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  • Whenever you go out for dinner or drinks, just know this: Your brain is being hacked.


  • Like with most businesses, the goal is to make money.


  • So it kinda makes sense that restaurants and bars would do whatever they can to get you to spend more of it.


  • But there are a lot more ways they can manipulate you than you might realize.


  • From the adjectives on the menu to the size of the plates, establishments can use all kinds of psychological tricks to influence your behavior.


  • Some of them are so hardwired that even after you watch this video, you still might be fooled.


  • But, at least, if you know what's happening, there's a chance you can take back control.


  • The mind-hacking begins with the menu.


  • For example, have you ever noticed that a lot of restaurants list prices as just plain numbers?


  • There'll just be, like, a "15" next to the crab cakes, with no dollar sign or any other indication that it's a price.

    像是蟹肉餅旁邊只寫個 15 ,未附上任何幣值單位或是讓你知道那是價錢的其它線索。

  • That's not an aesthetic choice.


  • Studies have shown that people spend more when menus don't have dollar signs.


  • Probably because it keeps you from thinking about how much money your order will cost.


  • There's also a bit of thought that goes into how the items are listed.


  • The options aren't "hamburger" or "baked fish".


  • Instead, they're described as "Joe's meaty burger" or "succulent Italian fillet."

    取而代之地,它們會被描述成「喬式多汁肉堡 」或是「義式燴去骨鮮魚」。

  • That is because researchers have found that adding colorful descriptions can increase sales by up to 27%.

    這是因為有研究者發現,增添豐富的描述能助長業績 27 %。

  • So you might want to translate the choices in your head before you decide what to order.


  • Restaurants and bars can also influence both how much you spend and how much you consume by using glasses and dishes with certain shapes and sizes.


  • One thing they can do is vary the size of their dishes to take advantage of what's known as the Delboeuf illusion.

    他們能善用所謂的 Delboeuf 大小錯覺的優勢去變化餐盤的大小。

  • Where two identical circles look different based on the size of the circles around them.


  • Not to be confused with the Labeouf illusion, where two identical circles are actually props in a short experimental film.

    可別跟 Labeouf 幻象搞混了,在這個幻象中兩個相同的圓通常是實驗微電影中的道具。

  • In the Delboeuf illusion, if one of the circles is surrounded by a third circle that's just a little bigger, the inside circle will look larger than its twin.

    在 Delboeuf 大小錯覺理論中,如果其中一個圓被只是稍大一點的圈環繞,它會比與它一樣大的圓看起來再大一些。

  • But if the outside circle is much larger, the inside circle will look smaller.


  • Since food on a plate is essentially a circle of stuff surrounded by the circle of the plate's edge, this illusion can make the same portion look bigger depending on the size of the plate.


  • A 2012 study in the "Journal of Consumer Research" confirmed this by showing that people overestimate portions when they're using large plates, serving themselves more than they really wanted.

    一則 2012 年《消費者研究期刊》的研究證實了這個理論,顯示人在使用較大餐盤時會高估他們的食量,攝取多於他們實際想吃的份量。

  • With small plates, they serve themselves less.


  • The Delboeuf illusion is so convincing that studies have found you'll actually feel more full when you eat a meal from a smaller dish.

    Delboeuf 大小錯覺的說服力之大以至於你在使用較小餐盤時,會感到比較飽。

  • That's why all-you-can-eat buffets tend to keep their plate very small, so you think you're eating more when you really aren't.


  • Meanwhile, restaurants where, you pay based on your order, tend to serve their entrees on large platters, hoping to convince you that you still have room for dessert.


  • There's also a lot they can do with glassware.


  • Research has shown that people are willing to pay much more for drinks if you match their expectations when it comes to the shape of the glass.


  • Because of cultural influences, we tend to think that some drinks simply belong in certain glasses.


  • Like a rounder, larger glass for red wines than for whites.


  • And when there's a mismatch, that creates cognitive dissonance.


  • The psychological stress we feel when a situation leads to conflicts between our attitudes, beliefs, or behaviors.


  • You might not think of drinking hot chocolate from a water glass as something that would cause psychological anguish.


