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  • Hello.

    譯者: Regina Chu 審譯者: Marssi Draw哈囉!

  • Well, I'm here to talk to you about my animal muse:

    我來跟大家談談我的動物繆思:

  • the sloth.

    樹懶。

  • (Laughter)

    (笑聲)

  • I've been documenting the strange lives of the world's slowest mammal

    我一直在記錄這種史上最慢的 哺乳動物的奇特生活

  • for the last 10 years.

    已經十年了。

  • I still remember the first time I saw one.

    我還記得我第一次看到 這種動物的樣子。

  • I was fascinated by their freaky biology.

    我深深著迷於牠們怪異的生物學。

  • I mean, what's not to love about an animal that's born

    我是說,你怎麼能不愛

  • with a fixed grin on its face?

    天生就有著一張大笑臉的動物?

  • (Laughter)

    (笑聲)

  • And the need to hug.

    而且需要抱抱。

  • Audience: Awww.

    觀眾:喔~~

  • But sloths are massively misunderstood.

    但是樹懶其實完全被誤解了。

  • They've been saddled with a name that speaks of sin

    牠們被安上罪的名字,

  • and damned for their languorous lifestyle,

    譴責牠們倦怠的生活方式,

  • which people seem to think has no place amongst the fittest

    因為大家似乎認為

  • in the fast-paced race for survival.

    牠們在快節奏的生存競賽中 不應該佔有一席之地。

  • Well, I'm here to tell you that we've got this animal all wrong --

    但是,我要在這裡告訴大家,我們實在太冤枉這種動物了——

  • and how understanding the truth about the sloth

    及為什麼了解樹懶的真相

  • may help save us and this planet we both call home.

    可以幫助拯救我們,及我們兩者都稱為家的這個行星。

  • I traced sloth-based slander

    我查考對樹懶的毀謗,

  • back to a Spanish conquistador called Valdés,

    追溯到一位名叫瓦爾德斯的 西班牙征服者,

  • who gave the first description of a sloth in his encyclopedia of the New World.

    他在他的新世界百科全書上 首次描述一隻樹懶。

  • He said the sloth was

    他說樹懶是

  • "the stupidest animal that can be found in the world ...

    「世上你能找到最愚蠢的動物,

  • I have never seen such an ugly animal or one that is more useless."

    我從來沒有看過這麼醜的動物, 或這麼沒用的!」

  • (Laughter)

    (笑聲)

  • Tell us what you really think, Valdés.

    你老實說吧!瓦爾德斯。

  • (Laughter)

    (笑聲)

  • I'd like to have a word about Valdés's drawing skills.

    我要對瓦爾德斯的繪畫技巧 評頭論足一番。

  • (Laughter)

    (笑聲)

  • I mean, what is that?

    你看看,這像話嗎?

  • (Laughter)

    (笑聲)

  • I've never seen an illustration of a sloth that's more useless.

    我從來沒有看過 這麼沒用的樹懶圖示。

  • (Laughter)

    (笑聲)

  • But I mean, on the plus side,

    不過,從好處看,

  • he has given the sloth a remarkably humanlike face,

    他給了樹懶一張超像人類的臉,

  • and sloths do have remarkably humanlike faces.

    而樹懶的確有一張超像人類的臉。

  • This sloth I photographed in Costa Rica, I think looks a lot like Ringo Starr.

    這是我在哥斯大黎加照的樹懶相片。我認為牠真的很像

  • (Laughter)

    披頭四的林哥·史達。(笑聲)

  • But then, sloths do bear an uncanny resemblance to the The Beatles.

    不過,樹懶的確跟披頭四像得可怕。

  • (Laughter)

    (笑聲)

  • Particularly pleased with Paul, actually, on there.

    跟保羅尤其像,就在那。

  • But like The Beatles, sloths are also extremely successful.

    但就像披頭四,樹懶也超成功。

  • They come from an ancient line of mammals, and there were once dozens of species

    牠們源自某種古代的哺乳類, 本來有很多種,

  • including the giant ground sloth, which was the size of a small elephant

    包括大地懶,尺寸跟小型大象一樣,

  • and one of the only animals big enough to eat avocado pits whole

    是唯一夠大的動物,能吃下整顆酪梨果核

  • and disperse them.

    並散播它。

  • So ... (Laughter)

    所以……(笑聲)

  • Some of you have worked it out already.

