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  • What do Madagascar's Malagasy, New Zealand's Maori, and the Hawaiians of the USA have in common?

    馬達加斯加的馬達加斯加人,新西蘭的毛利人和美國的夏威夷人有什麼共同點?

  • Well, we can see the commonalities of these 3 groups, and many more, all across the Southern and Eastern hemispheres,

    馬達加斯加的馬達加斯加人,新西蘭的毛利人和美國的夏威夷人有什麼共同點?

  • in an area we can call, Austronesia.

    那麼,我們可以看到這三個國家的共同點,而且還有更多相同例子的國家,遍及南半球和東半球,

  • Today, we will focus on language, but much of the same evidence can be found in biology or archaeology too.

    那麼,我們可以看到這三個國家的共同點,而且還有更多相同例子的國家,遍及南半球和東半球,

  • Just as you're closer to your brother than your cousin, and to your cousin than a Bantu tribesman,

    我們可以用南島語系舉例。

  • ...unless you yourself are a Bantu tribesman,

    我們可以用南島語系舉例。

  • we can date linguistic developments, by language features of related tongues.

    今天,我們將重點關注語言,但同樣的情況也可以在生物學或考古學中找到。

  • It turns out that the languages of these three groups are relatively undifferentiated.

    今天,我們將重點關注語言,但同樣的情況也可以在生物學或考古學中找到。

  • Meaning these differences that span the globe occurred relatively recently, less than 4000 years ago.

    就像你比你的表弟和你的表兄弟更接近像是你的兄弟,而不是一個班圖族人像是你的兄弟

  • Anthropologically, in the blink of an eye.

    就像你比你的表弟和你的表兄弟更接近像是你的兄弟,而不是一個班圖族人像是你的兄弟

  • The Austronesian civilisation was, oceanically speaking, far ahead of the rest of the world in its development.

    ......除非你自己是一名班圖族部落成員,

  • They invented stable, multiple-hulled vessels, and sophisticated oceanographic maps,

    ......除非你自己是一名班圖族部落成員,

  • that allowed long-distance nautical endeavour, long ahead of its development in Europe.

    我們可以通過相關地方的語言特徵來追溯語言發展。

  • Such is their success in spreading across the world, that there are very few remaining descendants of the previous civilisations.

    我們可以通過相關地方的語言特徵來追溯語言發展。

  • Most of the ones that do remain, have themselves adopted Austronesian languages.

    事實證明,一開始舉例的這三組的語言相對沒有區別。

  • But this isn't the whole story. These aren't the only members of the Austronesian family.

    事實證明,一開始舉例的這三組的語言相對沒有區別。

  • They are but of one branch.

    這意味著全球範圍內的這些差異發生在最近不到4000年前。

  • While *these* are all linguistically close but geographically very distant,

    這意味著全球範圍內的這些差異發生在最近不到4000年前。

  • all other branches of this tree, are geographically proximate, but linguistically very distant.

    在人類學上來說算是轉眼之間。

  • Meaning that *these* languages, are the oldest examples of the Austronesian family.

    在人類學上來說算是轉眼之間。

  • We find them on the island of Taiwan.

    在海洋方面,南島語系在其發展過程中遙遙領先於世界其他地區。

  • The aboriginals of Taiwan were not Chinese, but have lots of contact with the Chinese for a long time.

    在海洋方面,南島語系在其發展過程中遙遙領先於世界其他地區。

  • No dynasty, or ruler, extended their influence to this island. He says.

    他們發明了穩定的多層船隻和複雜的海洋地圖,

  • The successful early Chinese unification couldn't have happened elsewhere in Eurasia.

    他們發明了穩定的多層船隻和複雜的海洋地圖,

  • China is the only place on the continent where divisions don't divide north and south.

    在歐洲發展之前就已經有了長距離的航海活動。

  • There is no Sahara, or Himalayas, or Mediterranean dividing China.

    在歐洲發展之前就已經有了長距離的航海活動。

  • Contact, and therefore conflict, was always on the horizon.

    南島語系在世界各地傳播的成功,以前的文明遺留下來給後代的卻很少。

  • And China unified quite early as a political entity, albeit under different dynastical crowns.

    南島語系在世界各地傳播的成功,以前的文明遺留下來給後代的卻很少。

  • The history of Chinese war is a story of evolution-style selection pressures.

