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  • What do Madagascar's Malagasy, New Zealand's Maori, and the Hawaiians of the USA have in common?

    馬達加斯加的馬達加斯加人,新西蘭的毛利人和美國的夏威夷人有什麼共同點?

  • Well, we can see the commonalities of these 3 groups, and many more, all across the Southern and Eastern hemispheres,

    馬達加斯加的馬達加斯加人,新西蘭的毛利人和美國的夏威夷人有什麼共同點?

  • in an area we can call, Austronesia.

    那麼,我們可以看到這三個國家的共同點,而且還有更多相同例子的國家,遍及南半球和東半球,

  • Today, we will focus on language, but much of the same evidence can be found in biology or archaeology too.

    那麼,我們可以看到這三個國家的共同點,而且還有更多相同例子的國家,遍及南半球和東半球,

  • Just as you're closer to your brother than your cousin, and to your cousin than a Bantu tribesman,

    我們可以用南島語系舉例。

  • ...unless you yourself are a Bantu tribesman,

    我們可以用南島語系舉例。

  • we can date linguistic developments, by language features of related tongues.

    今天,我們將重點關注語言,但同樣的情況也可以在生物學或考古學中找到。

  • It turns out that the languages of these three groups are relatively undifferentiated.

    今天,我們將重點關注語言,但同樣的情況也可以在生物學或考古學中找到。

  • Meaning these differences that span the globe occurred relatively recently, less than 4000 years ago.

    就像你比你的表弟和你的表兄弟更接近像是你的兄弟,而不是一個班圖族人像是你的兄弟

  • Anthropologically, in the blink of an eye.

    就像你比你的表弟和你的表兄弟更接近像是你的兄弟,而不是一個班圖族人像是你的兄弟

  • The Austronesian civilisation was, oceanically speaking, far ahead of the rest of the world in its development.

    ......除非你自己是一名班圖族部落成員,

  • They invented stable, multiple-hulled vessels, and sophisticated oceanographic maps,

    ......除非你自己是一名班圖族部落成員,

  • that allowed long-distance nautical endeavour, long ahead of its development in Europe.

    我們可以通過相關地方的語言特徵來追溯語言發展。

  • Such is their success in spreading across the world, that there are very few remaining descendants of the previous civilisations.

    我們可以通過相關地方的語言特徵來追溯語言發展。

  • Most of the ones that do remain, have themselves adopted Austronesian languages.

    事實證明,一開始舉例的這三組的語言相對沒有區別。

  • But this isn't the whole story. These aren't the only members of the Austronesian family.

    事實證明,一開始舉例的這三組的語言相對沒有區別。

  • They are but of one branch.

    這意味著全球範圍內的這些差異發生在最近不到4000年前。

  • While *these* are all linguistically close but geographically very distant,

    這意味著全球範圍內的這些差異發生在最近不到4000年前。

  • all other branches of this tree, are geographically proximate, but linguistically very distant.

    在人類學上來說算是轉眼之間。

  • Meaning that *these* languages, are the oldest examples of the Austronesian family.

    在人類學上來說算是轉眼之間。

  • We find them on the island of Taiwan.

    在海洋方面,南島語系在其發展過程中遙遙領先於世界其他地區。

  • The aboriginals of Taiwan were not Chinese, but have lots of contact with the Chinese for a long time.

    在海洋方面,南島語系在其發展過程中遙遙領先於世界其他地區。

  • No dynasty, or ruler, extended their influence to this island. He says.

    他們發明了穩定的多層船隻和複雜的海洋地圖,

  • The successful early Chinese unification couldn't have happened elsewhere in Eurasia.

    他們發明了穩定的多層船隻和複雜的海洋地圖,

  • China is the only place on the continent where divisions don't divide north and south.

    在歐洲發展之前就已經有了長距離的航海活動。

  • There is no Sahara, or Himalayas, or Mediterranean dividing China.

    在歐洲發展之前就已經有了長距離的航海活動。

  • Contact, and therefore conflict, was always on the horizon.

    南島語系在世界各地傳播的成功,以前的文明遺留下來給後代的卻很少。

  • And China unified quite early as a political entity, albeit under different dynastical crowns.

