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  • Whenever you go out for dinner or drinks, just know this: Your brain is being hacked.

    當你外出用餐或喝一杯時,記住:你的腦袋已經被業者入侵了。

  • Like with most businesses, the goal is to make money.

    和多數企業一樣,它們的目的就是賺錢。

  • So it kinda makes sense that restaurants and bars would do whatever they can to get you to spend more of it.

    所以餐廳和酒吧會想方設法讓你多花費是可以理解的事。

  • But there are a lot more ways they can manipulate you than you might realize.

    但還有更多超乎你想像的操弄手法。

  • From the adjectives on the menu to the size of the plates, establishments can use all kinds of psychological tricks to influence your behavior.

    從菜單上的形容詞描繪到餐盤的大小,餐飲業能運用各種心理手法影響你的消費行為。

  • Some of them are so hardwired that even after you watch this video, you still might be fooled.

    其中有些與本能連結的程度強到即使你看完這部影片,仍很有可能被矇騙。

  • But, at least, if you know what's happening, there's a chance you can take back control.

    但至少如果你知道這件事正在發生,你將有機會拿回消費者的主導權。

  • The mind-hacking begins with the menu.

    消費者心態入侵從菜單開始。

  • For example, have you ever noticed that a lot of restaurants list prices as just plain numbers?

    舉例來說,你有注意到很多餐廳價目表都只列出數字嗎?

  • There'll just be, like, a "15" next to the crab cakes, with no dollar sign or any other indication that it's a price.

    像是蟹肉餅旁邊只寫個 15 ,未附上任何幣值單位或是讓你知道那是價錢的其它線索。

  • That's not an aesthetic choice.

    那不是為了美感做出的決定。

  • Studies have shown that people spend more when menus don't have dollar signs.

    研究顯示當菜單未顯示價錢單位的時候,人們會花費更多。

  • Probably because it keeps you from thinking about how much money your order will cost.

    有可能是因為這麼做能防止你去想你點的菜總共是多少錢。

  • There's also a bit of thought that goes into how the items are listed.

    在餐點的命名上也是有置入一些小巧思的。

  • The options aren't "hamburger" or "baked fish".

    餐點選擇上不會出現單單「漢堡」或是「烤魚」這種字眼。

  • Instead, they're described as "Joe's meaty burger" or "succulent Italian fillet."

    取而代之地,它們會被描述成「喬式多汁肉堡 」或是「義式燴去骨鮮魚」。

  • That is because researchers have found that adding colorful descriptions can increase sales by up to 27%.

    這是因為有研究者發現,增添豐富的描述能助長業績 27 %。

  • So you might want to translate the choices in your head before you decide what to order.

    所以你可能會想在決定點餐前先在腦中翻譯一下你選的餐點。

  • Restaurants and bars can also influence both how much you spend and how much you consume by using glasses and dishes with certain shapes and sizes.

    餐廳與酒吧也能利用不同形狀大小的杯盤影響你花了多少錢以及吃了多少。

  • One thing they can do is vary the size of their dishes to take advantage of what's known as the Delboeuf illusion.

    他們能善用所謂的 Delboeuf 大小錯覺的優勢去變化餐盤的大小。

  • Where two identical circles look different based on the size of the circles around them.

    這種錯覺讓兩個等大的圓因為外圈的大小不同,而看起來大小不一。

  • Not to be confused with the Labeouf illusion, where two identical circles are actually props in a short experimental film.

    可別跟 Labeouf 幻象搞混了,在這個幻象中兩個相同的圓通常是實驗微電影中的道具。

  • In the Delboeuf illusion, if one of the circles is surrounded by a third circle that's just a little bigger, the inside circle will look larger than its twin.

    在 Delboeuf 大小錯覺理論中,如果其中一個圓被只是稍大一點的圈環繞,它會比與它一樣大的圓看起來再大一些。

  • But if the outside circle is much larger, the inside circle will look smaller.

    但如果圈圈變得超大,裡面的圓看起來則較小。

  • Since food on a plate is essentially a circle of stuff surrounded by the circle of the plate's edge, this illusion can make the same portion look bigger depending on the size of the plate.

    由於餐盤上的食物實際上就是一團,外面環繞著盤緣,這種錯覺能讓同等份量的食物,依據餐盤大小而看起來多一些。

  • A 2012 study in the "Journal of Consumer Research" confirmed this by showing that people overestimate portions when they're using large plates, serving themselves more than they really wanted.

