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  • Last summer, I got a call from a woman named Ellie.

    譯者: Lilian Chiu 審譯者: Melody Tang

  • And she had heard about the family separations at the southern border

    去年夏天,有位名叫 艾莉的女子打電話給我。

  • and wanted to know what she could do to help.

    她聽說了在南方邊境 家庭會被拆散的事情,

  • She told me the story of her grandfather and his father.

    她想要知道她能如何協助。

  • When they were kids in Poland,

    她跟我說了她的祖父和父親的故事。

  • their father,

    他們小時候,還在波蘭時,

  • fearing for his son's safety,

    他們的父親,憂心兒子的安全,

  • gave them a little bit of money and told them to walk west,

    給了他們一點錢,叫他們向西行,

  • to just keep walking west across Europe.

    一直向西走,穿越歐洲。

  • And they did.

    他們照做了。

  • They walked all the way west across Europe,

    他們一路走到了西歐,

  • and they got on a boat and they got to America.

    他們搭上一艘船,到了美國。

  • Ellie said that when she heard the stories of the teens

    艾莉說,當她聽到青少年

  • walking up across Mexico,

    步行穿過墨西哥的故事,

  • all she could think about was her grandfather and his brother.

    她滿腦子都是她的祖父和兄弟。

  • She said that for her, the stories were exactly the same.

    她說,對她而言, 這些故事一模一樣。

  • Those brothers were the Hassenfeld Brothers --

    那些兄弟是海森費德兄弟——

  • the "Has" "bros" --

    「海氏」「兄弟」——

  • the Hasbro toy company,

    「孩之寶」玩具公司,

  • which, of course, brought us Mr. Potato Head.

    也就是帶給我們 「蛋頭先生」的玩具公司。

  • But that is not actually why I'm telling you this story.

    但這並不是我跟各位 分享這個故事的原因。

  • I'm telling you this story because it made me think

    我想分享這個故事,

  • about whether I would have the faith,

    是因為它讓我思考

  • the courage,

    我是否會有那樣的信心、

  • to send my teens -- and I have three of them --

    勇氣,

  • on a journey like that.

    將我的青少年孩子—— 我有三個——

  • Knowing that they wouldn't be safe where we were,

    送上那樣的旅程。

  • would I be able to watch them go?

    如果我知道他們待在 我們原本的地方並不安全,

  • I started my career decades ago at the southern US border,

    我是否能目送著他們離開?

  • working with Central American asylum seekers.

    數十年前,我在美國南方 邊境開始了我的職涯,

  • And in the last 16 years, I've been at HIAS,

    處理尋求庇護的中美人士。

  • the Jewish organization that fights for refugee rights around the world,

    在過去十六年間,我待在 希伯來移民援助協會(HIAS),

  • as a lawyer and an advocate.

    它是個猶太組織, 在全世界為難民權力而戰,

  • And one thing I've learned is that, sometimes,

    我的工作是律師及倡導者。

  • the things that we're told make us safer and stronger

    我學到的其中一件事就是,有時,

  • actually don't.

    我們聽說能夠讓我們更安全、 更強壯的那些政策,

  • And, in fact, some of these policies have the opposite of the intended results

    並非這麼回事。

  • and in the meantime, cause tremendous and unnecessary suffering.

    事實上,這些政策當中, 有些會產生和本意相反的結果,

  • So why are people showing up at our southern border?

    同時,還會造成巨大 又不必要的痛苦。

  • Most of the immigrants and refugees that are coming to our southern border

    所以,為什麼會有人 出現在我們的南方邊境?

  • are fleeing three countries: Guatemala, Honduras and El Salvador.

    大部分來到我們南方邊境的 外來移民或難民,

  • These countries are consistently ranked

    都是從這三個國家逃出來的: 瓜地馬拉、宏都拉斯、薩爾瓦多。

  • among the most violent countries in the world.

    這些國家一直都在

  • It's very difficult to be safe in these countries,

    世界上最暴力的國家的 排行榜上名列前茅。

  • let alone build a future for yourself and your family.

    在這些國家裡很難求得安全,

  • And violence against women and girls is pervasive.

    更不可能為你自己 和你的家人建立一個未來。

  • People have been fleeing Central America

    而且針對女人和女孩的暴力非常普遍。

  • for generations.

