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  • This video is sponsored by Dashlane.

    本片由 Dashlane 贊助。

  • Oil palms.


  • Known for the oil its fruits produce, these trees are consuming the countryside and rainforests of Indonesia and Malaysia at a shocking pace.


  • And this massive terraforming endeavor is all happening to satisfy demand from western countries


  • hooked on palm oil's ability to replace more costly alternatives in products spanning from shampoos to pizza doughs.


  • If you look closely, palm oil is everywhere.


  • Yet, it can often disguise itself with sneaky aliases on ingredient lists.


  • The ubiquity of palm oil has become such a hot-button issue


  • that the European Union decided to ban subsidies of palm oil in biofuels by 2020.

    以致於歐盟決定,最晚在 2020 年之前,禁止對棕櫚油在生質燃料的補助,

  • The oil is shrouded in controversy and skepticism.


  • I want to know whether the environmental impact of palm oil consumption warrants these drastic measures,


  • whether boycotting or banning palm oil is a reasonable solution.


  • While palm oil often ends up in products consumed mostly in the US and Europe,


  • the story of palm oil's environmental devastation lies rooted in Indonesia and Malaysia.


  • Combined, these two countries satisfy 90% of the global demand for palm oil.

    這兩個國家總共提供了 90% 全球所需的棕櫚油。

  • Through a medley of small landholders and large corporations, rural land has been transformed into an oil palm monocropping factory.


  • According to one analysis, from 1990 to 2010, 9.6 million hectares of land were converted to industrial oil palm farms in Indonesia, Malaysia, and Papua New Guinea.

    根據分析,從 1990 年到 2010 年,在印尼、馬來西亞、巴布亞紐幾內亞,總計有 9.6 百萬公頃的土地變成業用油棕農場,

  • That being said, the makeup of the land before conversion varied widely,


  • and as a result, the environmental impacts of this massive land transformation is contextual.


  • One study conducted by Forest Watch Indonesia claims that while some of this deforestation is government sanctioned,

    一項由 Forest Watch Indonesia 做的研究聲明,儘管有些森林開發是政府許可的,

  • almost 50% of natural forest loss is located outside of lands zoned for logging or production.

    在被劃分為砍伐、生產的地區之外,仍有幾乎 50% 的自然林消失,

  • And it's this act of rapidly terraforming forest land into neat rows of oil palms that has led to a backlash against palm oil products.


  • Not only is the loss of rainforest a problem due to the subsequent loss of the ability to sequester large amounts of carbon,


  • but it also means the destruction of rich biodiverse habitats.


  • And often, the easiest and cheapest way to ready large swaths of forest for production is through burning.


  • In the case of trees, this compounds the environmentally damaging act of clear-cutting


  • by releasing large amounts of carbon into the atmosphere via smoke.


  • Another peer-reviewed study on oil palm deforestation found that between 1990 and 2010,

    另一項經過同行評議,關於油棕和森林開發的研究,發現 1990 年到 2010 年間,

  • net carbon dioxide emissions from land use change due to oil palm plantations increased from 92 to 184 teragrams of carbon dioxide per year in Indonesia, Malaysia, and Papua New Guinea.

    土地使用的二氧化碳淨排放產生變化,因為種植油棕使印尼、馬來西亞、巴布亞紐幾內亞,每年增加 920 到 1400 億公斤的二氧化碳排放,

  • That's an increase of the equivalent of roughly 36,000 Olympic-sized swimming pools of carbon dioxide more per year.

    這相當於每年增加,大約 36000 個奧運泳池大小的二氧化碳量。

  • Besides the deforestation of primary forests and rainforest,


  • the draining and burning of peatlands in Southeast Asia has caused huge problems for the environment and atmosphere.


  • Peatlands act like sponges for carbon dioxide: soaking up and storing large quantities of CO2 in their waterlogged, low oxygen environments.


  • But when oil palm producers drain these swamps and burn the remaining foliage to establish their crops,


  • this carbon sequestration reverses and releases all that carbon back into the atmosphere.


  • This destructive process has led to a sharp decline of peatlands in Indonesia and Malaysia,


  • and according to a study published in Frontiers in Ecology and the Environment,

    根據 Frontiers in Ecology and the Environment 裡面發表的一項研究,

  • Southeast Asian peatlands could disappear by 2030 if the rate of oil palm farming continues.

    如果油棕農業繼續以這樣的速度發展,東南亞的泥碳地就會在 2030 年前消失殆盡,

  • Ironically, one of the main drivers of this rampant proliferation of oil palm plantations in Southeast Asia is the desire for sustainable biofuels in Europe.


  • Or rather it was until very recently.


  • Europe has long sought to replace their emissions-heavy diesel fuel with something a little more clean-burning.


  • Their solution was biofuels, chief of which was palm oil.