    有人已經想通了喔。

  • (Laughter)

    (笑聲)

  • That means that without sloths,

    也就是說如果沒有樹懶,

  • there might be no avocado on toast today,

    今天大概就沒有酪梨吐司可以烤了,

  • leaving hipsters everywhere totally bereft at breakfast.

    讓那些趕流行的人完全痛失早餐。

  • (Laughter)

    (笑聲)

  • (Applause)

    (掌聲)

  • Today, there are six surviving species, and they fall into two groups.

    目前有六個倖存的物種,分成兩群。

  • You've got your Bradypus three-toed sloths,

    我們有樹懶屬三趾樹懶,

  • they're the ones with the Beatles haircuts and the Mona Lisa smiles.

    牠們就是有著披頭四的髮型 及蒙娜麗莎的微笑的那種。

  • Then, there are the two-toed sloths.

    然後,我們有二趾樹懶。

  • They look a little bit more like a cross between a Wookiee and a pig.

    牠們比較像武技獸及豬的混種。

  • They live in the jungles of Central and South America,

    牠們在中美及南美的叢林中生活,

  • and they're extremely prolific.

    而且非常多產。

  • There was a survey that was done in the 1970s

    1970 年代有過一項調查,

  • in a Panamanian tropical forest

    在巴拿馬的 熱帶林

  • that found that sloths were the most numerically abundant large animal.

    發現樹懶是數量最多的大型動物。

  • They took up one quarter of the mammalian biomass.

    牠們占了哺乳動物生物量的四分之一。

  • Now, that's an awful lot of sloths

    那可是超多量的樹懶,

  • and suggests they're doing something very right indeed.

    而且這意味著牠們 在某方面的確做得很好。

  • So what if, rather than deriding the sloth for being different,

    所以,與其嘲笑樹懶的不同點,

  • we tried to learn from it instead?

    我們要不要試著 從牠們身上學點什麼?

  • We humans are obsessed with speed.

    我們人類太癡迷於速度了。

  • Busyness is a badge of honor,

    忙碌是榮譽標章,

  • and convenience trumps quality in our quest for quick.

    在我們尋求快速的路上, 便利勝過品質。

  • Our addiction to the express life is choking us and the planet.

    我們對快捷人生成癮,而這正使我們及地球窒息。

  • We idolize animals like the cheetah, the "Ferrari of the animal kingdom,"

    我們崇拜像獵豹一樣的動物,說牠們是動物界的法拉利,

  • capable of doing naught to 60 in three seconds flat.

    只要三秒就可以從零飆到 60。

  • Well, so what?

    那又怎樣?

  • (Laughter)

    (笑聲)

  • (Applause)

    (掌聲)

  • So what?

    那又怎樣?

  • The sloth, on the other hand,

    樹懶,另一方面來說

  • can reach a leisurely 17 feet a minute

    可以悠閒地在 一分鐘內走 17 呎,

  • with the wind behind it.

    後面還有風喔!

  • (Laughter)

    (笑聲)

  • But being fast is costly.

    但是快速的代價很高。

  • The cheetah is speedy, but at the expense of strength.

    獵豹是很快,但是代價就是力量。

  • They can't risk getting in a fight,

    牠們不能冒險參戰,

  • so they lose one in nine kills to tougher predators like hyenas.

    所以牠們跟鬃狗這種強壯的 獵食動物打架,每九場就要輸一場。

  • No wonder they're laughing.

    難怪牠們會笑。

  • (Laughter)

    (笑聲)

  • The sloth, on the other hand,

    反過來說,

  • has taken a more stealthy approach to dinner.

    樹懶用比較鬼鬼祟祟的方法 來享用晚餐。

  • They survive by capturing and consuming

    牠們靠抓取及吞嚥什麼維生呢?

  • static leaves.

    靜葉!

  • (Laughter)

    (笑聲)

  • But you see, leaves don't want to be eaten any more than antelope do,

    不過你也知道,葉子就跟羚羊一樣不想被吃掉,

  • so they're loaded full of toxins and very hard to digest.

    所以葉片充滿了毒素, 而且很難消化。

  • So in order to consume them,

    所以為了吃葉子,

  • the sloth has also had to become an athlete --

    樹懶也必須變成運動員,

  • a digesting athlete.