    一則 2012 年《消費者研究期刊》的研究證實了這個理論,顯示人在使用較大餐盤時會高估他們的食量,攝取多於他們實際想吃的份量。

  • With small plates, they serve themselves less.

    使用較小的餐盤,則攝取較少。

  • The Delboeuf illusion is so convincing that studies have found you'll actually feel more full when you eat a meal from a smaller dish.

    Delboeuf 大小錯覺的說服力之大以至於你在使用較小餐盤時,會感到比較飽。

  • That's why all-you-can-eat buffets tend to keep their plate very small, so you think you're eating more when you really aren't.

    這就是為什麼吃到飽餐廳傾向選用很小的餐盤,所以你以為你吃了很多,但其實並不然。

  • Meanwhile, restaurants where, you pay based on your order, tend to serve their entrees on large platters, hoping to convince you that you still have room for dessert.

    同時,依據點餐多寡決定花費的餐廳則傾向將前菜放在較大的盤子裡,好讓你覺得自己還有胃吃甜點。

  • There's also a lot they can do with glassware.

    針對玻璃杯,餐廳也有許多小心機。

  • Research has shown that people are willing to pay much more for drinks if you match their expectations when it comes to the shape of the glass.

    研究指出人願意為了酒水多付錢,如果所提供的杯具符合他們期待的話。

  • Because of cultural influences, we tend to think that some drinks simply belong in certain glasses.

    基於文化上的影響,我們往往認為某些飲品就是要用特定的杯子喝。

  • Like a rounder, larger glass for red wines than for whites.

    像是一個杯身較大且圓潤的玻璃杯會更適合裝紅酒而非白酒。

  • And when there's a mismatch, that creates cognitive dissonance.

    而當有搭配錯誤的情況發生,則會產生與認知的分歧。

  • The psychological stress we feel when a situation leads to conflicts between our attitudes, beliefs, or behaviors.

    如果遇到導致我們心態、看法及行為之間產生衝突的情況,我們會感受到心理上的壓迫感。

  • You might not think of drinking hot chocolate from a water glass as something that would cause psychological anguish.

    你或許不覺得用玻璃水杯喝熱可可會造成心理上的極大痛苦。

  • But it does!

    但確實會!

  • Which means we find the overall experience less pleasant, and we don't want to pay as much for it.

    這就意味著如果我們的整體消費經驗不是那麼愉快,我們就不會想多花錢。

  • Certain shapes can also get you to drink faster.

    特定的杯型也能讓你喝得更快。

  • In one study published in "PLoS ONE" in 2012, researchers found that we drink beer faster from curved glasses than from straight ones.

    在 2012 年發表於《公共科學圖書館:綜合》期刊的一則研究中,研究者發現我們喝啤酒時,用曲線杯會比用直筒杯喝來得快。

  • That's probably because our brains tend to judge how much liquid is left based on how far up the glass it reaches.

    或許是因為我們的大腦傾向由液體的高度去判斷喝剩的水量。

  • Even if the glass is much wider at the top.

    即使杯子的上層比較寬也是一樣。

  • So with a curved glass, it's harder for you to pace yourself.

    因此使用曲線杯的時候,你較難照習慣的步調去判斷。

  • And by the time you think you've finished half your beer, you're actually much more than halfway through.

    而當你喝完半杯的啤酒,你其實已經喝掉不只一半了。

  • You might end up finishing the beer much faster than you wanted.

    最終你可能會喝得比你想要的還快。

  • And the faster you drink, the faster you need a refill.

    而你喝得越快,你就越快需要續杯。

  • We also tend to think tall, skinny glasses contain more than short, fat ones, even when they don't.

    我們也容易認為細高的玻璃杯裝得比矮胖款的多,即使事實並非如此。

  • Studies have found that we pour more into short, fat glasses, and we drink more from them.

    許多研究發現我們會倒更多到矮胖型的玻璃杯裡,同時也喝得更多。

  • Up to 88% more.

    多達 88 %。

  • That might come from what's known as the horizontal-vertical illusion.

    這可能源自於所謂的垂直水平錯視。

  • Where vertical lines seem longer than horizontal ones.

    其中垂直的物體看起來會比水平的來得長。

  • Psychologists aren't totally sure why this illusion works, but it might be because our visual field is wider than it is tall.

    心理學家並不確定這種錯覺是如何產生的,但可能是因為我們的視野範圍寬度大於高度。

  • So, like, a line of the same length takes up a greater percentage of what we see vertically than it does horizontally, which makes us think it's bigger.

