了所有進口總值的 1.4%。

  • That makes U.S. tariffs among the lowest in the world.

    這樣可以看到美國的關稅是全世界最低。

  • But that doesn't mean every item entering the U.S. is facing a 1.4% tariff.

    但這不代表所有進口美國的物品都只徵收 1.4% 的關稅。

  • There's a huge range.

    其實整個範圍很廣。

  • Some items aren't taxed at all, while others, like shoes, are taxed at around 11%.

    有的物品沒有課稅,但其他像鞋子的話,徵收約 11% 的稅金。

  • And upping that 11% to something like 25% or 30

    從 11% 的稅金增加至 25% 到 30% 會增加生產商的成本。

  • Especially when you consider that 98% of shoes sold in the U.S. are made overseas.

    尤其在美國市售的鞋子有 98% 是在國外製造。

  • Let's say I'm buying watches from China to sell at big-box retail stores here in the U.S.

    比如說,我在美國的大型連鎖購物中心購買中國製的手錶。

  • Say each watch costs me $10.

    舉例我買一支手錶要價 10 塊美金。

  • Add in a 20% tariff to that, and I now have to pay $12 per watch.

    再加上 20% 的關稅,現在我要付 12 塊美金買一支手錶。

  • $2 doesn't sound like much but if my order is 15,000 watches, my total cost has now gone from $150,000 to $180,000.

    2 塊美金聽起來並不多,倘若我下單買 15,000 支手錶的話,我的總成本會是 150,000 至 180,000 美元。

  • That 20% tariff on watches cost me an unexpected $30,000 on goods.

    20% 手錶的關稅要我突然多付 30,000 美元。

  • So if tariffs cost businesses so much money, why have them in the first place?

    如果關稅會提高生意成本,為什麼還是如此重要?

  • Well, there's two main reasons.

    有兩大主因。

  • First they raise money.

    第一,賺錢。

  • That revenue goes to the general fund of the U.S. Treasury, which helps pay for running the government.

    稅收會歸美國國庫所有,用作協助政府營運。

  • Last year, the U.S. collected almost $35 billion in duties.

    去年美國就徵收了近 350 億美元的關稅。

  • Number two, tariffs can help protect some domestic industries from competition abroad.

    第二,關稅有助保障本地產業與國外的競爭。

  • Think of it this way: if you're charging "Made in China" more money that makes "Made in America" suddenly seem more affordable.

    這樣想吧,如果你收取「中國製造」的商品更多錢,就顯得「美國製造」的商品突然變得不怎麼貴了。

  • Let's go back to our watch example.

    先回到我們剛剛手錶的例子。

  • If my manufacturer in China is sending over a batch of watches that cost me $12 instead of $10, I might find a cheaper way to make them here in the U.S. to avoid paying that 20% tariff.

    如果我在中國的製造商寄出一批原本價值 10 美元的手錶,但我卻要花 12 美元,我可能為了避免支付 20% 的關稅就會在美國找更便宜的製造方法。

  • But my supplies used to make the watch are likely going to need to be imported, likely, still from China.

    但手錶零件的供給也幾乎需要進口,還是從中國供應。

  • And those supplies probably will have their own tariffs too.

    這些零件供給也可能有自己的關稅。

  • You can see how this can get complicated.

    可以看到其實是可以很複雜。

  • There's another option.

    其實還有另外的選擇。

  • I could also potentially buy from another country that's not subject to the tariffs on products from China, like India or Vietnam.

    我也可以到其他沒有對來自中國的商品徵收稅金的國家購買,如印度或越南。

  • That's bad news for China.

    對中國來說,這是個壞消息。

  • But it's not just China that Trump has been after.

    不過,川普不只對中國如此。

  • When the U.S. president introduced billions of dollars in new tariffs, countries like Canada and Mexico, as well as the European Union, were quick to react and retaliate.

    美國總統實施徵收上十億美元的新關稅,像加拿大、墨西哥和歐盟等立刻行動和反擊。

  • So why is he kicking up the controversy with America's biggest allies?

    為什麼川普要與美國最大的盟友展開這場爭議?