  • But it does!


  • Which means we find the overall experience less pleasant, and we don't want to pay as much for it.


  • Certain shapes can also get you to drink faster.


  • In one study published in "PLoS ONE" in 2012, researchers found that we drink beer faster from curved glasses than from straight ones.

    在 2012 年發表於《公共科學圖書館:綜合》期刊的一則研究中,研究者發現我們喝啤酒時,用曲線杯會比用直筒杯喝來得快。

  • That's probably because our brains tend to judge how much liquid is left based on how far up the glass it reaches.


  • Even if the glass is much wider at the top.


  • So with a curved glass, it's harder for you to pace yourself.


  • And by the time you think you've finished half your beer, you're actually much more than halfway through.


  • You might end up finishing the beer much faster than you wanted.


  • And the faster you drink, the faster you need a refill.


  • We also tend to think tall, skinny glasses contain more than short, fat ones, even when they don't.


  • Studies have found that we pour more into short, fat glasses, and we drink more from them.


  • Up to 88% more.

    多達 88 %。

  • That might come from what's known as the horizontal-vertical illusion.


  • Where vertical lines seem longer than horizontal ones.


  • Psychologists aren't totally sure why this illusion works, but it might be because our visual field is wider than it is tall.


  • So, like, a line of the same length takes up a greater percentage of what we see vertically than it does horizontally, which makes us think it's bigger.


  • Restaurants can even influence the way your food or drink tastes based on how they serve it to you.


  • One tactic uses what's known as shape symbolism, where we associate roundness with sweetness.


  • And angles with bitterness.


  • Like with the horizontal-vertical illusion, we're not sure why this is.


  • But it's possible that we conflate bitterness and physical sharpness because they can both be signs of danger.


  • Whatever the reason, shape symbolism makes us perceive chocolate cut into rounds as sweeter than the exact same bar cut into chunks or beer from a curved glass as fruitier.


  • And that's just the beginning.


  • A lot of flavor manipulation comes from a phenomenon called sensation transference.


  • Where we transfer the properties of the plateware or utensil to the food we eat from it.


  • So for example, if you want to make soda taste cooler and more refreshing, you can put it in a cool-colored container.


  • A tip that Pepsi took the heart.


  • Even the heft of your cutlery can make a difference.


  • Since we automatically associate weight with quality, we'll think yogurt tastes better when we're eating it with a silver spoon than when we eat it with a plastic one.


  • And, of course, as Iron Chef taught me, plating also matters.


  • In one study, researchers presented 60 people with a salad of the exact same ingredients tossed, neatly sorted, or arranged to look like a famous Kandinsky painting.

    在一則研究當中,60 位受試者面前放了食材相同的沙拉,差別在於有的拌過、有的擺得整齊、有的擺得像 Kandinsky(俄國知名畫家)的畫一樣。

  • Before they even tried it, participants said they knew that they'd like the artistic salad more.


  • And ultimately, they rated it 29% tastier than the other salads.

    而最終,受試者給藝術擺盤的美味度評分較一般擺盤高出 29 %。

  • So if you're trying to reduce how much you eat and drink or how much you spend, you might want to keep an eye out for some of these tricks the next time you go to eat or meet up at the bar with your friends.

    所以如果你正嘗試減少你的飲食攝取或是花費,下次外出用餐時你可能會想多注意這些商人的把戲, 或跟朋友相約在酒吧時也是如此。

  • See, 'cause practically everything about that place is trying to sell you something.


  • Thanks for watching this episode of SciShow Psych!

    感謝收看本集的 SciShow Psych!

  • If you are interested in learning more about the ways businesses use psychology to manipulate people, you can check out our video on the tactics advertisers used to persuade you.


Whenever you go out for dinner or drinks, just know this: Your brain is being hacked.


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B1 中級 中文 美國腔 餐廳 錯覺 玻璃杯 消費者 研究 餐點

在餐廳吃飯總是花很多錢?餐廳行銷心理學報你知!(How Restaurants Use Psychology to Make You Spend More Money)

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    Joyce Chiou 發佈於 2019 年 08 月 13 日