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  • Ah, the Olympics.

    噢,奧運。

  • The glory of our best athletes competing for greatness in shiny new stadiums for viewers around the world.

    最傑出的運動員們在嶄新的體育館相互爭奪光榮給全球的觀眾觀賞。

  • But recent games are rife with overspending, waste, and controversy.

    但最近的賽事充斥著過度花費、浪費與爭議。

  • And most viewers don't even see the lasting damage the games do to the host city.

    且大多數的觀眾都看不到奧運對主辦城市所造成的後續傷害。

  • Could we be watching the death of the Olympics?

    這會不會是奧運的殞落?

  • Well, right now it's hard to tell.

    現在還很難說。

  • But this honored tradition is looking sicker every year.

    但這項榮譽傳統正每況愈下。

  • Hosting is expensive.

    辦奧運很花錢。

  • Every game in the last 50 years has gone over budget.

    五十年來的每場奧運都超支了。

  • The 2014 Sochi Winter Games went over it's 10 billion dollar budget by an additional 41 billion dollars.

    2014 年的索契冬季奧運比原本的 100 億美元預算還要超支了 410 億美元。

  • No one knows this better than Professor Andrew Zimbalist.

    沒人比 Andrew Zimbalist 教授更了解奧運。

  • He's written several books on the Olympics, including "Rio 2016: Olympic Myths, Hard Realities."

    他寫了好幾本關於奧運的書,包含《2016 里約奧運的秘辛與殘酷事實》。

  • "These days they require about 35 different athletic vendors."

    「現在他們需要大約 35 家體育贊助商。」

  • "They require an Olympic village that costs one and a half, two, three billion dollars depending on the circumstance."

    「也需要一個奧運村,而這大約需花費十五、二十或三十億美元,看情況而定。」

  • "They require a media and television production facility, which could very easily go for half a billion to a billion dollars."

    「還需要一個媒體與電視製作中心,花費可輕易超過五至十億美元。」

  • "They require a media village."

    「還需要一個媒體村。」

  • "They require ceremonial space, and green space."

    「還要可舉辦典禮的空間與綠地。」

  • "They require transportation amongst all of them, and special lanes for the IOC executives transportation amongst all of the venues."

    「還需要連通這些地方的交通系統與連接所有場館,給國際奧林匹克委員會主管們的專用道路。」

  • Cities used to make a profit from the games.

    過去主辦城市能從奧運獲利。

  • Partly because they collected a lot of revenue in TV rights.

    因為他們從電視權利金中得到了大量收益。

  • But recently the International Olympic Committee has been taking a larger percentages.

    但近期奧委會贊助比例越來越高。

  • In the 90's for instance, it took 4% of revenue.

    以 1990 年代來說,只佔了 4% 的收益。

  • Compare that with the 70% it pocketed from the 2016 Rio Games.

    相較之下,2016 里約奧運卻占了 70%。

  • The newly built stadium can cost up to 30 million dollars a year to maintain and they are often on valuable real estate.

    新建場館每年需花費高達三千萬美金來維護,且它們常位於值錢的地段。

  • Most cities don't even know what to use them for after the games.

    許多主辦城市甚至在奧運結束後不知道該拿這些場館怎麼辦。

  • Those facilities fall into decay if they're not kept up, and that hurts property value.

    如果沒有好好維護,設施會損壞,而這會損害建物價值。

  • "There could also be a lot of environmental disruption."

    「對環境也會造成極大傷害。」

  • "The Winter Olympics they'll be having in Pyeong Chang, they destroyed a whole mountainside."

    「在即將到來的平昌冬奧,他們甚至摧毀了整片山。」

  • "Trees and animals that are there, and some of them close to extinction."

    「樹木與動物遭受威脅,有些甚至瀕臨絕種。」

  • So who'd want to host the Olympics in the first place?

    所以一開始哪些城市會想辦奧運?

  • Not many.

    沒幾個城市。

  • After each financial failure fewer cities bid to host the following decade's games.

    每次奧運賠錢後,越來越少城市願意競標往後幾十年的奧運主辦權。

  • After all, it takes 10 years of planning just to be in the running to host.

    畢竟連取得競標權都得花上 10 年的籌備了。

  • Chicago spent an estimated 100 million on the campaign to host in 2016, and they lost.

    芝加哥花了約一億美元來競標 2016 奧運主辦權,而他們輸了。

  • Boston famously pulled it's bid for the 2024 Summer Games, after citizen group No Boston Olympics convinced the city otherwise.

    在公民團體「反波士頓奧運」的遊說下,波士頓退出了 2024 夏奧的競標。

  • 12 cities bid for the 2004 games, five for 2020, and just two for 2022 Winter Games: China and Kazakhstan.

