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  • L. O.

    L. O.。

  • Two simple letters that marked one of the biggest changes in human history.

    兩個簡單的字母卻寫下了人類歷史上最巨大的改變。

  • In 1969, programmers were trying to type "login".

    1969 年,程式工程師嘗試要打出「login (登錄)」。

  • Charlie typed the L.

    Charlie 輸入 L。

  • He typed the O.

    輸入 O。

  • He typed the G.

    接著輸入 G。

  • You get to G—whackothe system crashed.

    一打到 G,蹦!系統就癱瘓了。

  • So the very first message on the Internet ever was lo, as in lo and behold.

    所以網路上的第一則訊息是 lo,lo and behold 裡的「lo」。 (lo and behold的意思是「想不到吧」)

  • 50 years later and half the world is now online.

    五十年後,世界上一半的人口都在上網。

  • But that half is primarily from the rich world, which means that the other half quite obviously will have to come from the poor world.

    不過,這一半的人口主要落在富裕的國家,這很明顯地代表,另一半人口是來自貧窮的國家。

  • How will the second half of humanity coming online change the internet?

    若是後半段的人也開始上網,會對網際網路造成什麼改變呢?

  • And how will the Internet change them?

    網際網路又會如何改變他們呢?

  • The really interesting place to look at is India.

    印度這個地區非常有趣。

  • India's Internet penetration was pretty low until very recently with the launch of a new mobile network called Reliance Jio with incredibly cheap phones and incredibly cheap data prices.

    印度過去的網路普及率相當低,直到最近成立一家 Reliance Jio 的全新行動網路公司,他提供極為低價的手機及網路費率。

  • Reliance Jio launched aggressively in 2016 offering subsidized handsets and free data to hook people in.

    Reliance Jio 在 2016 年強勢推動行動裝置,為了吸引群眾而提供手機補助和免費行動數據。

  • India went from being a relatively expensive place to consume data to being the cheapest in the world.

    印度一下子從網路使用費相對高的地方,成了全球網路費率最便宜的地方。

  • Prices crashed by 94%.

    價格降低了 94%。

  • Newer users in the developing world are browsing the Internet in much the same way as people in the developed world.

    開發中國家的新用戶遨遊網路的套路,和已開發國家的使用者一樣。

  • When people get online, the first thing they do is they chat with their friends.

    人們上網做的第一件事,就是和朋友聊天。

  • They watch sports.

    觀看體育賽事。

  • They watch movies.

    看電影。

  • They watch music videos.

    看音樂影片。

  • They watch an extremely large amount of pornography.

    還看許多的色情影片。

  • But this is where the similarities end.

    但他們的相似處到此結束。

  • The Internet was built on the assumptions that many users speak English, are literate and media-savvy.

    當初網路的建立,是假設多數使用者會說英文、識字、很瞭解媒體的。

  • None of those things remain true for the second half of the Internet.

    這些假設都不適用於後半段的網路使用者。

  • You have a whole bunch of languages that don't enjoy very good support in terms of web browsers or input.

    後半段用戶所使用的語言,甚至連瀏覽器及輸入法都不怎麽支援。

  • And you have a whole bunch of people who can't actually read or write.

    還有一大堆用戶不會閱讀或寫字。

  • There's practically no usage of desktop computers, laptop computers.

    桌上型電腦和筆記型電腦的使用率幾乎掛零。

  • It's almost entirely on mobile phones, and these mobile phones tend not to be the expensive, very powerful ones.

    幾乎都是藉由手機來上網,而且通常是較便宜、效能不佳的手機。

  • They have limited amounts of storage.

    這些手機的容量有限。

  • This is prompting big tech companies to change the way their products work.

    這也督促大型科技公司改變自家產品的使用方法。

  • They're having to understand these new behaviors.

    他們必須了解這些新的消費者行為。

  • They're having to fundamentally rethink how they supply their services.

    他們必須從根本上重新思考要如何提供服務。

  • For much of the world that is now coming online, text is not the natural way to interact.

    對於大部分剛接觸網路的人,文字並不是最自然的互動方式。

  • It's smaller Apps that can do more and that can be used with voice or video rather than text.