    消化運動員。

  • (Laughter)

    (笑聲)

  • The sloth's secret weapon is a four-chambered stomach

    樹懶的秘密武器就是四個胃室

  • and plenty of time.

    及很多時間。

  • They have the slowest digestion rate of any mammal.

    牠們的消化率是哺乳動物中最慢的。

  • And it can take up to a month to process a single leaf,

    牠可以花上一個月的時間 來消磨一片葉子,

  • which gives their liver plenty of time to process those toxins.

    這樣就讓肝臟有很多時間 處理那些毒素。

  • So, sloths aren't lazy.

    所以,樹懶一點都不懶。

  • No, they're busy.

    不懶,牠們很忙。

  • Digesting.

    忙著消化。

  • (Laughter)

    (笑聲)

  • Yeah, really busy.

    是的,真的很忙。

  • (Laughter)

    (笑聲)

  • Hard at work, that sloth, very hard at work.

    那隻樹懶很努力工作, 非常努力工作。

  • And of course, leaves have little calorific value,

    而且想當然爾,葉子的熱量很低,

  • so sloths have evolved to spend as little energy as possible.

    所以樹懶演化到盡量不用能量。

  • They do about 10 percent of the work of a similar-sized mammal

    牠們跟類似大小的哺乳動物比, 只做百分之十的工作,

  • and survive on as little as 100 calories a day,

    每天只要一百卡就能生存,

  • thanks to some ingenious adaptations.

    感謝那些巧妙的適應!

  • The Bradypus, three-toed sloths,

    樹懶屬,三趾樹懶,

  • they've got more neck bones than any other mammal,

    牠們的頸骨是哺乳動物中最多的,

  • even a giraffe.

    甚至比長頸鹿還多。

  • Which means they can turn their head through 270 degrees

    這代表牠們可以 270 度轉頭,

  • and graze all around them,

    把四周的葉片全吃掉,

  • without having to actually bother with the effort of moving their body.

    完全不用費心努力移動身體。

  • (Laughter)

    (笑聲)

  • It also means that they are surprisingly good swimmers.

    這也代表牠們出奇地很會游泳。

  • Sloths can bob along in water

    樹懶在水中上下躍動的速度,

  • three times faster than they can move on land,

    比在陸地上移動還要快三倍,

  • kept afloat by ...

    牠們保持漂浮的方法是……

  • trapped wind.

    吹風!

  • (Laughter)

    (笑聲)

  • So --

    所以——

  • (Laughter)

    (笑聲)

  • sloths are the only mammal that we know of that don't do flatulence.

    樹懶是我們所知 唯一不會脹氣的動物。

  • When they need to expel gas,

    牠們需要排氣的時候,

  • it's actually reabsorbed into their bloodstream

    就把氣體重新吸收進血液中,

  • and expelled orally as a sort of mouth fart.

    然後經由嘴部,就像放屁一樣排放。

  • (Laughter)

    (笑聲)

  • Turning their lives upside down saves further energy.

    把牠們的生活顛倒過來 也能進一步節省能量。

  • They have about half the skeletal muscle of a terrestrial mammal.

    牠們的骨骼肌只有 陸生哺乳動物的一半左右。

  • They don't really have so many of the extensor muscles

    牠們沒有很多伸展肌

  • that are the weight-bearing muscles;

    可以負重物;

  • instead, they rely on retractor muscles to pull themselves along.

    相反地,牠們靠收縮肌來拉動自己。

  • They have long, hooked claws and a high fatigue resistance,

    牠們有長鉤型的爪子及高抗疲勞耐力,

  • so they can literally hook on and hang like a happy, hairy hammock

    所以牠們真的可以高掛,像個快樂的毛茸茸吊床

  • for hours on end.

    連續幾小時!

  • And sloths can do almost anything in this inverted position.

    樹懶用這個顛倒的姿勢 幾乎可以做任何事。

  • They sleep, eat and even give birth.

    牠們可以這樣睡覺、 吃飯甚至生小孩。

  • Their throat and blood vessels are uniquely adapted

    牠們的喉嚨及血管已經特別適應

  • to pump blood and to swallow food against the force of gravity.

    能抵抗重力以輸送血液及吞嚥食物。

  • They have sticky bits on their ribs

    牠們的肋骨上有黏塊,

  • that prevent their enormous stomach from crushing their lungs.

