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  • A close encounter with a man-eating giant,

    和一個食人巨人做近距離的接觸,

  • a sorceress who turns men into pigs,

    一個會把人變成豬的女巫,

  • a long-lost king taking back his throne.

    一個消失很久的國王取回他的王位。

  • On their own, any of these make great stories,

    上述這些題材,每一個本身 都能成為一個好故事,

  • but each is just one episode in the "Odyssey,"

    但它們各別都只是 《奧德賽》中的一個片段,

  • a 12,000-line poem spanning years of Ancient Greek history, myth, and legend.

    它是一篇 12000 行的詩,

  • How do we make sense of such a massive text

    橫跨多年的古希臘史、 神話,和傳說。

  • that comes from and tells of a world so far away?

    這龐大的文本, 來自一個如此遙遠的世界,

  • The fact that we can read the "Odyssey" at all is pretty incredible,

    訴說著那個世界的故事, 我們要如何才能理解它?

  • as it was composed before the Greek alphabet appeared in the 8th century BCE.

    光是可以閱讀《奧德賽》 這件事本身就已經很不可思議了,

  • It was made for listeners rather than readers,

    因為它是在公元前八世紀 希臘字母出現之前就寫成的。

  • and was performed by oral poets called rhapsodes.

    它是為聽眾而寫,不是為讀者,

  • Tradition identifies its author as a blind man named Homer.

    且它是由被稱為「吟誦詩人」的 口語詩人們來表演。

  • But no one definitively knows whether he was real or legendary.

    傳統認為它的作者是 一個名叫荷馬的盲人。

  • The earliest mentions of him occur centuries after his era.

    但沒有人確切知道 他是真實人物還是虛構的。

  • And the poems attributed to him seem to have been changed

    在他的時代過了幾個世紀之後 他的名字才被初次提及。

  • and rearranged many times by multiple authors

    而被認為是他所寫的那些詩,

  • before finally being written down in their current form.

    似乎已經被多位作家 改變和重排了很多次,

  • In fact, the word rhapsode means stitching together,

    才寫成目前的形式。

  • as these poets combined existing stories, jokes, myths, and songs

    事實上,「吟誦詩人」 這個詞意味著拼拼湊湊,

  • into a single narrative.

    因為這些詩人組合了既有的 故事、笑話、神話,和歌曲,

  • To recite these massive epics live,

    成為單一個故事來訴說。

  • rhapsodes employed a steady meter,

    為了要在現場朗誦這些龐大的史詩,

  • along with mnemonic devices,

    吟誦詩人會使用穩定的格律,

  • like repetition of memorized passages or set pieces.

    搭配協助記憶的方式,

  • These included descriptions of scenery and lists of characters,

    比如重覆已經記下來的 段落或固定的片段。

  • and helped the rhapsode keep their place in the narrative,

    這些包括對風景的描述 和角色的清單,

  • just as the chorus or bridge of a song helps us to remember the next verses.

    能協助吟誦詩人記得 故事講到哪裡了,

  • Because most of the tales were familiar to the audience,

    就像歌曲的合唱或過門 能幫助我們記住下一段詞句。

  • it was common to hear the sections of the poem out of order.

    因為大多數的故事是聽眾熟悉的,

  • At some point, the order became set in stone

    常常可以聽到打亂順序的各段詩。

  • and the story was locked into place as the one we read today.

    在某個時期,順序被固定下來,

  • But since the world has changed a bit in the last several thousand years,

    被固定成為我們現今讀到的版本。

  • it helps to have some background before jumping in.

    但是,因為在過去數千年中, 世界有些許的改變,

  • The "Odyssey" itself is a sequel to Homer's other famous epic, the "Iliad,"

    在冒然投入之前, 先了解一些背景會有所幫助。

  • which tells the story of the Trojan War.

    《奧德賽》本身是荷馬的另一部 知名史詩《伊利亞德》的續集,

  • If there's one major theme uniting both poems, it's this:

    它講述的是特洛伊戰爭的故事。

  • do not, under any circumstances, incur the wrath of the gods.