    南島語系在世界各地傳播的成功,以前的文明遺留下來給後代的卻很少。

  • The history of Chinese war is a story of evolution-style selection pressures.

    但大多數仍然存在的人自己採用了南島語言。

  • It was a crucible of war, designed to select the dominant group, for whom the heavenly mandate was (to) expand,

    但大多數仍然存在的人自己採用了南島語言。

  • ...or the other group will. It followed the typical method of expansion for a unified empire.

    但這不是全部。這些人不是南島語系家族的唯一成員。

  • Step 1: Protect your people because there are barbarians on the border.

    但這不是全部。這些人不是南島語系家族的唯一成員。

  • Step 2: Conquer the barbarians and try to, “civilisethem

    他們只有一個分支。

  • Step 3: Barbarians eventually stop being barbarians.

    他們只有一個分支。

  • You're not distinct enough to call thembarbarians”, they're now your people,

    雖然"南島語系"在語言學上來說都很接近,但在地理位置上卻很差很多,

  • ...and you have to protect your people, because there are barbarians on the border.

    雖然"南島語系"在語言學上來說都很接近,但在地理位置上卻很差很多,

  • This was Sinicisation. Sinicisation means conversion to the dominant Han Chinese culture in every way.

    這張分支圖的所有其他族群在地理位置上接近,但在語言學上很差很多。

  • From its beginning with the Han on the northern plains, more people have been Sinicised,

    這張分支圖的所有其他族群在地理位置上接近,但在語言學上很差很多。

  • ...than conversion to any nationhood in history. It doesn't all go smoothly though.

    這意味著南島家族中是最古老語言的一個例子。

  • Some of the deepest divisions that exist on mainland China today remain, diet (food, cuisine).

    這意味著南島家族中是最古老語言的一個例子。

  • For one, the differences in climate and landscape means that crops and farming methods,

    我們在台灣島上找到他們。

  • from the tropical to the desert to the tundra, just don't translate.

    我們在台灣島上找到他們。

  • Even less so, in the world of vast amounts of small-scale feudal peasant farming.

    台灣原住民不是中國人,但長期以來與中國人有很多接觸。

  • The places where the non-Han minorities remain, are the Tibetan tundra,

    台灣原住民不是中國人,但長期以來與中國人有很多接觸。

  • the arid steppe of Inner Mongolia, the Uyghur, desert west, and the highland south,

    沒有王朝或統治者,他們的影響力擴大到這個島嶼。他說。

  • where minority languages also thrive. The fringes of China. The difficult areas to Sinicise.

    沒有王朝或統治者,他們的影響力擴大到這個島嶼。他說。

  • One place China couldn't spread easily, was across the water.

    中國早期的成功統一不可能發生在歐亞其他地區。

  • Taiwan in the east was frequented by Chinese fisherman, but the Chinese never settled permanently. They just couldn't.

    中國早期的成功統一不可能發生在歐亞其他地區。

  • There wasn't enough of a pull, or technological ability to counter the aboriginals' home field advantage.

    中國是非洲大陸唯一不用地形分南北的地區。

  • They had high immunity to each other's diseases,

    中國是非洲大陸唯一不用地形分南北的地區。

  • ...and as we can see from the story of the Austronesian expansion, they're not exactly pushovers.

    沒有撒哈拉沙漠,或喜馬拉雅山,或地中海分裂中國。

  • It took a catalyst for the two to properly come into conflict, and that catalyst, was Dutch.

    沒有撒哈拉沙漠,或喜馬拉雅山,或地中海分裂中國。

  • The acrimonious emancipation of the Netherlands from the Spanish Empire led to a scramble for overseas possessions.

    交流和衝突始終都在發生。

  • There are two world-class natural ports for trade empires in maritime Southeast Asia.

    交流和衝突始終都在發生。

  • Manila (Philippines) and Batavia (Indonesia).

    雖然根據不同的朝代統治,但中國早在統一時就使用了一種政治體系,

  • Spain and the Netherlands ended up with one each, and from these bases,

    雖然根據不同的朝代統治,但中國早在統一時就使用了一種政治體系,

  • projected their power in the East Indies.

    中國戰爭的歷史是因為壓力而造成進步的故事。

  • One island that took both of their interest, was Ilha Formosa,

    中國戰爭的歷史是因為壓力而造成進步的故事。

  • ...named by the Portuguese for its beauty.

