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  • Anorexia nervosa is a common and dangerous illness

    厭食症是常見又危險的疾病,

  • that affects millions of people.

    影響了數百萬人。

  • For a long time, it's been thought of primarily as a psychiatric disorder,

    長期以來,一直以為厭食症主要是精神疾病。

  • but new research published this week in the journal Nature Genetics

    但這週發表在《自然-遺傳學》期刊的新研究,

  • suggests there's an important physiological aspect as well.

    指出也有重要的生理因素在其中。

  • This research links the disorder to genetics and metabolism,

    這項研究將厭食症與遺傳及新陳代謝做連結,

  • and it might change the way we understand the origins of the illness

    這可能會改變我們對厭食症起因的了解,

  • as well as potential treatments.

    以及可能的治療方法。

  • Anorexia nervosa is an eating disorder.

    神經性厭食症是飲食疾病。

  • Affected people may be dangerously underweight,

    受影響的人可能體重不足到危險值,

  • with a restricted intake of food,

    限制攝取食物,

  • and often also have a distorted body image.

    往往也有扭曲的身體形象。

  • The end result is that the body is starved of sufficient nutrients,

    最終的結果是身體缺乏足夠的營養。

  • which can lead to various medical complications and even death.

    可能導致各種醫療併發症,甚至是死亡。

  • In fact, according to the U.S. National Institute of Mental Health,

    事實上,根據美國國家心理衛生研究院,

  • anorexia is the most deadly mental disorder.

    厭食症是最致命的精神疾病。

  • Even with treatment, many patients struggle to fully overcome anorexia.

    就算有了治療,很多患者都在努力克服厭食症。

  • The authors of this new research suggest that current treatments

    這篇最新研究的作者指出,現在的治療方法,

  • might be too focused on psychology,

    可能太著重在心理學。

  • and fail to consider the physiology involved in the disorder.

    而沒有想到這種疾病所牽扯到的生理學。

  • This study pulled together genetic data on almost

    這項研究匯總了歐洲血統人中,

  • 17,000 cases of anorexia nervosa among people of European ancestry.

    神經性厭食症的遺傳數據,幾乎有 17,000 例。

  • When they compared that dataset with a control group,

    當他們將該資料集與對照組進行比較時,

  • they found 8 genetic variants significantly associated with anorexia.

    他們發現了 8 種與厭食症明顯相關的遺傳變異。

  • Interestingly, some of these genetic traits are also known

    有趣的是,這些遺傳特徵中有一些,

  • to be related to levels of physical activity, as well as to metabolism,

    認為與身體活動和新陳代謝層別有關。

  • the processes inside the body that convert sustenance into energy.

    新陳代謝是身體內部將營養轉換為能量的過程。

  • People suffering from anorexia have been known to show signs

    現在已知患有厭食症的人會表現出,

  • of abnormal metabolism, but this has often been thought of

    新陳代謝不正常的跡象,但這通常認為

  • as a side effect of being starved of nutrients.

    是缺乏營養的副作用

  • However, the researchers say this genetic link means

    然而,研究人員表示,這種遺傳連結代表,

  • that an unusual metabolism might actually be partly responsible for causing the disorder.

    不正常的新陳代謝可能是造成厭食症的部分原因。

  • The researchers say we should think of anorexia nervosa

    研究人員說,我們應該將神經性厭食症,

  • as arising from a combination of both psychological and physiological factors.

    視為心理和生理因素結合所產生的。

  • They say their analysis potentially expands the list of risk factors

    他們表示,他們的分析可能擴大了這種疾病的危險因子列表。

  • for the disorder -- that is, characteristics that increase

    意思就是,增加個體

  • a person's likelihood of developing it.

    發展出疾病特徵的可能性。

  • And that in turn opens up a whole new avenue for medical professionals

    反之,這為想要找出治療方法,來對付這種致命疾病的醫療專業人士,

  • looking to develop treatments for this deadly disease.

    開闢出一條全新的路。

  • And anorexia isn't the only illness that's more complicated than it seems.

    而厭食症不是唯一比表面更複雜的疾病。

  • Another new study this week, published in

    本週發表的另一項研究,發表在

  • the Journal of the American Medical Association,

    《美國醫學會雜誌》。

  • found a similar duality with dementia -- but the other way around.

    其發現與失智症類似的二元性,但反過來說,

  • Dementia is defined as a decline in mental ability

    失智症定義為精神能力下降。

  • that's severe enough to interfere with a person's daily life.

    嚴重程度足以擾亂一個人的日常生活。

  • It can take many forms, but the most common is Alzheimer's disease,

    它可以採取多種形式,但最常見的是阿滋海默症,

  • which affects more than five million people in the US alone.

    單單在美國就影響超過五百萬人。

  • And Alzheimer's is known to be linked to genes.