  • Trump says he wants to dramatically reduce the U.S.' trade deficit with other countries.

    川普表示他希望可以大幅調降美國與其他國家的貿易赤字。

  • A trade deficit is the amount by which a country's imports exceed the value of its exports.

    貿易赤字是指一個國家的進口總值大於出口總值。

  • Trump is hoping that by introducing drastic tariffs it will reduce the size of the U.S.' trade deficit, and he's particularly focused on China.

    川普希望透過實施高額關稅以減低美國的貿易赤字,而他的目標是針對中國。

  • The U.S.-China trade deficit is estimated to be $370 billion.

    目前中美間的貿易赤字估計是 3,700 億美元。

  • He hopes to reduce it to $200 billion by 2020.

    至 2020 年,期望可下降至 2,000 億美元。

  • So what does all this mean for consumers?

    所以這對消費者有什麼重大的影響呢?

  • When tariffs are put into effect, the person likely paying for that increase in cost is you and I.

    關稅一旦落實,要支付那多出來的成本的人就會是你和我。

  • A number of American companies have said increased tariffs will hurt their businesses, and ultimately they'll have to increase prices for consumers.

    不少美國的公司紛紛表示增加關稅有損他們的生意,最終他們也只能提高售價。

  • In the weeks following Trump's announcement, prices went up on items ranging from a can of Coke to toilet paper and kitchen towels.

    在川普宣佈政策後的幾個星期裡面,有一系列從一罐可樂至衛生紙和廚房抹布的商品都漲價。

  • And some companies like Kimberly-Clark, which makes Huggies and Kleenex, have even lowered their annual forecasts.

    有些企業如金佰利,其中生產嬰兒尿布和衛生紙,甚至把年度預測下調。

  • And the tariffs could badly hurt Chinese companies and their products too.

    關稅更有可能會嚴重打擊中國的企業和他們的商品。

  • Some of the largest items that the U.S. is shipping to China include things like soybeans, aircraft and electrical machinery.

    美國海運到中國最大的物品有大豆、飛機和電機。

  • So, when China retaliated by announcing a 25% tariff on U.S.-made airplanes, that was a direct hit to Boeing, and the company's stock price fell on the news.

    所以,一旦中國為了報復而宣佈會對美國製的飛機增加 25% 關稅的話,會對波音公司造成重大的打擊,有指公司的股價因這個消息而下降。

  • Boeing is selling planes to China Southern Airlines Group, which plans to buy more than 300 aircraft in the next three years.

    波音把飛機賣給中國南方航空,而他們正打算在未來 3 年會多買入 300 架飛機。

  • So with higher tariffs on U.S. planes, it could buy a larger share of airplanes from say France's Airbus instead.

    由於美國製造的飛機的關稅提高,航空公司也許會大量購入法國空中巴士來取代。

  • The vast majority of economists surveyed by a Reuters poll said that import tariffs would do more harm to the U.S. economy than good.

    據路透社調查,有絕大多數的經濟學家都表示關稅對美國經濟造成的影響弊多於利。

  • Yet, like most things with President Trump, he's standing his ground, as governments, companies and consumers scramble to see what's next.

    然而,像川普所做的事一樣,他拒不讓步,而政府、企業和消費者都爭相拭目以待地看之後發生的事。

  • Hey guys, it's Uptin.

    大家好,我是 Uptin。

  • Thanks for watching!

    謝謝收看!

  • Check out more of our videos here and here.

    可以在這裡和這裡收看更多的影片。

  • We're also taking suggestions for future CNBC Explains.

    我們現在也在搜集大家對 CNBC 未來拍攝題材的建議。

  • So leave your comments in the section below.

    大家可以在下面留言讓我們知道。

  • And while you're at it, subscribe to our channel.

    也請大家順便訂閱我們的頻道。

iPhones, umbrellas, shoes.

iPhone、雨傘、鞋子。

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B2 中高級 中文 美國腔 關稅 美國 中國 手錶 進口 美元

什麼是關稅?到底增加關稅會如何影響經濟? (How do tariffs work? | CNBC Explains)

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    Fibby 發佈於 2019 年 09 月 27 日
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