    這是一場內戰,意思在占有主流地位的體系會有絕對優勢,為此他們要擴增自己的勢力。

  • It's not the only example of Portuguese sweet talk.

    這是一場內戰,意思在占有主流地位的體系會有絕對優勢,為此他們要擴增自己的勢力。

  • They were the first Europeans to trade in a closed Japan, and they also managed to get themselves a little trading port in Macau.

    ...或將會被另一種文明統治。中國遵循了統一帝國的典型擴張的一些方法:

  • Other countries weren't able to do that.

    ...或將會被另一種文明統治。中國遵循了統一帝國的典型擴張的一些方法:

  • The Dutch for example would not kowtow.

    步驟1:保護你的人,因為邊界上有野蠻人。

  • They were never on good terms with the mainland. So you know that they did?

    步驟1:保護你的人,因為邊界上有野蠻人。

  • They parked themselves right across the water, on the beautiful island of Formosa.

    第2步:征服野蠻人,並試圖“開化”他們

  • Unlike other East Asian land masses, this island is not made of plains interspersed among mountains.

    第2步:征服野蠻人,並試圖“開化”他們

  • The two are removed from each other.

    第3步:野蠻人最終不再是野蠻人。

  • On the Pacific Rim of Fire, one plate slipped under another and created mountains,

    第3步:野蠻人最終不再是野蠻人。

  • ...exclusively on the eastern edge of the island.

    你並不再稱他們為“野蠻人”,因為他們現在是你的人,

  • The plains, and therefore the interesting, valuable lands to agricultural and industrial societies,

    你並不再稱他們為“野蠻人”,因為他們現在是你的人,

  • are all on the side facing mainland China.

    ...然後你必須保護你的人民,因為邊界上又有野蠻人。

  • That's where foreign forts and investments were made. And where plantations were built.

    ...然後你必須保護你的人民,因為邊界上又有野蠻人。

  • And Chinese labourers were invited.

    這就是中國化,中國化意味以各種方式讓漢族文化轉變為其主流地位。

  • Thanks to Sino-European expansion in the island, aboriginals remained mostly in the mountains, and the east.

    這就是中國化,中國化意味以各種方式讓漢族文化轉變為其主流地位。

  • Shortly prior to this point, the Ming dynasty were the rulers of China.

    從北方平原的漢人開始,更多的人被中國化,

  • But they hadn't taken control of the Mongol homeland from their predecessors.

    從北方平原的漢人開始,更多的人被中國化,

  • A rump empire from the former Yuan dynasty remained in the north.

    ...轉換成歷史上的中國。儘管如此,它並不是一帆風順的。

  • And the Ming were deathly focused on land defense,

    ...轉換成歷史上的中國。儘管如此,它並不是一帆風順的。

  • ...like you kind of have to be with Mongols.

    今天中國大陸存在的一些最深刻的分歧仍然是飲食(食物,美食)。

  • This is why the Ming build the Great Wall into its largest and most complete form.

    今天中國大陸存在的一些最深刻的分歧仍然是飲食(食物,美食)。

  • They had one of the biggest land armies in history, and they needed it.

    首先,氣候和景觀的差異意味著農作物和耕作方法,

  • But even the largest empires don't have unlimited resources.

    首先,氣候和景觀的差異意味著農作物和耕作方法,

  • By the time of European excursions into their waters, it was starting to crumble.

    從熱帶到沙漠到苔原,就是不會轉變。

  • So the Ming weren't as navally-inclined as they might have been.

    從熱帶到沙漠到苔原,就是不會轉變。

  • And the Dutch settling a little way away didn't seem to be the biggest threat in the world.

    在更多的封建農業世界中,更是如此。

  • So there the Dutch were. With their extremely portable Western-style capitalist farming methods,

    在更多的封建農業世界中,更是如此。

  • ...using Taiwan as an economic colony. The Chinese workers were afforded land and the ability to settle.

    非漢族人居住的地方是藏族苔原,

  • Oh, and the Spanish also set themselves up on the island.

    非漢族人居住的地方是藏族苔原,

  • The Dutch and Spanish faced huge challenges. Not only with working with the Chinese and firing at each other,

    內蒙古在乾旱草原,維吾爾族在西部沙漠

  • ...there were also the aboriginals who had a pesky habit of scalping Europeans.

