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  • Sushi

    壽司

  • Sushi is a symbol of Japan and is one of the most popular Japanese dishes around the world.

    壽司是日本的一個象徵,也是全球最受歡迎的日本料理之一。

  • But what is sushi?

    但究竟什麼是壽司?

  • For starters, sushi consists of vinegared rice combined with different toppings, usually seafood, and comes in different forms such as Nigirizushi, Makizushi, Gunkanzushi, Oshizushi, Temakizushi, Chirashizushi and Inarizushi.

    首先,壽司是由醋飯加上不同的配料組成的,配料通常是海鮮。壽司有不同形式,像是握壽司、細卷壽司、軍艦壽司、押壽司、手卷壽司、散壽司和稻荷壽司。

  • Sushi can be enjoyed at a wide range of establishments.

    壽司可以在各種地方享用。

  • From high-end restaurants where one sushi can cost more than 1000 yen a piece, to cheap on-the-go kaitenzushi restaurants that serve sushi for 50 yen a piece on a conveyor belt.

    從一個壽司要價超過 1000 日圓的高級餐廳,到在輸送帶上一個只要 50 日圓的便宜迴轉壽司餐廳。

  • Before we go into more details about this delicacy, let's take a quick glance at the history of sushi.

    在我們進入這道佳餚的更多細節之前,先來快速地看一下壽司的歷史。

  • In ancient times, raw fish was prepared for nobility, and in order to preserve it, it was fermented with rice.

    在古代,生魚是準備給貴族的,而為了保存,它們被放在米飯裡發酵。

  • After the fermentation process, the rice was discarded and only the fish was eaten.

    發酵完成後,米飯會被丟棄,只有魚肉會被拿來食用。

  • This traditional version of sushi can actually be found, and is still eaten in Shiga Prefecture, and is called Funazushi.

    這種傳統版壽司可以在滋賀縣找到,並且仍有人在食用,它叫做鮒壽司 。

  • In the 15th Century, people started to eat the rice used in the fermentation of the fish before it would turn into a paste.

    15 世紀,人們開始會趁用來發酵魚肉的米飯變成糊之前把它吃掉。

  • Two centuries later, the biggest shift in sushi history happened when rice was replaced by vinegar as the fermentation agent.

    兩個世紀後,壽司歷史上最大的轉變發生了,醋代替米飯成為發酵劑。

  • This way it wasn't necessary to wait several months for the process to end and the fish could be consumed sooner.

    如此一來就不需要花數月等待發酵的過程結束,並且魚肉可以更快被食用。

  • The second big shift in sushi history happened during the Edo Period.

    壽司歷史上的第二大轉折發生在江戶時代。

  • At the time sushi was still expensive, and mostly made for special occasions, until an employee at a famous sushi shop in Edo - now Tokyo - decided to make cheap, delicious, and quickly-prepared sushi for everyone.

    當時壽司仍非常昂貴而且幾乎只用在特殊活動,直到一位在江戶,現在的東京,知名壽司店工作的員工決定要製作便宜、美味又可以快速製作的壽司給大家。

  • During the Edo Period, street-food stands known as yatai were the number one choice when it came to grabbing a quick lunch on the go.

    在江戶時代,路邊攤又稱作屋台,是當人們在忙碌時打算快速吃頓簡便午餐時的首選。

  • Sushi were sold there and earned the nickname of Haya Sushi or "quick sushi" because of how fast they were made.

    壽司會在這些地方販賣,並因為其迅速的製作過程而得到了快速壽司的稱號。

  • This marked the birth of nigirizushi.

    這標示了握壽司的誕生。

  • At that time, sushi pieces were considerably bigger: almost three times the size of modern sushi.

    在當時,壽司是相當大塊的:幾乎是現代壽司的三倍大。

  • However, things changed after World War II, when Japan suffered from a shortage of food.

    然而第二次世界大戰後,日本面臨糧食短缺,情況因此有所改變。

  • A union of sushi chefs decided to create a service that would allow people to supply their own rice and pay a small fee for a chef to make a set of 10 sushi which were smaller than pre-war sushi.

    一群壽司師傅決定提供一種服務,讓人們可以自己準備米飯並支付一筆小小的金額讓師傅幫他們製作一套十個、尺寸比戰前時代小的壽司套餐。

  • This became the standard size for modern sushi.

    這成為了現代壽司的標準尺寸。

  • Because of the scarcity of ingredients during the post-war years, sushi using vegetables, such as cucumbers, called kappa-zushi, were invented.