    眾所周知,阿滋海默症與基因有關。

  • There are well-known genetic risk factors that are

    大家都知道的遺傳危險因子,

  • associated with a patient's likelihood of developing Alzheimer's.

    與患者罹患阿滋海默症的可能性有關。

  • But this new study found that dementia can also be

    但是這項新研究發現,失智症也可能,

  • influenced by how healthy a person's lifestyle is.

    受到個人的生活方式有多健康的影響。

  • Like the first study, this one looked at a wide sample of genetic data,

    如同第一項研究,這次研究了廣泛的遺傳數據樣本,

  • this time from nearly 200,000 people in the UK,

    這次來自近 200,000 英國人。

  • including more than 1700 recorded cases of dementia.

    其中包括 1,700 多例的失智症病例。

  • The researchers assembled a genetic risk score for each person,

    研究人員收集每個人的遺傳風險分數,

  • but also a lifestyle health score based on each person's self-reported diet,

    還要根據每個人的自我報告飲食

  • level of physical activity, and frequency of smoking or drinking alcohol.

    身體活動程度,以及抽菸或喝酒的頻率,對生活方式進行健康評分。

  • They found that, even among people with a high genetic risk,

    他們發現,即使在具有高遺傳風險的人中,

  • the incidence of dementia was significantly lower in people with a

    生活方式較健康的人與健康狀況較差的人相比,

  • healthier lifestyle versus people living less healthy.

    失智症的發生率也明顯較低。

  • The difference was small but noteworthy.

    差異很小但值得關注。

  • Of the study participants with high genetic risk of dementia,

    有失智症高遺傳風險的研究參與者中,

  • the disease developed in 1.78% of those with unhealthy habits,

    生活不健康的人有 1.78% 會發展成失智症,

  • but only 1.13% of those with a healthier lifestyle.

    但對於生活較健康的人只有 1.13%。

  • In absolute terms, this would mean that if people at high genetic risk

    當然,這代表,如果遺傳風險高的人,

  • improved their lifestyle, one case of dementia could be prevented

    改善其生活方式,每十年,每 121 位高風險人,

  • for each 121 at-risk individuals every decade.

    就能預防 1 例失智症。

  • So this is certainly not a cure, but it does seem that dementia,

    當然,這絕對不是解藥,但似乎失智症,

  • like anorexia nervosa, is related to a combination of factors, both genetic and behavioral.

    就像神經性厭食症,與遺傳和行為等多種因素有關。

  • Which is exciting because as we learn more,

    而這很意思,因為只要我們了解更多,

  • we might discover ways for people to offset their built-in risk

    我們可能會發現透過調整行為和生活方式,

  • of dementia by adjusting their behavior and lifestyle.

    就能抵銷他們固有的失智症風險。

  • But there's definitely still more to be learned.

    但是,肯定還有更多東西要了解。

  • Both of these studies looked at specific populations of people,

    這兩項研究都針對特定人群,

  • mainly those of European ancestry.

    主要是歐洲血統的人。

  • And it will no doubt take more study in more diverse populations

    毫無疑問,必須在更多不同人群中進行更多研究,

  • to tease out exact interrelationships between the various factors involved in these diseases.

    才能搞懂這些疾病涉及的各種因素間的確切相互關係。

  • But the takeaway here is that illness is complicated -

    但重點是這種病很複雜,

  • especially the ones we haven't figured out how to treat yet.

    尤其是我們還沒弄清楚如何治療的病。

  • Genetics can be very helpful in understanding where diseases arise,

    遺傳非常有助於了解這種病的起因,

  • but your genes are not your destiny.

    但遺傳不會是你的命運。

  • Diseases often have complex and interrelated causes,

    疾病通常有複雜和互相關聯原因,

  • and the more we come to understand that complexity,

    我們了解越多其複雜性,

  • the better chance we have in the fight against them.

    就越有機會來對抗疾病。

  • Thanks for watching this episode of SciShow News.

    感謝觀看本集 SciShow News 的內容。

  • If you're interested in helping us bring great videos to the world every day,

    如果你興趣幫助我們將每日影片讓全世界認識,

  • from news to quick questions to deep dives, you can support us on Patreon.

    從新聞到快問快答再到深入討論,你可以在 Patreon 上支持我們。

  • Check it out - patreon.com/scishow - that's the whole reason we can do this.

    到 patreon.com/scishow 看看,那就是我們這麼做的全部原因。

  • Thanks everybody.

    感謝各位。

Anorexia nervosa is a common and dangerous illness

厭食症是常見又危險的疾病,

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B1 中級 中文 美國腔 失智症 研究 新陳代謝 治療 風險 生活

厭食症不僅是精神疾病 (Anorexia Isn't Just a Psychiatric Disorder)

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    Jerry Liu 發佈於 2019 年 09 月 20 日
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