    內蒙古在乾旱草原,維吾爾族在西部沙漠

  • The Dutch eventually drove out the Spanish, but the one threat they never saw,

    少數民族語言也蓬勃發展,中國的邊境。也是中國化的最困難地區。

  • ...was the Chinese that they themselves invited.

    少數民族語言也蓬勃發展,中國的邊境。也是中國化的最困難地區。

  • The colonial heads in Dutch Java refused to afford any more protection or resources.

    中國化的一個地方不容易傳播,就在水面上。

  • No women were allowed to settle in Formosa, for the potential danger of the aboriginals and natural disaster.

    中國化的一個地方不容易傳播,就在水面上。

  • Locusts, and disease, and seven weeks of earthquakes had plagued the island.

    中國漁民經常光顧東部的台灣,但中國人永遠不會永久定居。他們不能。

  • The conditions for the working Chinese were awful. The Dutch had not held up their end of the bargain.

    中國漁民經常光顧東部的台灣,但中國人永遠不會永久定居。他們不能。

  • Their ventures were ruined, and almost all revenue came from the Chinese themselves,

    因為沒有足夠的吸引力或技術能力來對抗原住民的優勢。

  • ...who didn't see much reason to remain under European control.

    因為沒有足夠的吸引力或技術能力來對抗原住民的優勢。

  • So raise its head, the common theme in Chinese history, a peasant rebellion.

    他們對對方的疾病有很高的免疫力,

  • Meanwhile on the mainland, the Ming's army wasn't doing its job.

    他們對對方的疾病有很高的免疫力,

  • The economy was also collapsing and famines were rife.

    ......從南島擴張的故事中我們可以看到,它們並不完全是落後的。

  • If you can't pay your army you can't feed your army.

    ......從南島擴張的故事中我們可以看到,它們並不完全是落後的。

  • And it doesn't matter how big the army is, you'll have problems.

    這兩個國家採取了催化劑來妥善處理衝突,而這種催化劑是荷蘭人。

  • Especially when another group comes along and promises them the world.

    這兩個國家採取了催化劑來妥善處理衝突,而這種催化劑是荷蘭人。

  • The Manchus were a small, ethnic group in the northeast, who couldn't have come to power

    荷蘭從西班牙帝國的迅速獨立導致互相爭奪海外財產。

  • ...were it not for the swathes of the Han majority willing to rebel against the Ming.

    荷蘭從西班牙帝國的迅速獨立導致互相爭奪海外財產。

  • This pan-ethnic alliance called itself the Qing.

    在東南亞海上有兩個貿易帝國的世界級自然港。

  • They took on the rump Mongol Yuan dynasty that had plagued the Ming from the north,

    在東南亞海上有兩個貿易帝國的世界級自然港。

  • ...at the same time the Russians were poking their noses into the Far East.

    馬尼拉(菲律賓)和巴達維亞(印度尼西亞)。

  • The Qing were unstoppable. But that news didn't seem to have reached the islanders.

    馬尼拉(菲律賓)和巴達維亞(印度尼西亞)。

  • While the Chinese rebellion against the Dutch was in full swing , loyalists to the Ming made this island their aim.

    西班牙和荷蘭各有一個,而從這些基地開始,

  • Eventually the Dutch was sufficiently besieged. They lost and abandoned the island.

    西班牙和荷蘭各有一個,而從這些基地開始,

  • The Kingdom of Tungning was declared by Chinese Ming loyalists to take over the new Chinese society,

    預計他們在東印度群島的權力。

  • ...and its economic ventures.

    預計他們在東印度群島的權力。

  • From now on, the island is not Formosa, but most definitely Taiwan.

    兩個人都感興趣的島嶼是Ilha Formosa,

  • So mainland China was under a new Qing government, and Taiwan was under the control

    兩個人都感興趣的島嶼是Ilha Formosa,

  • ...of the remnants of the previous rulers of the mainland.

    ......以葡萄牙人的稱讚而命名。

  • Of course, through inevitable naval invasion, the Qing eventually came to control Taiwan,

    ......以葡萄牙人的稱讚而命名。

  • ... but despite its settlement by the Chinese it was not seen as a core area of the nation.