    但大多數仍然存在的人自己採用了南島語言。

  • It was a crucible of war, designed to select the dominant group, for whom the heavenly mandate was (to) expand,

    但大多數仍然存在的人自己採用了南島語言。

  • ...or the other group will. It followed the typical method of expansion for a unified empire.

    但這不是全部。這些人不是南島語系家族的唯一成員。

  • Step 1: Protect your people because there are barbarians on the border.

    但這不是全部。這些人不是南島語系家族的唯一成員。

  • Step 2: Conquer the barbarians and try to, “civilisethem

    他們只有一個分支。

  • Step 3: Barbarians eventually stop being barbarians.

    他們只有一個分支。

  • You're not distinct enough to call thembarbarians”, they're now your people,

    雖然"南島語系"在語言學上來說都很接近,但在地理位置上卻很差很多,

  • ...and you have to protect your people, because there are barbarians on the border.

    雖然"南島語系"在語言學上來說都很接近,但在地理位置上卻很差很多,

  • This was Sinicisation. Sinicisation means conversion to the dominant Han Chinese culture in every way.

    這張分支圖的所有其他族群在地理位置上接近,但在語言學上很差很多。

  • From its beginning with the Han on the northern plains, more people have been Sinicised,

    這張分支圖的所有其他族群在地理位置上接近,但在語言學上很差很多。

  • ...than conversion to any nationhood in history. It doesn't all go smoothly though.

    這意味著南島家族中是最古老語言的一個例子。

  • Some of the deepest divisions that exist on mainland China today remain, diet (food, cuisine).

    這意味著南島家族中是最古老語言的一個例子。

  • For one, the differences in climate and landscape means that crops and farming methods,

    我們在台灣島上找到他們。

  • from the tropical to the desert to the tundra, just don't translate.

    我們在台灣島上找到他們。

  • Even less so, in the world of vast amounts of small-scale feudal peasant farming.

    台灣原住民不是中國人,但長期以來與中國人有很多接觸。

  • The places where the non-Han minorities remain, are the Tibetan tundra,

    台灣原住民不是中國人,但長期以來與中國人有很多接觸。

  • the arid steppe of Inner Mongolia, the Uyghur, desert west, and the highland south,

    沒有王朝或統治者,他們的影響力擴大到這個島嶼。他說。

  • where minority languages also thrive. The fringes of China. The difficult areas to Sinicise.

    沒有王朝或統治者,他們的影響力擴大到這個島嶼。他說。

  • One place China couldn't spread easily, was across the water.

    中國早期的成功統一不可能發生在歐亞其他地區。

  • Taiwan in the east was frequented by Chinese fisherman, but the Chinese never settled permanently. They just couldn't.

    中國早期的成功統一不可能發生在歐亞其他地區。

  • There wasn't enough of a pull, or technological ability to counter the aboriginals' home field advantage.

    中國是非洲大陸唯一不用地形分南北的地區。

  • They had high immunity to each other's diseases,

    中國是非洲大陸唯一不用地形分南北的地區。

  • ...and as we can see from the story of the Austronesian expansion, they're not exactly pushovers.

    沒有撒哈拉沙漠,或喜馬拉雅山,或地中海分裂中國。

  • It took a catalyst for the two to properly come into conflict, and that catalyst, was Dutch.

    沒有撒哈拉沙漠,或喜馬拉雅山,或地中海分裂中國。

  • The acrimonious emancipation of the Netherlands from the Spanish Empire led to a scramble for overseas possessions.

    交流和衝突始終都在發生。

  • There are two world-class natural ports for trade empires in maritime Southeast Asia.

    交流和衝突始終都在發生。

  • Manila (Philippines) and Batavia (Indonesia).

    雖然根據不同的朝代統治,但中國早在統一時就使用了一種政治體系,

  • Spain and the Netherlands ended up with one each, and from these bases,

    雖然根據不同的朝代統治,但中國早在統一時就使用了一種政治體系,

  • projected their power in the East Indies.

    中國戰爭的歷史是因為壓力而造成進步的故事。

  • One island that took both of their interest, was Ilha Formosa,

    中國戰爭的歷史是因為壓力而造成進步的故事。

  • ...named by the Portuguese for its beauty.