    由於戰後幾年食材的不足,使用蔬菜製作的壽司,例如小黃瓜,被發明出來,稱作河童壽司。

  • Finally, in 1950, the first conveyor belt sushi restaurant opened in Osaka.

    最後,在1950 年,第一間使用輸送帶的迴轉壽司餐廳在大阪開幕了。

  • The birth of kaitenzushi restaurants helped make sushi a more accessible and on the go dish like it use to be back in the Edo Period.

    迴轉壽司餐廳的誕生讓壽司變為更加容易取得且方便攜帶的菜餚,就像之前在江戶時代一樣。

  • Although kaitenzushi continues to be popular today, gourmet restaurant options are still widely available.

    儘管迴轉壽司到今日依然非常受歡迎,還是有許多可供選擇的優質餐廳。

  • How to eat sushi.

    怎麼吃壽司

  • A piece of sushi consists of vinegared rice called Shari and a topping called Neta.

    一個壽司是由醋飯 - Shari 和配料 - Neta 所組成。

  • Some popular Neta include: tuna, salmon, shrimp, eel, scallops, sea urchin, and many more.

    熱門的配料有:鮪魚、鮭魚、蝦子、鰻魚、扇貝、海膽及許多其他的。

  • When you are facing a spread of sushi which features many different neta, there is no specific order in which you ought to eat the different sushi pieces.

    當你面對一盤有各式各樣配料的壽司,並沒有特定的食用順序。

  • However, some people recommend starting with a lighter Neta, for example seabream, and making your way to the stronger ones like Anago, which is already coated in a thick sauce, and ending the meal with the lightly sweetened egg.

    不過,有些人建議先從較清淡的配料開始,比方說海鯛,接著再朝口味較重的吃,像是已經塗有一層厚厚醬汁的星鰻,最後再以稍微帶甜味的雞蛋收尾。

  • But, really any order is fine!

    但是,真的,任何順序都可以!

  • Sushi can be eaten using either your hands or chopsticks.

    你可以用手或是筷子吃壽司。

  • First, dip it in the soy sauce.

    首先,沾一點醬油。

  • The proper way to do so is to dip the neta rather than the rice.

    正確的方式是用配料去沾,而不是米飯。

  • For that, flip the sushi to the side and only dip a small portion of it, or otherwise the sauce would overpower the delicate taste of the fish.

    因此,把壽司翻到側邊,然後只沾一點點,否則醬油會蓋過魚肉本身細緻的味道。

  • When you are eating Gunkan, use the Ginger, called Gari in Japanese, to dip in the soy sauce and dribble it on top of the gunkan.

    當你在吃軍艦壽司時,利用薑,日文叫做 Gari,去沾醬油然後滴在軍艦上。

  • Pieces already marinated or seasoned do not need to be dipped in soy sauce.

    已經帶有醬汁或是調味過的配料就不需要再沾醬油了。

  • Ginger is also eaten in between pieces to help cleanse your palate and appreciate the next piece better.

    薑片也會在吃不同壽司前食用,幫助你清味蕾以便更好地享受下一口。

  • It's good manners to eat the sushi in one bite.

    一口吃掉壽司是比較有禮貌的。

  • But do NOT bite half of the sushi or try to split it into multiple pieces then put it back on your plate, since this is considered bad manners.

    不過千萬不要把壽司咬一半或是分成好幾塊後再放回盤子上,因為這被視為非常沒有禮貌的。

  • Also it's important not to separate the fish from the rice.

    另外,不要把魚跟飯分開這點也很重要。

  • Although many people do it, we do not recommend adding wasabi into your soy sauce.

    我們並不建議你將芥末拌進醬油裡,雖然很多人會這麼做。

  • In Japan wasabi is directly put inside appropriate pieces of sushi by the chef, in between the Shari and the Neta.

    在日本,壽司師傅會直接將芥末放入合適的壽司配料及米飯中間。

  • Although we recommend trying it with the wasabi, you can ask for Wasabi-nuki which means without wasabi.

    儘管我們推薦你搭配芥末一起食用,你也可以要求不要芥末。

  • Another reason to not add wasabi into your soy sauce is that some pieces of sushi are better enjoyed with seasonings other than wasabi, such as grated ginger.