    能防止牠們巨大的胃壓壞肺部。

  • And their fur grows the opposite direction,

    牠們的皮毛倒長,

  • so they can drip dry after a tropical drenching.

    所以可以在熱帶大雨浸透之後滴乾。

  • The only problem is, if you turn a sloth the other way up,

    唯一的問題是,如果你把樹懶翻過來,

  • gravity removes its dignity.

    重力會讓牠們失去尊嚴。

  • Audience: Awww.

    觀眾:喔~~

  • They can't hold themselves upright.

    牠們無法保持直立,

  • And so they drag their bodies along as if mountaineering on a flat surface.

    所以牠們得拖著身體,好像在平地登山一樣。

  • And I think this is why the early explorers like Valdés

    我認為這就是為什麼 早期的探險家如瓦爾德斯

  • thought so poorly of them,

    認為牠們這麼糟糕,

  • because they were observing sloths the wrong way up and out of context.

    因為他們觀察的是反過來的樹懶,而且不在牠們的生活背景裡。

  • I've spent many happy hours mesmerized by moving sloths.

    我曾目不轉睛盯著移動的樹懶, 快樂地看上好幾個小時,

  • Their lack of muscle hasn't impeded their strength or agility.

    牠們雖然缺乏肌肉, 但是力量及敏捷度都不受妨礙。

  • Nature's zen masters of mellow move like "Swan Lake" in slow mo --

    大自然的禪宗大師老成持重的動作,像極了慢動作的《天鵝湖》——

  • (Laughter)

    (笑聲)

  • with the core control of a tai chi master.

    卻有太極大師的核心控制。

  • This one has fallen asleep mid-move, which is not uncommon.

    這隻動到一半就睡著了,這情況不算罕見。

  • (Laughter)

    (笑聲)

  • But you're probably wondering:

    但是你們大概會想:

  • How does a dangling bag of digesting leaves avoid being eaten?

    吊在那裡吃葉片的大袋子 怎麼不會被吃掉?

  • Good question.

    好問題!

  • Well, this is one of the sloth's main predators.

    這是樹懶的主要天敵。

  • It's the harpy eagle.

    角鵰。

  • It can fly at speeds of up to 50 miles per hour,

    牠每小時可以飛 50 哩,

  • has talons the size of a grizzly bear's,

    爪子跟灰熊的爪一樣大,

  • razor-sharp eyesight,

    目光銳利,

  • and that ring of feathers focuses sound

    那一圈羽毛能集中聲音,

  • so that it can hear the slightest leaf rustle.

    所以牠能聽見極輕的樹葉悉簌聲。

  • The sloth, on the other hand, has poor hearing, bad eyesight,

    另一方面,樹懶的聽力很差,視力很糟,

  • and running from danger is clearly not an option.

    碰到危險就逃之夭夭 也不是什麼好選項。

  • No, they survive by wearing an invisibility cloak

    不是,牠們靠著隱形披風逃生,

  • worthy of Harry Potter.

    稱得上是哈利波特。

  • Their fur has grooves that attract moisture

    牠們的皮毛上有溝會吸濕氣,

  • and act as tiny hydroponic gardens for algae,

    就像小小的水藻水耕園一樣,

  • and they also attract a host of invertebrates.

    它們同時也會吸引無脊椎動物寄生。

  • So they are their own slow-moving, miniature ecosystem.

    所以牠們自成一格, 形成慢動作的小型生態系統。

  • They become one with the trees.

    牠們與樹木合而為一。

  • And we think that their movements are so slow,

    我們認為就是因為 牠們的動作其慢無比,

  • they slip under the radar of the monstrous harpy

    才不會在角鵰飛過樹梢掃視獵物時,

  • as it's flying about the canopy, scanning for action.

    被牠們可怕的雷達掃到。

  • Sloths are stealth ninjas,

    樹懶是隱密的忍者,

  • and they rarely leave the safety of the canopy --

    牠們極少離開安全的樹梢——

  • except to defecate,

    除非要排便,

  • which they do about once a week at the base of a tree.

    牠們大約一個星期在樹下蹲一次。

  • Now, this risky and energetic behavior has long been a mystery,

    這種冒險且充滿活力的行為 一直是個謎,

  • and there are lots of theories as to why they do it.

    有很多理論在說牠們為什麼這麼做。

  • But I think they're leaving surreptitious scented messages for potential mates.