    數世代以來,

  • Generations of refugees have been coming to our shores,

    一直有人試圖逃離中美洲。

  • fleeing the civil wars of the 1980s,

    數個世代的難民不斷 來到我們的海岸,

  • in which the United States was deeply involved.

    躲避 1980 年代的內戰,

  • This is nothing new.

    而美國和這些內戰有很深的關聯。

  • What's new is that recently, there's been a spike in families,

    這不是新聞。

  • children and families, showing up at checkpoints

    新聞是,最近突然有大量的家庭,

  • and presenting themselves to seek asylum.

    孩童和家庭,出現在檢查站,

  • Now, this has been in the news lately,

    自稱要尋求庇護。

  • so I want you to remember a few things as you see those images.

    這是這陣子的新聞,

  • One, this is not a historically high level of interceptions at the southern border,

    我希望各位在看這些影像時, 能記住幾件事。

  • and, in fact, people are presenting themselves at checkpoints.

    第一,在南方邊境,這不是 歷史上屬於大規模的攔截行動。

  • Two, people are showing up with the clothes on their backs;

    事實上,大家是自己出現在檢查站。

  • some of them are literally in flip-flops.

    第二,大家會背著衣物現身,

  • And three, we're the most powerful country in the world.

    有些人還真的穿著人字拖。

  • It's not a time to panic.

    第三,我們是世界上最強大的國家。

  • It's easy from the safety of the destination country

    不是我們需要慌張的時候。

  • to think in terms of absolutes:

    從目的地國家的安全角度,

  • Is it legal, or is it illegal?

    來做黑白分明的思考是很容易的:

  • But the people who are wrestling with these questions

    它是合法的或者不合法的?

  • and making these decisions about their families

    但在努力解決這些問題,

  • are thinking about very different questions:

    並做出攸關家人之決定的這些人,

  • How do I keep my daughter safe?

    腦袋裡想的問題非常不同:

  • How do I protect my son?

    我要如何確保我的女兒安全?

  • And if you want absolutes,

    我要如何保護我的兒子?

  • it's absolutely legal to seek asylum.

    如果我們要黑白分明的答案,

  • It is a fundamental right in our own laws and in international law.

    尋求庇護是絕對合法的。

  • And, in fact --

    在我們自己的法律及國際法中, 它都是一項基本權利。

  • (Applause)

    且,事實上——

  • it stems from the 1951 Refugee Convention,

    (掌聲)

  • which was the world's response to the Holocaust

    它源自 1951 年的難民地位公約,

  • and a way for countries to say never again would we return people to countries

    該公約是世界對於 猶太人大屠殺做出的回應,

  • where they would harmed or killed.

    它也是這些國家的聲明, 表示我們不會把人送回到

  • There are several ways refugees come to this country.

    會讓他們被傷害或殺害的國家。

  • One is through the US Refugee Admissions Program.

    難民要到美國,有好幾種方式。

  • Through that program, the US identifies and selects refugees abroad

    其一是透過美國難民接納計畫。

  • and brings them to the United States.

    美國透過該計畫來找出、 選擇國外的難民,

  • Last year, the US resettled fewer refugees

    並將他們帶到美國。

  • than at any time since the program began in 1980.

    去年,美國安頓的難民人數

  • And this year, it'll probably be less.

    是 1980 年該計畫 啟動以來最低的人數。

  • And this is at a time when we have more refugees in the world

    今年,可能還會更低。

  • than at any other time in recorded history,

    現在這個時候, 全世界難民數超過了

  • even since World War II.

    有歷史記錄的任何年代, 甚至二次大戰之後的。

  • Another way that refugees come to this country is by seeking asylum.

    難民要進入美國的 另一個方式,就是尋求庇護。

  • Asylum seekers are people who present themselves at a border

    要尋求庇護的人,會直接到邊境去,

  • and say that they'll be persecuted if they're sent back home.

    宣稱如果他們被遣送 回家就會被迫害。

  • An asylum seeker is simply somebody who's going through the process

    尋求庇護的人,

  • in the United States

    就只是在美國要跑完整個流程的人,

  • to prove that they meet the refugee definition.

    證明他們符合難民的定義。

  • And it's never been more difficult to seek asylum.

    以前要尋求庇護沒有這麼困難。

  • Border guards are telling people when they show up at our borders

    當難民到達邊境時, 邊境巡警就只是告訴他們,

  • that our country's full, that they simply can't apply.

    我們的國家滿了,不接受申請。

  • This is unprecedented and illegal.