  • Although the EU's cars appeared to be less emissions-heavy with biofuels in use,


  • the true consequences of their supposed environmentalism lay halfway across the world in razed forests and burned peatlands.


  • So their sustainable fuel initiative was not really sustainable at all.


  • As a result, the European Commission banned palm oil biofuel subsidies in March of 2019.

    因此,歐盟委員會在 2019 年 3 月禁止了棕櫚油生質燃料的補助,

  • While this is a step forward in slowing the boom of slash-and-burn oil palm plantations in Southeast Asia,


  • it also means a strong blow to smallholder farmers reliant on the expanding palm oil industry.


  • The Guardian interviewed 66-year-old oil palm farmer, Hussain Mohamed, who decried the EU's choice to draw down their consumption of palm oil biofuels.

    英國《衛報》採訪了一位 66 歲、名叫 Hussain Mohamed 的油棕農,他譴責歐盟減少使用棕櫚油生質燃料的這項決定,

  • He says, "I've spent all my money on the palm oil farm, I've recently planted new trees that will last for the next 25 years,

    他說「我所有金錢都投注在油棕上了,我最近才剛新種了幾棵油棕,一棵可以活 25 年,

  • and my whole family relies on this. It's how my kids afford to study."


  • So, while independent small farmers represent only a portion of oil palm production,


  • with the rest owned by much larger corporations, this decision could upend their livelihoods.


  • In a sense, the EU's flip-flopping on palm oil has manufactured a boom-and-bust process for smaller farmers who've invested their future in palm oil plantations.


  • The point here is this: palm oil production is indeed tied to environmentally harmful practices like clear-cutting rainforests and draining and burning peatlands.


  • And for that reason, our global consumption of palm oil needs to be minimized or at least driven into a slower, more sustainable model


  • that considers the environmental impacts of land use before tearing apart beneficial forests.


  • However, extracting ourselves from this process is a complicated matter


  • that can exact negative consequences on independent growers and wage laborers now dependent on the Southeast Asian palm oil production industry.


  • As the primary consumers of this oil, Europe and the United States have drivemand forward and ultimately the reckless pace of palm oil production in Indonesia and Malaysia.en the d


  • As a result, simply banning palm oils is not enough.


  • In an official statement, The World Wildlife Fund argues that rather than boycotting,


  • working from within to establish environmental best practices for oil palm growers is the best way forward.


  • There's definitely some truth to the statement, because when done right, oil palms can yield the highest amount of oil per acre of land.


  • And if western countries drastically decrease their demand for palm oil,


  • that could bring harsh disaster for many now reliant on a western thirst for the oil.


  • Ultimately, the palm oil industry is now the whims of economically and politically powerful countries


  • and is just one of many industries that sacrifices environmental health and the well-being of poor and marginalized communities in pursuit of profits.


  • When it comes down to it, the problems of the palm oil industry are symptoms of a much larger problem


  • that there are countries who get to dictate global economies.


  • And those countries don't operate on an ethic of environmental or social care, but rather one of domination and exploitation.


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  • but recently I've been getting paranoid about sinister entities watching my every move on the Internet.


  • I've been searching for a way to protect both my passwords and internet activity, and I found Dashlane.

    所以我一直在找方法,保護我的密碼和網路活動紀錄,然後我找到了 Dashlane,

  • It's the perfect blend of the two.


  • But really, Dashlane does three things all in one package.

    事實上,Dashlane 提供一套三合一的防護,

  • It stores and secures your passwords, it lets you privately and safely browse the internet with a VPN,


  • and it's a Dark Web Monitoring service that alerts you if your information has been leaked.


  • Dashlane has been a great way for me to make my logins secure with ridiculously long passwords that I never have to remember.

    Dashlane 讓我能安全登入帳號,卻不必死記那些長得要命的密碼,

  • All I have to do is click a few buttons.


  • It's that easy, and it works across all devices and platforms.


  • So, if you want to be like me and scroll through the web with peace of mind, go to to get a free 30-day trial of Dashlane premium.

    所以,如果你想像我一樣安心上網,就到 免費試用 30 天 Dashlane 升級版,

  • And if you love it at the end of the trial, make sure to use the offer code OCC to get 10% off premium.

    試用結果滿意的話,購買升級版時,記得使用優惠代碼「OCC」 享 9 折優惠,

  • Hey everyone, thanks for watching the video.


  • If you're interested in some bonus content or joining a community chat with eco-minded people,


  • consider supporting this channel on Patreon.

    可以考慮到 Patreon 贊助這個頻道,

  • It helps me out a ton, and you get some fun gifts in return.


  • Again, thanks for watching, and I'll see you in two weeks.


This video is sponsored by Dashlane.

本片由 Dashlane 贊助。


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