    所以一個等長的物體垂直擺放會比水平擺放佔視野比例更多,使我們覺得它比較大。

  • Restaurants can even influence the way your food or drink tastes based on how they serve it to you.

    餐廳業者可以根據餐點呈現的樣式影響食物的風味。

  • One tactic uses what's known as shape symbolism, where we associate roundness with sweetness.

    一個常用的策略被稱為形態象徵,我們會將圓潤的形狀與甜味做聯想。

  • And angles with bitterness.

    而有稜有角的形狀則與苦味有關。

  • Like with the horizontal-vertical illusion, we're not sure why this is.

    如同垂直水平錯視,我們不確定這現象的成因。

  • But it's possible that we conflate bitterness and physical sharpness because they can both be signs of danger.

    但或許我們將苦味與尖銳物相連結,是因為兩者都可以是危險的象徵。

  • Whatever the reason, shape symbolism makes us perceive chocolate cut into rounds as sweeter than the exact same bar cut into chunks or beer from a curved glass as fruitier.

    不論原因為何,形態象徵使我們認為同一條巧克力切成圓形會比切成塊狀來的甜,或是曲線杯裝的啤酒喝起來比較香甜。

  • And that's just the beginning.

    而這只不過是個開始。

  • A lot of flavor manipulation comes from a phenomenon called sensation transference.

    許多食物風味上的操弄源自於一個叫感知轉移的現象。

  • Where we transfer the properties of the plateware or utensil to the food we eat from it.

    意思是我們會將碗盤或餐具的特性轉移到我們所要吃的食物上。

  • So for example, if you want to make soda taste cooler and more refreshing, you can put it in a cool-colored container.

    所以舉例來說,如果你想讓汽水喝起來沁涼的話,你可以將它裝在一個清涼顏色的容器裡。

  • A tip that Pepsi took the heart.

    這個參考指南百事可樂銘記在心。

  • Even the heft of your cutlery can make a difference.

    就連刀叉的重量都能帶來不同的影響。

  • Since we automatically associate weight with quality, we'll think yogurt tastes better when we're eating it with a silver spoon than when we eat it with a plastic one.

    由於我們會自然而然地將重量聯想到品質,我們會覺得用銀匙吃優格會比用塑膠湯匙吃來得好吃。

  • And, of course, as Iron Chef taught me, plating also matters.

    而當然,如同《鐵人料理》教我的,擺盤也很重要。

  • In one study, researchers presented 60 people with a salad of the exact same ingredients tossed, neatly sorted, or arranged to look like a famous Kandinsky painting.

    在一則研究當中,60 位受試者面前放了食材相同的沙拉,差別在於有的拌過、有的擺得整齊、有的擺得像 Kandinsky(俄國知名畫家)的畫一樣。

  • Before they even tried it, participants said they knew that they'd like the artistic salad more.

    就連在他們嚐鮮之前,受試者就說他們知道自己會比較喜歡有藝術感的那盤沙拉。

  • And ultimately, they rated it 29% tastier than the other salads.

    而最終,受試者給藝術擺盤的美味度評分較一般擺盤高出 29 %。

  • So if you're trying to reduce how much you eat and drink or how much you spend, you might want to keep an eye out for some of these tricks the next time you go to eat or meet up at the bar with your friends.

    所以如果你正嘗試減少你的飲食攝取或是花費,下次外出用餐時你可能會想多注意這些商人的把戲, 或跟朋友相約在酒吧時也是如此。

  • See, 'cause practically everything about that place is trying to sell you something.

    因為事實上,有關餐廳的一切都是想要賣你東西。

  • Thanks for watching this episode of SciShow Psych!

    感謝收看本集的 SciShow Psych!

  • If you are interested in learning more about the ways businesses use psychology to manipulate people, you can check out our video on the tactics advertisers used to persuade you.

    如果你有興趣了解更多有關企業如何運用心理學操控消費者,可以看看我們關於廣告商用策略說服消費者的影片。

Whenever you go out for dinner or drinks, just know this: Your brain is being hacked.

當你外出用餐或喝一杯時,記住:你的腦袋已經被業者入侵了。

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B1 中級 中文 美國腔 餐廳 錯覺 玻璃杯 消費者 研究 餐點

在餐廳吃飯總是花很多錢?餐廳行銷心理學報你知!(How Restaurants Use Psychology to Make You Spend More Money)

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    Joyce Chiou 發佈於 2019 年 08 月 13 日
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