初級 美國腔 22 分類 收藏
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Hi, I'm Fame Ketover of Lenguin com, and this is Mandarin Chinese
Get ready because we're going to be talking about tones
Listen to these four Chinese tones, which we'll do in their traditional order
ma má ma mà
Again
ma má ma mà
Ok, so you're an English speaker, you're probably like,
they just said the same word in four different ways
Well, not quite
See, in English, I could say, "Ma???"
And that'd mean like, "is that you, mom?"Then I could say, "Ma!!"
Which would mean perhaps, "mom, you're embarrassing me!!!"
But in both cases the word "ma" is refering to the same thing
But, things work differently in Chinese
The way you say the word, determines which word it is
Now listen again to what we said are different words in Chinese
ma má ma mà
Again
ma má ma mà
To a speaker of Chinese each of these words is perfectly distinguishable from the others
The different tones keep them apart the same way that
in English different consonants set off "ma" from "pa" and different vowels set off "ma"
from "me" So giving a word a wrong tone can be just
as disastrous as giving it a wrong consonant or vowel
For example, if you say this: ma, when what you meant was this: ma,
you basically just called your mother a horse
So, let's take a look at the visual representation of each tone
The vertical scale covers about an octave Just which octave it is, of course, depends
on your voice Now this is a somewhat greater range than
you would use in English Since the top of the range will seem slightly
too high for comfort and the bottom's going to seem slightly too low
The first tone, or high tone, word "mother" and the third tone, or low tone, word "horse",
will help you locate these extremes Have a listen:
ma ma Again, "mother" and "horse", high versus low
má mà People often equate Chinese tones to notes
on the musical scale And like you just heard, the distinctive difference
between the two tones is that one is high and one is low
But you may have noticed that while the high tone was like a single steady high note,
the low tone was lower in the middle than at either end
For a more dramatic example of such a difference in contour,
listen to the second tone, or the rising tone, word "hemp" and the fourth tone, or falling
tone, word "to scold"
má mà Again, "hemp" and "to scold", rising versus
falling
má mà Can you see the distinctive contours of the
tones? You can also see it suggested in the accent
mark used to indicate the tones of the romanization Tones also differ in length, the third tone's
the longest and the fourth tone is the shortest They also have different patterns of loudness,
which you can see in the width of the curves So let's go through the tones in their traditional
order By the time we're done we'll have contrasted
each tone with every other tone
The first tone is called the high tone It's pitch is near the top of your speaking
range and it's contour is level Listen to the high tone word which means "mother"
ma ma ma We don't really use such high level intonation
in English, so the high tone might seem sung rather than
spoken
ma ma ma Try repeating "mother" after the speaker
Make sure you stay on the same high note throughout
ma ma ma If you're getting it right, it should feel
a bit unnatural Try saying the high tone word "mother" and
then repeat after the speaker
ma Notice that the mark in the romanization shows
its level contour Try saying "mother" again, and repeat after
the speaker
ma The second tone is called the rising tone
It starts in the middle of your range and almost immediately rises sharply to the top
of your range Listen to the rising tone word, which means
"hemp"
má má má In English, if you want to ask, "Is that YOU
mother?", you can say, "ma????", with a rising intonation
So, think of that question, "ma????", and it may help you pronounce the rising tone
word which means "hemp" But remember that it's not a question and
it has nothing to do with mother Try repeating "hemp" after the speaker
má má má Now try saying the rising tone word "hemp"
yourself, and repeat
má Notice that the tone mark in the romanization
rises from left to right Try saying "hemp" again and repeat
má Now let's compare the high tone with the rising
tone Both are in the upper part of the pitch range
But the high tone stays level, while the rising tone climbs sharply,
staying slightly below the high tone and then reaching the top of the range
Listen to "mother" followed by "hemp"
ma má Again, high tone - rising tone
ma má Let's turn them around now, "hemp" followed
by "mother"
má ma Again, rising tone - high tone
má ma The third tone is called the low tone
It has a slightly dipping contour It starts fairly low, and then dips to the
very bottom of your range You can almost feel and hear it scraping bottom
At the end it swoops up a bit The most important part, and the part to listen
for and the part to really emphasize, is the low part in the middle
Remember, also, that this is the longest tone Listen to the low tone word, which means "horse"
ma ma ma Try repeating horse, concentrating on getting
as low as you can
ma ma ma Now try saying the low tone word "horse" yourself
and repeat
ma You can see the the dipping contour in the
tone mark Try saying "horse" again and repeat
ma It's pretty easy to tell the high tone and
the low tone apart, since they contrast in contours as well as
in pitch The high tone is level and the low tone is
dipping Listen to "mother" followed by "horse"
ma ma Again, high tone - low tone
ma ma Now, we'll turn them around, "horse" followed
by "mother"
ma ma Again, low tone - high tone
ma ma The contrast between the rising tone and the
low tone is a bit harder Most students actually find it hardest of
all One reason is that their starting points are
not too far apart, and they also both rise at the end
The best way to tell them apart is to keep your mind fixed on the features which give
them their names For the rising tone, think rising
All the energy goes into reaching the ceiling The tone actually gets louder as it rises
For the low tone, think low All the energy goes into reaching the floor
The rising tail of the low tone is almost an afterthought
In fact, the rising tail is completely lost in certain circumstances as we'll see in another
lesson Listen to "hemp" followed by "horse"
má ma Again, rising tone - low tone
má ma Now, the other way around, "horse" followed
by "hemp"
ma má Again, low tone - rising tone
ma má Now, the fourth tone is called the falling
tone It's an sudden drop from the top of your range
to the bottom Listen to the falling tone word, which means
"to scold"
mà mà mà Since in English we use a falling intonation
at the end of statements and exclamations, the falling tone might sound declarative or
emphatic Listen to the answers in this English conversation
"Who's mowing the lawn?" "Ma"
"Whatdya say??" "Ma!!"
Try repeating the verb "to scold", sliding all the way down the scale as fast as you
can
mà mà mà Now try saying the falling tone word "to scold"
yourself and repeat
mà Notice that the tone mark drops from left
to right Try saying "to scold" again and repeat
mà The contrast between the high tone and the
falling tone should be clear Since one stays high and one starts high but
drops sharply to the bottom The rising tone is a mirror image of the falling
tone Except that the rising tone rises from the
middle of your range to the top, while the falling tone falls the whole way
down from top to bottom The easiest way to tell them apart is to think
of the English question and statement intonations But remember that the rising tone has nothing
to do with questions and the falling tone has nothing to do with statements
The contrast between the low and falling tones shouldn't present any difficulty
Just remember that the falling tone drops sharply through the full range,
while the low tone spends most of its time at the bottom
It helps that the falling tone is the shortest tone and the low tone is the longest
Well, that's the end of this lesson Remember to head over to Lenguin
com to do the exercises for this lesson That's Lenguin as in Lenguin the Penguin
Thanks for watching! I want to thank all of our subscribers and
supporters for their help in making these courses possible
In future lessons this is where I'll be giving shout-outs to our Patreon supporters
Be sure to visit our Patreon page to see all the goodies that we're offering
Until next time, stay cool
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發音 (Learn Mandarin Chinese - How to Pronounce 4 Tones (Lesson 1))

22 分類 收藏
發佈於 2019 年 9 月 1 日
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