    我們不建議你將芥末拌進醬油裡的另一個原因是,有些壽司更適合搭配芥末以外的調味料享用,像是薑末。

  • If you are eating at a counter, the sushi chef will display the sushi one by one in front of you on a serving board called a geta.

    如果你是坐在吧檯區,壽司師傅會將壽司逐一擺放在你面前叫做 geta 的餐盤上。

  • The name geta actually comes from its resemblance to a wooden Japanese shoe of the same name.

    geta 這個名稱其實是源於它與日式木屐相似的外型。

  • Don't move the geta from its original position; instead take the sushi with your hand or chopsticks and eat it directly.

    不要移動 geta 原本的位置,用手或是筷子直接拿取壽司並食用。

  • When eating at a kaiten-zushi restaurant, sushi is prepared and served on plates, not geta, that go around the restaurant on a conveyor belt and there are usually more than one piece per plate.

    當你在迴轉壽司店吃壽司時,壽司已經做好並放置在盤子上,而不是 geta。它們乘著輸送帶在餐廳裡繞,而且盤子上通常不止一個壽司。

  • At places like this, you just grab the sushi you want from the belt, keep the plate on your table, and at the end of the meal the waiter will count your plates to determine the bill.

    在這種地方,你只需要把想吃的壽司從輸送帶上拿下來,把盤子留在桌上,用餐結束後,服務生會數盤子的數量來決定你的帳單。

  • The price for each plate varies depending on its color, and a detailed board not far away will show the prices clearly.

    每一盤的價錢取決於它的顏色,在不遠的地方也會有一塊板子清楚地標示詳細價位。

  • Some kaitenzushi also allow you to order via an interactive, multi-language touch-screen, and receive your food via automatic delivery.

    有些迴轉壽司餐廳讓你可以使用互動式的多語觸控螢幕來點餐,並從自動輸送帶上取餐。

  • Finally, if you are dining at a high-end restaurant, it's good manners to avoid wearing strong fragrances, as it might interfere with the taste of the sushi for the people around you as well as yourself.

    最後,如果你是在高級餐廳用餐,避免使用氣味強烈的香水才是有禮貌的,因為那可能會對周圍人或是你自己的壽司味道產生影響。

  • Now that you know a little bit more about how to eat sushi, let's talk about budget.

    現在你比較了解壽司了,我們來談談費用。

  • The cost of sushi can vary wildly depending on where you go.

    壽司的要價會根據你去的地方不同而有很大的差別。

  • Most restaurants will offer sets or sushi by the piece with prices ranging from 50 yen a piece at cheaper places to more than 1000 yen at high-end restaurants.

    大部分的餐廳會提供套餐或是一個一個的壽司,從較便宜的餐廳提供 50 日圓一個,到高級餐廳提供超過 1000 日圓一個。

  • In some local restaurants, the price for each sushi is not set but is decided by the chef day to day depending on the quality of the fish being used.

    在一些地方性餐廳,壽司的價錢不是固定的,而是壽司師傅根據每天所使用的魚肉品質來決定。

  • If you have a limited budget, we recommend trying a kaitenzushi restaurant.

    如果你的預算有限,我們推薦你試試迴轉壽司餐廳。

  • Although sushi is a dish with a long history, it has continued to evolve throughout the years, with new sushi inventions such as the California roll, which keep pushing the boundaries of sushi creativity further and further.

    儘管壽司是一道具有悠長歷史的菜式,多年來它不斷地進化,新型態的壽司像是加州卷,使得壽司的創意不斷突破。

  • Who knows what type of sushi will be invented years from now?

    誰能猜到幾年後又有什麼樣的新壽司會被發明?

  • In the meantime, we hope this video will allow you to appreciate and enjoy your own sushi experiences even more.

    同時,我們希望這部影片能讓你在吃壽司時更加欣賞並享受它。

  • If you are looking for more information about Japan, or to watch another video, click the links on the screen now, or head over to Japan-Guide DOT COM

    如果你想知道更多關於日本的資訊或是觀看其他影片,按一下螢幕上的連結,或是搜尋 Japan-Guide.com。

  • Your comprehensive, up to date travel guide, first hand from Japan.

    來自日本第一手,最豐富、最即時的旅遊指南。

  • Gochisosama deshita!

    多謝招待!

Sushi

壽司

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【多元文化】早期的壽司是現在的三倍大?!帶你一探壽司歷史 (Sushi: How to Eat, History & Cost | japan-guide.com)

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    Nina 發佈於 2019 年 11 月 07 日
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