    這不是葡萄牙甜言蜜語的唯一例子。

  • That was until the Japanese took it away. We always want what we can't have, don't we?

    這不是葡萄牙甜言蜜語的唯一例子。

  • Chinese fragility seemed perennial. It either needed an iron fist, or the ideological support of the whole nation.

    他們是首個在日本鎖國政策中允許貿易的歐洲人,他們也設法在澳門成為一個貿易港口。

  • Without the former, the Qing never had the latter.

    他們是首個在日本鎖國政策中允許貿易的歐洲人,他們也設法在澳門成為一個貿易港口。

  • As China was opening up to the world, alternatives flooded the country.

    其他國家無法做到這一點。

  • Democracy, fascism, republicanism, communism even. And what was wrong with monarchy in the first place?

    其他國家無法做到這一點。

  • This was a fertile age of fantastic variety in political thought.

    例如荷蘭人不會磕頭。

  • The vacuum left by the fallen empire was filled by a temporary military government called the Beiyang.

    例如荷蘭人不會磕頭。

  • But it didn't end up being sotemporary”.

    他們從未與中國達成良好的談判條件,所以你覺得他們做到了?

  • This fractured warlord era presided over a mess. No central authority could withstand Japanese incursions,

    他們從未與中國達成良好的談判條件,所以你覺得他們做到了?

  • ...despite them also being involved in World War 1.

    他們把自己停在美麗的福爾摩沙島的水面上。

  • That's not to say that they didn't try to resist. In the southern city of Guangzhou,

    他們把自己停在美麗的福爾摩沙島的水面上。

  • ...the Kuomintang, a Chinese republican movement, have joined the party.

    與其他東亞陸地群島不同,這個島嶼不是由散佈在山間的平原組成。

  • They tried their utmost best to ally with the right friends to oppose the right people,

    與其他東亞陸地群島不同,這個島嶼不是由散佈在山間的平原組成。

  • make their way across this giant nation to unify the whole darn country.

    兩者相互移除。

  • And after no less than two decades the Nationalists achieved their unification. Finally...

    兩者相互移除。

  • But then they turned around and massacred all the Communists. We just don't learn, do we?

    在環太平洋的火焰之中,一塊板塊在另一塊板塊上滑落並創造了山脈,

  • The second civil war, which followed immediately on the heels of the first,

    在環太平洋的火焰之中,一塊板塊在另一塊板塊上滑落並創造了山脈,

  • ...coincidentally overlapped with another World War.

    ......專門在島的東部邊緣。

  • The destruction of the, this time, full-scale Japanese invasion, put a little pause on the Nationalist-Communist conflict,

    ......專門在島的東部邊緣。

  • while they teamed up with the unions of states and Soviets, to put a little downer on the Japanese there.

    平原,因此是農業和工業社會的有趣,有價值的土地,

  • And China by FAR didn't come out unschathed.

    平原,因此是農業和工業社會的有趣,有價值的土地,

  • Even beyond the crimes against humanity committed by Japanese soldiers, on the low-end estimate,

    都面向中國大陸。

  • ...four million soldiers and fifteen million civilians died.

    都面向中國大陸。

  • One event in the resistance against the Japanese was so unbelievably catastrophic.

    這就是外國的堡壘和投資,還有種植的好地方。

  • The 1938 Yellow River flood was not a natural disaster, but a military tactic,

    這就是外國的堡壘和投資,還有種植的好地方。

  • ...chosen by the Nationalist government, to slow the Empire's march.

    並邀請中國勞工。

  • Dikes were destroyed, and one of the most densely-populated areas of the world was washed asunder.

    並邀請中國勞工。

  • The price paid, was no less than half a million Chinese lives, and between five and 12 million refugees.

    由於歐洲在該島的擴張,原住民大部分留在山區和東部。

  • It took a decade for the river to return to its natural course, and generations of people have never returned.

    由於歐洲在該島的擴張,原住民大部分留在山區和東部。

  • Events like this, are touchpaper for revolution.

    就在這一時間點左右,明朝是中國的統治者。

  • And when your life and world are destroyed like this, you have so little left to lose.

