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  • iPhones, umbrellas, shoes.


  • These are just some of the common items that make up the $505 billion worth of goods that are made here in China.

    這些都只是合共價值 5050 億美元中國製造的常見物品。

  • And are imported here to the United States.


  • President Trump is unapologetically adding and increasing tariffs on many imports, prompting retaliation from China and others.


  • So how do tariffs work, and what do they mean for the economy?


  • A tariff is a tax on items entering or leaving a country.


  • The money collected under a tariff is called a duty or a customs duty.


  • And in the United States those duties are collected by the U.S. Customs and Border Protection.


  • Last year, U.S. import duties totaled up to $33.1 billion.

    去年美國進口稅總共徵收了 331 億美元。

  • That's 1.4% of the total value of all imported goods.

    佔了所有進口總值的 1.4%。

  • That makes U.S. tariffs among the lowest in the world.


  • But that doesn't mean every item entering the U.S. is facing a 1.4% tariff.

    但這不代表所有進口美國的物品都只徵收 1.4% 的關稅。

  • There's a huge range.


  • Some items aren't taxed at all, while others, like shoes, are taxed at around 11%.

    有的物品沒有課稅,但其他像鞋子的話,徵收約 11% 的稅金。

  • And upping that 11% to something like 25% or 30

    從 11% 的稅金增加至 25% 到 30% 會增加生產商的成本。

  • Especially when you consider that 98% of shoes sold in the U.S. are made overseas.

    尤其在美國市售的鞋子有 98% 是在國外製造。

  • Let's say I'm buying watches from China to sell at big-box retail stores here in the U.S.


  • Say each watch costs me $10.

    舉例我買一支手錶要價 10 塊美金。

  • Add in a 20% tariff to that, and I now have to pay $12 per watch.

    再加上 20% 的關稅,現在我要付 12 塊美金買一支手錶。

  • $2 doesn't sound like much but if my order is 15,000 watches, my total cost has now gone from $150,000 to $180,000.

    2 塊美金聽起來並不多,倘若我下單買 15,000 支手錶的話,我的總成本會是 150,000 至 180,000 美元。

  • That 20% tariff on watches cost me an unexpected $30,000 on goods.

    20% 手錶的關稅要我突然多付 30,000 美元。

  • So if tariffs cost businesses so much money, why have them in the first place?


  • Well, there's two main reasons.


  • First they raise money.


  • That revenue goes to the general fund of the U.S. Treasury, which helps pay for running the government.


  • Last year, the U.S. collected almost $35 billion in duties.

    去年美國就徵收了近 350 億美元的關稅。

  • Number two, tariffs can help protect some domestic industries from competition abroad.


  • Think of it this way: if you're charging "Made in China" more money that makes "Made in America" suddenly seem more affordable.


  • Let's go back to our watch example.


  • If my manufacturer in China is sending over a batch of watches that cost me $12 instead of $10, I might find a cheaper way to make them here in the U.S. to avoid paying that 20% tariff.

    如果我在中國的製造商寄出一批原本價值 10 美元的手錶,但我卻要花 12 美元,我可能為了避免支付 20% 的關稅就會在美國找更便宜的製造方法。

  • But my supplies used to make the watch are likely going to need to be imported, likely, still from China.


  • And those supplies probably will have their own tariffs too.


  • You can see how this can get complicated.


  • There's another option.


  • I could also potentially buy from another country that's not subject to the tariffs on products from China, like India or Vietnam.


  • That's bad news for China.


  • But it's not just China that Trump has been after.


  • When the U.S. president introduced billions of dollars in new tariffs, countries like Canada and Mexico, as well as the European Union, were quick to react and retaliate.


  • So why is he kicking up the controversy with America's biggest allies?


  • Trump says he wants to dramatically reduce the U.S.' trade deficit with other countries.


  • A trade deficit is the amount by which a country's imports exceed the value of its exports.


  • Trump is hoping that by introducing drastic tariffs it will reduce the size of the U.S.' trade deficit, and he's particularly focused on China.


  • The U.S.-China trade deficit is estimated to be $370 billion.

    目前中美間的貿易赤字估計是 3,700 億美元。

  • He hopes to reduce it to $200 billion by 2020.

    至 2020 年,期望可下降至 2,000 億美元。

  • So what does all this mean for consumers?


  • When tariffs are put into effect, the person likely paying for that increase in cost is you and I.


  • A number of American companies have said increased tariffs will hurt their businesses, and ultimately they'll have to increase prices for consumers.


  • In the weeks following Trump's announcement, prices went up on items ranging from a can of Coke to toilet paper and kitchen towels.


  • And some companies like Kimberly-Clark, which makes Huggies and Kleenex, have even lowered their annual forecasts.


  • And the tariffs could badly hurt Chinese companies and their products too.


  • Some of the largest items that the U.S. is shipping to China include things like soybeans, aircraft and electrical machinery.


  • So, when China retaliated by announcing a 25% tariff on U.S.-made airplanes, that was a direct hit to Boeing, and the company's stock price fell on the news.

    所以,一旦中國為了報復而宣佈會對美國製的飛機增加 25% 關稅的話,會對波音公司造成重大的打擊,有指公司的股價因這個消息而下降。

  • Boeing is selling planes to China Southern Airlines Group, which plans to buy more than 300 aircraft in the next three years.

    波音把飛機賣給中國南方航空,而他們正打算在未來 3 年會多買入 300 架飛機。

  • So with higher tariffs on U.S. planes, it could buy a larger share of airplanes from say France's Airbus instead.


  • The vast majority of economists surveyed by a Reuters poll said that import tariffs would do more harm to the U.S. economy than good.


  • Yet, like most things with President Trump, he's standing his ground, as governments, companies and consumers scramble to see what's next.


  • Hey guys, it's Uptin.

    大家好,我是 Uptin。

  • Thanks for watching!


  • Check out more of our videos here and here.


  • We're also taking suggestions for future CNBC Explains.

    我們現在也在搜集大家對 CNBC 未來拍攝題材的建議。

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iPhones, umbrellas, shoes.



影片操作 你可以在這邊進行「影片」的調整,以及「字幕」的顯示

B2 中高級 中文 美國腔 關稅 美國 中國 手錶 進口 美元

什麼是關稅?到底增加關稅會如何影響經濟? (How do tariffs work? | CNBC Explains)

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    Fibby 發佈於 2019 年 09 月 27 日