    2004 奧運有 12 個城市參與競標,2020 奧運剩下五個,而 2022 冬奧只剩下兩個國家: 中國與哈薩克。

  • So is that it?

    所以,奧運就這樣了嗎?

  • R.I.P. Olympic games?

    只能讓它安息?

  • "It won't end."

    「奧運並不會停辦。」

  • "Thomas Bach, the President of the IOC, for all the criticisms that I have of him, he's a smart guy, and he knows when he's up against the wall."

    「奧委會主席 Thomas Bach,以我對他的了解,他是個聰明人,他知道哪裡才是絕境。」

  • "And they've been up against the wall."

    「而他們已經歷過絕境。」

  • In 2014 IOC President Thomas Bach suggested a list of 40 actions the IOC could take to shape the future of the Olympic Movement.

    2014 年時,奧委會主席 Thomas Bach 提出了 40 項奧委會未來可採用的建議。

  • Among them, evaluate bid cities by assessing key opportunities and risks, reduce the cost of bidding, and include sustainability in all aspects of the Olympic Games.

    其中有評估競標城市的關鍵機會與風險、降低競標花費與增加奧運的延續性。

  • It sounds good on paper, but time will tell if these actions take root.

    這些看來很好,但時間會證明這些建議是否有用。

  • "We're gonna become more sustainable, we're gonna become more affordable, we're gonna become more flexible;"

    「我們會變得更有延續性、更負擔得起、更彈性;」

  • "And by doing that, by tweaking the model a little bit and making pronouncements, they reengage cities to participate."

    「如此稍稍改進模式加上發表聲明,奧委會重新讓城市們參與奧運。」

  • "And what's generally happened is the model has been slightly reformed."

    「此時通常會發生的是他們會稍稍改良模式。」

  • "It's a little bit more sensible now then it was before the end of 2020."

    「在 2020 年末之前就會感受到差異了。」

  • Zimbalist supports a different idea to keep the Olympics alive.

    運動經濟學家 Zimbalist 對於延續奧運有不同的想法。

  • Get rid of the bidding system and pick a permanent host.

    他提議移除競標體系並選一個永久主辦城。

  • Somewhere that has the built in facilities, infrastructure, and venues.

    某個已有設備、基礎設施與場館的地方。

  • "We happen to have such a city for the Summer Olympics, it's Los Angeles."

    「我們剛好有符合夏奧條件的城市,也就是洛杉磯。」

  • "They don't have to do any building virtual."

    「他們不需要再蓋任何建築。」

  • "They've got the infrastructure, transportation infrastructure."

    「他們已經有基礎設施與交通系統。」

  • "Because it's the second largest city and the entertainment capital of the country."

    「因為它是美國第二大城與娛樂首都。」

  • "They've got all of the professional teams from all the leagues."

    「他們還有來自聯盟的專業團隊。」

  • A permanent city could benefit the Winter Games as well.

    冬奧也能從永久主辦城這個概念得到利益。

  • As the climate changes, less cities that have hosted Games in the past can reliably keep snow.

    因為氣候變遷的緣故,以往主辦冬奧的城市已不太能保持冰雪量。

  • The IOC isn't a fan of this idea, but as bidding hosts dwindle, so do their options.

    奧委會並不是很喜歡這個點子,但隨著願意競標者數量減少,他們也沒什麼選擇。

  • The future Summer Games are planned out through 2028, and the Winter Games through 2022.

    未來的夏奧已排到 2028 年,而冬奧則是 2022 年。

  • The 2026 Olympics have several cities exploring bids, including two previous hosts, Salt Lake City and Sapporo Japan.

    2026 年冬奧有好幾個城市正在爭取主辦權,包含兩個已主辦過的城市─鹽湖城與日本札幌。

  • Germany, Australia, and India have all expressed interest in the 2032 Summer Games.

    德國、澳洲與印度也表達了他們主辦 2032 夏奧的興趣。

  • Despite its flaws, the Olympic Games is still a people pleaser.

    儘管奧運有缺點,它仍然能吸引很多人觀賞。

  • The IOC polled candidate host cities for the 2020 Games and 70% of Tokyo, 76% of Madrid, and 83% of Istanbul were in support.

    奧委會舉辦了 2020 奧運主辦城市候選的投票,70% 投給東京,76% 投給馬德里與 83% 投給伊斯坦堡。

  • So maybe the Olympics aren't dying, but it's certainly up to the International Olympic Committee to keep the games in check.

    或許奧運還沒殞落,但奧委會絕對有責任監督好奧運。

  • Both on the field and off.

    不管是在競技場上或場外。

Ah, the Olympics.

噢,奧運。

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沒國家要辦了?奧運怎麼那麼虧?(Why Hosting The Olympics Isn't Worth It Anymore)

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    Mackenzie 發佈於 2019 年 08 月 31 日
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