    這是史無前例且不合法的。

  • Under a new program,

    現在有一個新計畫,

  • with the kind of Orwellian title "Migrant Protection Protocols,"

    名稱很歐威爾式, 叫做「移民保護協定」,

  • refugees are told they have to wait in Mexico

    難民被告知他們得要在墨西哥

  • while their cases make their way through the courts in the United States,

    等待他們的案子 通過美國法庭的審核,

  • and this can take months or years.

    可能要花上數個月甚至數年。

  • Meanwhile, they're not safe,

    在這期間,他們並不安全,

  • and they have no access to lawyers.

    且他們沒有任何律師協助。

  • Our country, our government, has detained over 3,000 children,

    我們的國家、我們的政府 拘留了超過三千名孩童,

  • separating them from their parents' arms,

    將他們從父母的懷抱中奪走,

  • as a deterrent from seeking asylum.

    當作遏制尋求庇護的籌碼。

  • Many were toddlers,

    許多孩童還在學步年齡,

  • and at least one was a six-year-old blind girl.

    至少還有一位六歲的視障女孩。

  • And this is still going on.

    這種事仍然在發生。

  • We spend billions to detain people in what are virtually prisons

    我們花數十億美元去把人 拘留在幾乎像是監獄的地方,

  • who have committed no crime.

    而他們都沒有犯罪。

  • And family separation has become the hallmark of our immigration system.

    拆散家庭已經成了我們 移民體制的招牌特色。

  • That's a far cry from a shining city on a hill or a beacon of hope

    那根本就不是在山丘上的 閃亮都市或是希望之光,

  • or all of the other ways we like to talk about ourselves and our values.

    或是我們用來訴說我們自身 及我們價值觀的任何方式。

  • Migration has always been with us, and it always will be.

    我們一直與移民共存, 這點將來也不會變。

  • The reasons why people flee -- persecution, war, violence,

    讓人們逃離的原因—— 迫害、戰爭、暴力、

  • climate change

    氣候變遷,

  • and the ability now to see on your phone what life is like in other places --

    以及現在用手機就能夠看到 其他地方的生活是什麼樣子的技術——

  • those pressures are only growing.

    那些壓力只會增長。

  • But there are ways that we can have policies that reflect our values

    但我們還是有辦法可以制訂出 反映我們價值觀的政策,

  • and actually make sense, given the reality in the world.

    且在這個現實世界上 算是合理的政策。

  • The first thing we need to do is dial back the toxic rhetoric

    我們得要做的第一件事, 就是要減少有害的言論,

  • that has been the basis of our national debate on this issue for too long.

    我們全國長久以來 針對這個議題做辯論時

  • (Applause)

    都是以這些言論為基礎。

  • I am not an immigrant or a refugee myself,

    (掌聲)

  • but I take these attacks personally, because my grandparents were.

    我自己並非移民或難民,

  • My great-grandmother Rose didn't see her kids for seven years,

    但我都覺得這些攻擊感同身受, 因為我的祖父母是難民。

  • as she tried to bring them from Poland to New York.

    我的曾祖母蘿絲試著把 她的孩子從波蘭帶到紐約時,

  • She left my grandfather when he was seven

    有七年都沒有見到他們。

  • and didn't see him again until he was 14.

    她在我祖父七歲時離開他, 直到他十四歲時才再度相見。

  • On the other side of my family,

    至於我母親那一邊,

  • my grandmother Aliza left Poland in the 1930s

    我的外婆艾莉莎 在 1930 年代離開波蘭,

  • and left for what was then the British Mandate of Palestine,

    前往當時的英屬巴勒斯坦託管地,

  • and she never saw her family and friends again.

    她從此沒有再見過她的家人和朋友。

  • Global cooperation as a response to global migration and displacement

    用全球合作來回應全球移民和流亡

  • would go a long way towards making migration something that isn't a crisis

    需要很長的時間,才能讓移民變成

  • but something that just is,

    不是一種危機, 而單純就只是移民,

  • and that we deal with as a global community.

    我們要以全球共同體來處理它。

  • Humanitarian aid is also critical.

    人道援助也很重要。

  • The amount of support we provide to countries in Central America

    我們提供給那些造成難民和移民的

  • that are sending refugees and migrants

    中美洲國家的援助金額,

  • is a tiny fraction of the amount we spend on enforcement and detention.