    如果說有一個主題將這兩首詩 結合起來,那就是:

  • The Greek Pantheon is a dangerous mix of divine power and human insecurity,

    在任何情況下, 都不要招致神的憤怒。

  • prone to jealousy and grudges of epic proportions.

    希臘萬神殿是神聖權力 和人類不安全感的危險組合,

  • And many of the problems faced by humans in the poems are caused by their hubris,

    很容易產生大量的嫉妒和怨恨。

  • or excessive pride in believing themselves superior to the gods.

    在詩中,人類面臨的許多問題 是由他們的傲慢所引起的,

  • The desire to please the gods was so great

    就是過度驕傲地相信 自己比神更優越。

  • that the Ancient Greeks traditionally welcomed all strangers

    古希臘人想要取悅神的慾望非常強,

  • into their homes with generosity

    他們傳統上會大方迎請所有的陌生人

  • for fear that the strangers might be gods in disguise.

    進入他們的家裡,

  • This ancient code of hospitality was called xenia.

    因為擔心陌生人可能 就是神偽裝而成的。

  • It involved hosts providing their guests with safety, food, and comfort,

    這種好客的古老習俗 叫做「賓主之誼」。

  • and the guests returning the favor with courtesy and gifts if they had them.

    它指的是主人要提供客人食物, 並讓他們感到安全舒適,

  • Xenia has a significant role in the "Odyssey,"

    而客人能給予的回報就是 禮貌和禮物,如果有的話。

  • where Odysseus in his wanderings is the perpetual guest,

    在《奧德賽》中, 賓主之誼的角色很重要,

  • while in his absence, his clever wife Penelope plays non-stop host.

    其中奧德修斯到處流浪, 長期都在當客人,

  • The "Odyssey" recounts all of Odysseus's years of travel,

    當他不在時,他聰明的妻子 潘尼羅佩則一直扮演主人。

  • but the narrative begins in medias res in the middle of things.

    《奧德賽》完整描述了 奧德修斯多年的旅行,

  • Ten years after the Trojan War, we find our hero trapped on an island,

    但敘事是從中間開始的。

  • still far from his native Ithaca and the family he hasn't seen for 20 years.

    特洛伊戰爭後十年, 我們的英雄主角被困在一座島上,

  • Because he's angered the sea god Poseidon by blinding his son, a cyclops,

    仍然離他的家鄉伊薩基島 和二十年不見的家人很遠。

  • Odysseus's passage home has been fraught with mishap after mishap.

    因為他弄瞎了海神波賽頓的 獨眼巨人兒子而激怒了海神,

  • With trouble brewing at home and gods discussing his fate,

    奧德修斯的回家之路 滿是一個又一個的災難。

  • Odysseus begins the account of those missing years to his hosts.

    因為家鄉有些麻煩即將發生, 且眾神也在討論他的命運,

  • One of the most fascinating things about the "Odyssey"

    奧德修斯開始跟他的主人們 講述他失去的那些年。

  • is the gap between how little we know about its time period

    《奧德賽》最迷人的地方之一,

  • and the wealth of detail the text itself contains.

    就是我們對那個時期了解甚少,

  • Historians, linguists, and archeologists

    但文本中滿是豐富的細節, 兩者間的落差很大。

  • have spent centuries searching for the ruins of Troy

    歷史學家、語言學家,和考古學家

  • and identifying which islands Odysseus visited.

    花了數世紀的時間 在尋找特洛伊的遺跡,

  • Just like its hero, the 24-book epic has made its own long journey

    並試圖辨識奧德修斯曾到過的島嶼。

  • through centuries of myth and history

    和它的主角一樣, 這部共二十四本書的史詩

  • to tell us its incredible story today.

    也走了很長的旅程, 穿過幾世紀的神話和歷史,

A close encounter with a man-eating giant,

和一個食人巨人做近距離的接觸,

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B1 中級 中文 美國腔 TED-Ed 奧德修斯 詩人 故事 特洛伊 神話

閱讀荷馬的 "奧德賽 "你需要知道的一切--吉爾-達什 (Everything you need to know to read Homer's "Odyssey" - Jill Dash)

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    asd851112 發佈於 2021 年 01 月 14 日
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