    就在這一時間點左右,明朝是中國的統治者。

  • The Communist Party cleaned up in terms of recruitment from these affected people,

    但他們並沒有從他們的前朝代手中控制蒙古。

  • ...and after the surrender of Japan, Taiwan was returned, but China remained in civil war.

    但他們並沒有從他們的前朝代手中控制蒙古。

  • The island came to be home of all the remnants of the Chinese Republic,

    明朝時期,元代的一個分支朝代仍然存在於北方。

  • ...once the communist People's Republic had taken total control of the mainland.

    明朝時期,元代的一個分支朝代仍然存在於北方。

  • Now, why is this story familiar?

    而明代則專注於土地防禦,

  • Throughout the rest of the 20th century, the Republic of China, as the state of Taiwan is officially known,

    而明代則專注於土地防禦,

  • ...has struggled to maintain the appearance of legitimacy.

    ...就像你必須防蒙古人一樣。

  • Both the legacy of the Japanese and the historical existence of the non-Chinese aboriginals,

    ...就像你必須防蒙古人一樣。

  • ...could lead to accusations of colonialism.

    這就是為什麼明朝將長城建成最大,最完整的形式。

  • And at this point in history, that was the worst thing in the world. Sinicisation was back on the agenda.

    這就是為什麼明朝將長城建成最大,最完整的形式。

  • This was one of the great stories of history, convincing the world that Taiwan wasChinese”.

    他們擁有歷史上最大的陸軍之一,他們需要它。

  • But as we know, they weren't the only Chinese.

    他們擁有歷史上最大的陸軍之一,他們需要它。

  • How can a stunted, rump state claim to be the representative for over a billion people?

    但即使是最大的帝國也沒有無限的資源。

  • Why can't they just be on their own? Thank the United Nations cartel.

    但即使是最大的帝國也沒有無限的資源。

  • The only thing that determines whether something is a country, is whether other countries think its a country.

    到歐洲文明進入他們的海域時,明朝就已經開始分裂了。

  • That's how we can dismiss some independence movement as frivolous or illegal, but allow some others,

    到歐洲文明進入他們的海域時,明朝就已經開始分裂了。

  • ...if they pass the rules and concerns and even the whims of the most powerful members of the United Nations club.

    所以明朝不像歐洲那樣傾向於發展海軍。

  • Very few members are going to recognise the Republic of China, when big daddy People's Republic sits there,

    所以明朝不像歐洲那樣傾向於發展海軍。

  • ...with its economic, and military, and political, and nuclear power.

    而荷蘭人在福爾摩沙定居了一段時間,明朝似乎認為歐洲並不是最大的威脅。

  • Generally what People's Republic says, goes,

    而荷蘭人在福爾摩沙定居了一段時間,明朝似乎認為歐洲並不是最大的威脅。

  • ...and People's Republic says Taiwan belongs to People's Republic.

    所以荷蘭人定居在這。憑藉極其便捷的西式資本主義的耕作方法,

  • So on the international stage, Taiwan can do whatever trade and sport they like in private.

    所以荷蘭人定居在這。憑藉極其便捷的西式資本主義的耕作方法,

  • But within the earshot of the People's Republic, everyone has to publicly pretend, that Taiwan doesnt exist.

    ......用台灣作為經濟殖民地。中國工人獲得了土地和解決問題的能力。

  • *PRC national anthem "March of the Volunteers" plays*

    ......用台灣作為經濟殖民地。中國工人獲得了土地和解決問題的能力。

  • It's always good to see patterns in history to understand the present,

    哦,西班牙人也在島上設置了基地。

  • ...no matter how many Chinas or Taiwans you think there are.

    哦,西班牙人也在島上設置了基地。

What do Madagascar's Malagasy, New Zealand's Maori, and the Hawaiians of the USA have in common?

馬達加斯加的馬達加斯加人,新西蘭的毛利人和美國的夏威夷人有什麼共同點?

字幕與單字

影片操作 你可以在這邊進行「影片」的調整,以及「字幕」的顯示

B2 中高級 中文 美國腔 中國 中國人 台灣 荷蘭人 野蠻人 共和國

兩個台灣,兩個中國,兩次 (Two Taiwans, Two Chinas, Twice)

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    deghyp 發佈於 2019 年 08 月 10 日
影片單字