    這是一場內戰,意思在占有主流地位的體系會有絕對優勢,為此他們要擴增自己的勢力。

  • It's not the only example of Portuguese sweet talk.

    這是一場內戰,意思在占有主流地位的體系會有絕對優勢,為此他們要擴增自己的勢力。

  • They were the first Europeans to trade in a closed Japan, and they also managed to get themselves a little trading port in Macau.

    ...或將會被另一種文明統治。中國遵循了統一帝國的典型擴張的一些方法:

  • Other countries weren't able to do that.

    ...或將會被另一種文明統治。中國遵循了統一帝國的典型擴張的一些方法:

  • The Dutch for example would not kowtow.

    步驟1:保護你的人,因為邊界上有野蠻人。

  • They were never on good terms with the mainland. So you know that they did?

    步驟1:保護你的人,因為邊界上有野蠻人。

  • They parked themselves right across the water, on the beautiful island of Formosa.

    第2步:征服野蠻人,並試圖“開化”他們

  • Unlike other East Asian land masses, this island is not made of plains interspersed among mountains.

    第2步:征服野蠻人,並試圖“開化”他們

  • The two are removed from each other.

    第3步:野蠻人最終不再是野蠻人。

  • On the Pacific Rim of Fire, one plate slipped under another and created mountains,

    第3步:野蠻人最終不再是野蠻人。

  • ...exclusively on the eastern edge of the island.

    你並不再稱他們為“野蠻人”,因為他們現在是你的人,

  • The plains, and therefore the interesting, valuable lands to agricultural and industrial societies,

    你並不再稱他們為“野蠻人”,因為他們現在是你的人,

  • are all on the side facing mainland China.

    ...然後你必須保護你的人民,因為邊界上又有野蠻人。

  • That's where foreign forts and investments were made. And where plantations were built.

    ...然後你必須保護你的人民,因為邊界上又有野蠻人。

  • And Chinese labourers were invited.

    這就是中國化,中國化意味以各種方式讓漢族文化轉變為其主流地位。

  • Thanks to Sino-European expansion in the island, aboriginals remained mostly in the mountains, and the east.

    這就是中國化,中國化意味以各種方式讓漢族文化轉變為其主流地位。

  • Shortly prior to this point, the Ming dynasty were the rulers of China.

    從北方平原的漢人開始,更多的人被中國化,

  • But they hadn't taken control of the Mongol homeland from their predecessors.

    從北方平原的漢人開始,更多的人被中國化,

  • A rump empire from the former Yuan dynasty remained in the north.

    ...轉換成歷史上的中國。儘管如此,它並不是一帆風順的。

  • And the Ming were deathly focused on land defense,

    ...轉換成歷史上的中國。儘管如此,它並不是一帆風順的。

  • ...like you kind of have to be with Mongols.

    今天中國大陸存在的一些最深刻的分歧仍然是飲食(食物,美食)。

  • This is why the Ming build the Great Wall into its largest and most complete form.

    今天中國大陸存在的一些最深刻的分歧仍然是飲食(食物,美食)。

  • They had one of the biggest land armies in history, and they needed it.

    首先,氣候和景觀的差異意味著農作物和耕作方法,

  • But even the largest empires don't have unlimited resources.

    首先,氣候和景觀的差異意味著農作物和耕作方法,

  • By the time of European excursions into their waters, it was starting to crumble.

    從熱帶到沙漠到苔原,就是不會轉變。

  • So the Ming weren't as navally-inclined as they might have been.

    從熱帶到沙漠到苔原,就是不會轉變。

  • And the Dutch settling a little way away didn't seem to be the biggest threat in the world.

    在更多的封建農業世界中,更是如此。

  • So there the Dutch were. With their extremely portable Western-style capitalist farming methods,

    在更多的封建農業世界中,更是如此。

  • ...using Taiwan as an economic colony. The Chinese workers were afforded land and the ability to settle.

    非漢族人居住的地方是藏族苔原,

  • Oh, and the Spanish also set themselves up on the island.

    非漢族人居住的地方是藏族苔原,

  • The Dutch and Spanish faced huge challenges. Not only with working with the Chinese and firing at each other,

    內蒙古在乾旱草原,維吾爾族在西部沙漠

  • ...there were also the aboriginals who had a pesky habit of scalping Europeans.