    他們需要輕量又能做很多事的 App ,還要能用聲音或影像操作,而非文字操作。

  • Many tech giants have already begun to establish themselves in emerging markets.

    很多科技巨擘已在新興市場卡位。

  • Facebook has over 1.5 billion users in developing countries.

    臉書在開發中國家有超過十五億用戶。

  • And the YouTube channel with the most subscribers is a Bollywood studio and record label.

    YouTube 最多人訂閱的頻道,是一家寶萊塢唱片公司。

  • Creating large user bases is one thing.

    坐擁大量的用戶數是一回事。

  • Making money from them is another.

    從中賺錢獲利又是另一回事。

  • The prevailing assumption around making money on the Internet until this point has been a largely American assumption of advertising.

    現今盛行能在網路上賺錢的說法,源自於美國對於廣告收入的假設。

  • 99% of Facebook's revenue comes from advertising, as does 85% of Google's.

    臉書 99% 的收入來自廣告,谷歌 85% 的收入也是。

  • But many people in the developing world are poor.

    但發展中國家大部分都是窮人。

  • So users don't have the same value to advertisers.

    所以用戶數對廣告商來說,並沒有相同的價值。

  • Take Facebook's last quarter of 2018.

    來看看臉書 2018 年第四季。

  • They make 12 times as much money per user in North America than they do in Asia.

    平均每個北美用戶身上賺到的金額,是亞洲使用者的 12 倍。

  • And overall annual revenue from the developing world is much lower too.

    從發展中國家賺得的年度收入也低很多。

  • Google for instance, about 46% of their revenues comes from the US alone and only about 15% from Asia.

    以谷歌為例,他們約 46% 的收入來自美國,只有 15% 來自亞洲。

  • That 15% includes rich countries like Australia and Japan.

    亞州的 15% 還包含澳洲、日本等較富裕的國家。

  • Take those away and the revenue from Asia would be even lower.

    若扣掉這兩國,來自亞洲的收入會更低。

  • If the traditional advertising model isn't going to work, tech companies will have to think outside the box.

    如果傳統廣告模型不適用,科技公司必須跳脫常規思考。

  • What people will pay for is the opportunity to express themselves.

    人們願意付費購買展現自我的機會。

  • Until the advent of smartphones really, a big money-spinner for Indian mobile networks was something called a caller-ringback tone.

    在智慧型手機出現以前,印度電信公司的搖錢樹,是個叫做「來電答鈴」的東西。

  • I would pick a song that I like very much, and if you were calling me, you would hear it.

    我會選一首很喜歡的歌,你打電話給我的話,你就會聽到這首歌。

  • And I pay a monthly fee for that to happen.

    而我會為此付月租費。

  • Now think about exactly what this is.

    好好思考,想想看這代表什麼。

  • I am paying money for a song I will never listen to, only so that my friends who are calling me can hear it because I want to express myself.

    我付錢買自己聽不到的歌曲,僅僅是要讓朋友來電時聽得到,因為我想要展現自我。

  • So it'll be lots of novel ideas like that for very, very small amounts of money.

    所以會冒出許多這類新奇的點子,而且只要付一點點錢。

  • But we're talking about lots and lots of people doing these things.

    但我們提到過,用戶數非常多。

  • One thing is for sure.

    有件事是肯定的。

  • The Internet's second revolution will change people's lives for the better.

    第二次網際網路革命,會讓人類的生活變得更好。

  • The ability of people around the world to have a good time is becoming a little bit more equal.

    世界各地人們享樂的能力,逐漸往更平等的方向前進。

  • And that, while hard to pin down in economic data, is a net benefit to just the general well-being of humankind.

    儘管很難以經濟數據來定義這些發展,卻是全體人類的福祉。

  • Which can be very easy to understate or to ignore, especially if you're used to those things, but has a really meaningful impact.

    這些效益很容易被低估、甚至忽視,尤其當你已經太習慣有網路,但它已經帶來極具意義的影響。

L. O.

L. O.。

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互聯網的第二次革命 (The internet's second revolution | The Economist)

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    Estelle 發佈於 2021 年 05 月 21 日
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