    比起我們花在強制執行 和拘留上的金額,根本微不足道。

  • And we can absolutely have an asylum system that works.

    我們絕對可以找到 一種行得通的庇護體制。

  • For a tiny fraction of the cost of a wall,

    只要用建造圍牆的費用的一小部分,

  • we could hire more judges,

    我們就可以僱用更多法官, 確保尋求庇護者能有律師,

  • make sure asylum seekers have lawyers

    以及致力於創造 一個人道的庇護系統。

  • and commit to a humane asylum system.

    (掌聲)

  • (Applause)

    我們能夠安置更多難民。

  • And we could resettle more refugees.

    關於難民計畫安置人數的下降, 給大家一點概念:

  • To give you a sense of the decline in the refugee program:

    三年前,美國安置了 一萬五千名敘利亞的難民,

  • three years ago, the US resettled 15,000 Syrian refugees

    這是美國對地球上最大的 難民危機做出的回應。

  • in response to the largest refugee crisis on earth.

    一年後,數字變為三千。

  • A year later, that number was 3,000.

    去年,數字是六十二人。

  • And last year, that number was 62 people.

    六十二人。

  • 62 people.

    儘管有嚴苛的言論 和行動來阻擋移民,

  • Despite the harsh rhetoric and efforts to block immigration,

    讓難民無法進入美國,

  • keep refugees out of the country,

    根據民調,在美國,

  • support for refugees and immigrants in this country, according to polls,

    對於難民和移民的支持 比以往都還要高。

  • has never been higher.

    像我服務的 HIAS 這類組織,

  • Organizations like HIAS, where I work,

    以及其他人道和宗教組織,

  • and other humanitarian and faith-based organizations,

    讓你很容易採取堅定的立場,

  • make it easy for you to take a stand

    不論是當有值得反對的法律、

  • when there's a law that's worth opposing

    有值得支援的法律, 或需要監督的政策。

  • or a law that's worth supporting or a policy that needs oversight.

    如果你有手機,你就能做點什麼,

  • If you have a phone,

    如果你想做更多也行。

  • you can do something,

    我可以告訴各位,如果你們 在邊境看過其中一個拘留中心,

  • and if you want to do more, you can.

    裡面關著孩子—— 這些地方是監獄——

  • I will tell you that if you see one of these detention centers

    你的感覺會截然不同。

  • along the border

    我很喜歡我和艾莉的那通電話,

  • with children in them -- they're jails --

    是因為她打從內心深處就知道, 她祖父母的故事

  • you will never be the same.

    和現今的故事沒有什麼不同,

  • What I loved so much about my call with Ellie

    且她想要採取行動。

  • was that she knew in her core that the stories of her grandparents

    如果今天我要留給各位什麼,

  • were no different than today's stories,

    除了蛋頭先生的幕後花絮,

  • and she wanted to do something about it.

    它的確是個可以留給大家的好故事,

  • If I leave you with one thing,

    但我要留給各位的是, 這個國家透過

  • beyond the backstory for Mr. Potato Head,

    同情心和實用主義來展現力量,

  • which is, of course, a good story to leave with,

    而不是透過武力和恐懼。

  • it's that a country shows strength

    (掌聲)

  • through compassion and pragmatism,

    海森費德的故事、 我的親戚和你的親戚的故事,

  • not through force and through fear.

    至今仍然在發生; 都是一樣的故事。

  • (Applause)

    一個強壯的國家,對難民

  • These stories of the Hassenfelds and my relatives and your relatives

    不會說「走開」,而會說

  • are still happening today; they're all the same.

    「沒事了,有我們罩你, 你安全了。」

  • A country is strong when it says to the refugee,

    謝謝。

  • not, "Go away," but,

    (掌聲)

  • "It's OK, we've got you, you're safe."

    謝謝。

  • Thank you.

    (掌聲)

  • (Applause)

  • Thanks.

  • (Applause)

Last summer, I got a call from a woman named Ellie.

譯者: Lilian Chiu 審譯者: Melody Tang

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B1 中級 中文 美國腔 TED 難民 移民 邊境 尋求 美國

TED】Melanie Nezer:尋求庇護的基本權利(The fundamental right to seek asylum | Melanie Nezer) (【TED】Melanie Nezer: The fundamental right to seek asylum (The fundamental right to seek asylum | Melanie Nezer))

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    林宜悉 發佈於 2021 年 01 月 14 日
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