    內蒙古在乾旱草原,維吾爾族在西部沙漠

  • The Dutch eventually drove out the Spanish, but the one threat they never saw,

    少數民族語言也蓬勃發展,中國的邊境。也是中國化的最困難地區。

  • ...was the Chinese that they themselves invited.

    少數民族語言也蓬勃發展,中國的邊境。也是中國化的最困難地區。

  • The colonial heads in Dutch Java refused to afford any more protection or resources.

    中國化的一個地方不容易傳播,就在水面上。

  • No women were allowed to settle in Formosa, for the potential danger of the aboriginals and natural disaster.

    中國化的一個地方不容易傳播,就在水面上。

  • Locusts, and disease, and seven weeks of earthquakes had plagued the island.

    中國漁民經常光顧東部的台灣,但中國人永遠不會永久定居。他們不能。

  • The conditions for the working Chinese were awful. The Dutch had not held up their end of the bargain.

    中國漁民經常光顧東部的台灣,但中國人永遠不會永久定居。他們不能。

  • Their ventures were ruined, and almost all revenue came from the Chinese themselves,

    因為沒有足夠的吸引力或技術能力來對抗原住民的優勢。

  • ...who didn't see much reason to remain under European control.

    因為沒有足夠的吸引力或技術能力來對抗原住民的優勢。

  • So raise its head, the common theme in Chinese history, a peasant rebellion.

    他們對對方的疾病有很高的免疫力,

  • Meanwhile on the mainland, the Ming's army wasn't doing its job.

    他們對對方的疾病有很高的免疫力,

  • The economy was also collapsing and famines were rife.

    ......從南島擴張的故事中我們可以看到,它們並不完全是落後的。

  • If you can't pay your army you can't feed your army.

    ......從南島擴張的故事中我們可以看到,它們並不完全是落後的。

  • And it doesn't matter how big the army is, you'll have problems.

    這兩個國家採取了催化劑來妥善處理衝突,而這種催化劑是荷蘭人。

  • Especially when another group comes along and promises them the world.

    這兩個國家採取了催化劑來妥善處理衝突,而這種催化劑是荷蘭人。

  • The Manchus were a small, ethnic group in the northeast, who couldn't have come to power

    荷蘭從西班牙帝國的迅速獨立導致互相爭奪海外財產。

  • ...were it not for the swathes of the Han majority willing to rebel against the Ming.

    荷蘭從西班牙帝國的迅速獨立導致互相爭奪海外財產。

  • This pan-ethnic alliance called itself the Qing.

    在東南亞海上有兩個貿易帝國的世界級自然港。

  • They took on the rump Mongol Yuan dynasty that had plagued the Ming from the north,

    在東南亞海上有兩個貿易帝國的世界級自然港。

  • ...at the same time the Russians were poking their noses into the Far East.

    馬尼拉(菲律賓)和巴達維亞(印度尼西亞)。

  • The Qing were unstoppable. But that news didn't seem to have reached the islanders.

    馬尼拉(菲律賓)和巴達維亞(印度尼西亞)。

  • While the Chinese rebellion against the Dutch was in full swing , loyalists to the Ming made this island their aim.

    西班牙和荷蘭各有一個,而從這些基地開始,

  • Eventually the Dutch was sufficiently besieged. They lost and abandoned the island.

    西班牙和荷蘭各有一個,而從這些基地開始,

  • The Kingdom of Tungning was declared by Chinese Ming loyalists to take over the new Chinese society,

    預計他們在東印度群島的權力。

  • ...and its economic ventures.

    預計他們在東印度群島的權力。

  • From now on, the island is not Formosa, but most definitely Taiwan.

    兩個人都感興趣的島嶼是Ilha Formosa,

  • So mainland China was under a new Qing government, and Taiwan was under the control

    兩個人都感興趣的島嶼是Ilha Formosa,

  • ...of the remnants of the previous rulers of the mainland.

    ......以葡萄牙人的稱讚而命名。

  • Of course, through inevitable naval invasion, the Qing eventually came to control Taiwan,

    ......以葡萄牙人的稱讚而命名。

  • ... but despite its settlement by the Chinese it was not seen as a core area of the nation.