    不過我認為牠們是偷偷留下訊息 給可能的交配對象。

  • Because, you see, sloths are generally silent, solitary creatures,

    因為,你知道嗎,樹懶通常是安靜的獨居生物,

  • except for when the female is in heat.

    除非雌性在發情。

  • She will climb to the top of a tree and scream for sex.

    她會爬上樹頂大聲叫春。

  • In D-sharp.

    用 D♯ 音 。

  • (Laughter)

    (笑聲)

  • Don't believe me?

    你們不信?

  • (Sound of sloth scream)

    (樹懶叫聲)

  • D-sharp.

    D♯ 音。

  • This and only this note will get the male's attention.

    只有這個音會吸引雄性的注意。

  • It mimics the sound of the kiskadee flycatcher.

    它很像霸鶲的聲音。

  • So the female remains covert,

    所以母樹懶能維持掩護,

  • even when yodeling for sex at the top of her lungs.

    即使她用最大的肺活量 以真假音交替叫春。

  • Her clandestine booty calls will carry for miles across the canopy,

    她秘密的情郎召喚聲 可以在樹梢之間傳好幾哩,

  • and males will beat a slow path towards her.

    公樹懶會很慢很慢地朝她而去。

  • (Laughter)

    (笑聲)

  • I think scented messages in her dung will help send Romeo up the right tree

    我認為她糞中的氣味,可以幫助羅密歐爬上對的樹,

  • so that he doesn't waste precious energy scaling the wrong one.

    所以他不會浪費寶貴的能量 去爬不對的樹。

  • Sex, by the way, is the only thing that sloths do swiftly.

    順帶一題,性是樹懶唯一做得很快的事。

  • I've seen them do it in the wild,

    我曾在野外看過牠們交配,

  • and it's over and done with in a matter of seconds.

    只要幾秒鐘就結束了。

  • But then, why waste precious energy on it,

    不過話說回來,為什麼 要浪費寶貴的能量做愛呢?

  • particularly after that journey?

    特別是爬了那麼久之後?

  • (Laughter)

    (笑聲)

  • Unlike other mammals,

    不像其他的哺乳類,

  • sloths don't also waste time maintaining a constant warm body temperature.

    樹懶也不會浪費時間 維持恆定的體溫。

  • Energy from the sun is free,

    從太陽來的能源是免費的,

  • so they bask in the sun like lizards

    所以牠們像蜥蜴一樣曬太陽,

  • and wear an unusually thick coat for the tropics to keep that heat in.

    並且還在熱帶穿著 異常厚的外套以保持熱量。

  • Sloths have a freakishly low metabolism.

    樹懶的新陳代謝慢得出奇。

  • And we think that this might be one of the reasons

    我們認為這可能是一個原因,

  • that they can sometimes recover from injuries

    讓牠們有時可以從對大多動物來說

  • that would kill most animals.

    會致命的創傷中痊癒。

  • This sloth recovered from a double amputation,

    這隻樹懶從雙截肢中痊癒,

  • and I've known sloths that have managed to survive

    我也知道某些樹懶可以設法

  • even power line electrocutions.

    在電纜線觸電後存活。

  • And we now think that a low metabolism may well be key to surviving extinction.

    我們現在認為低新陳代謝 可能是滅絕倖存的關鍵。

  • Researchers at Kansas University who were studying mollusks

    堪薩斯大學的研究人員 研究軟體動物,

  • found that a high metabolism predicted which species of mollusk

    發現高新陳代謝預測了 哪種軟體動物

  • had gone extinct.

    會絕種。

  • Sloths have been around on this planet in one shape or another

    樹懶用不同的樣子 已經在這個星球上

  • for over 40 million years.

    生存 超過四千萬年。

  • The secret to their success is their slothful nature.

    牠們成功的秘密 就是牠們懶惰的天性。

  • They are energy-saving icons.

    牠們是節能的典範。

  • And I founded the Sloth Appreciation Society

    我成立了「樹懶惰欣賞協會」,

  • to both promote and protect their slow, steady, sustainable lives.

    發揚及保護它們緩慢、穩定及永續的生活。

  • I'm a pretty speedy character.

    我是急性子的人。

  • I'm sure you've guessed.

    我相信你們都已猜到了。

  • And the sloths have taught me a lot about slowing down.

    樹懶教了我很多要放慢速度的事。

  • And I think that the planet would benefit

    我認為地球可以受惠,