    這不是葡萄牙甜言蜜語的唯一例子。

  • That was until the Japanese took it away. We always want what we can't have, don't we?

    這不是葡萄牙甜言蜜語的唯一例子。

  • Chinese fragility seemed perennial. It either needed an iron fist, or the ideological support of the whole nation.

    他們是首個在日本鎖國政策中允許貿易的歐洲人,他們也設法在澳門成為一個貿易港口。

  • Without the former, the Qing never had the latter.

    他們是首個在日本鎖國政策中允許貿易的歐洲人,他們也設法在澳門成為一個貿易港口。

  • As China was opening up to the world, alternatives flooded the country.

    其他國家無法做到這一點。

  • Democracy, fascism, republicanism, communism even. And what was wrong with monarchy in the first place?

    其他國家無法做到這一點。

  • This was a fertile age of fantastic variety in political thought.

    例如荷蘭人不會磕頭。

  • The vacuum left by the fallen empire was filled by a temporary military government called the Beiyang.

    例如荷蘭人不會磕頭。

  • But it didn't end up being sotemporary”.

    他們從未與中國達成良好的談判條件,所以你覺得他們做到了?

  • This fractured warlord era presided over a mess. No central authority could withstand Japanese incursions,

    他們從未與中國達成良好的談判條件,所以你覺得他們做到了?

  • ...despite them also being involved in World War 1.

    他們把自己停在美麗的福爾摩沙島的水面上。

  • That's not to say that they didn't try to resist. In the southern city of Guangzhou,

    他們把自己停在美麗的福爾摩沙島的水面上。

  • ...the Kuomintang, a Chinese republican movement, have joined the party.

    與其他東亞陸地群島不同,這個島嶼不是由散佈在山間的平原組成。

  • They tried their utmost best to ally with the right friends to oppose the right people,

    與其他東亞陸地群島不同,這個島嶼不是由散佈在山間的平原組成。

  • make their way across this giant nation to unify the whole darn country.

    兩者相互移除。

  • And after no less than two decades the Nationalists achieved their unification. Finally...

    兩者相互移除。

  • But then they turned around and massacred all the Communists. We just don't learn, do we?

    在環太平洋的火焰之中,一塊板塊在另一塊板塊上滑落並創造了山脈,

  • The second civil war, which followed immediately on the heels of the first,

    在環太平洋的火焰之中,一塊板塊在另一塊板塊上滑落並創造了山脈,

  • ...coincidentally overlapped with another World War.

    ......專門在島的東部邊緣。

  • The destruction of the, this time, full-scale Japanese invasion, put a little pause on the Nationalist-Communist conflict,

    ......專門在島的東部邊緣。

  • while they teamed up with the unions of states and Soviets, to put a little downer on the Japanese there.

    平原,因此是農業和工業社會的有趣,有價值的土地,

  • And China by FAR didn't come out unschathed.

    平原,因此是農業和工業社會的有趣,有價值的土地,

  • Even beyond the crimes against humanity committed by Japanese soldiers, on the low-end estimate,

    都面向中國大陸。

  • ...four million soldiers and fifteen million civilians died.

    都面向中國大陸。

  • One event in the resistance against the Japanese was so unbelievably catastrophic.

    這就是外國的堡壘和投資,還有種植的好地方。

  • The 1938 Yellow River flood was not a natural disaster, but a military tactic,

    這就是外國的堡壘和投資,還有種植的好地方。

  • ...chosen by the Nationalist government, to slow the Empire's march.

    並邀請中國勞工。

  • Dikes were destroyed, and one of the most densely-populated areas of the world was washed asunder.

    並邀請中國勞工。

  • The price paid, was no less than half a million Chinese lives, and between five and 12 million refugees.

    由於歐洲在該島的擴張,原住民大部分留在山區和東部。

  • It took a decade for the river to return to its natural course, and generations of people have never returned.

    由於歐洲在該島的擴張,原住民大部分留在山區和東部。

  • Events like this, are touchpaper for revolution.

    就在這一時間點左右,明朝是中國的統治者。

  • And when your life and world are destroyed like this, you have so little left to lose.

    就在這一時間點左右,明朝是中國的統治者。

  • The Communist Party cleaned up in terms of recruitment from these affected people,

    但他們並沒有從他們的前朝代手中控制蒙古。