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  • For 3 billion people around the world, seafood provides a significant source of protein and nutrition.

    海鮮是世界上 30 億人主要的蛋白質和營養來源。

  • But recent studies show that 33% of wild fisheries are overfished, while another 60% are fished at their maximum capacity.

    但近期研究顯示,有 33% 的野生漁場過度捕撈,同時還有 60% 的漁場則已達到捕撈上限。

  • In fact, over half the seafood we eatfrom finfish and shellfish to seaweed and algaeisn't caught in the wild.

    事實上,我們吃的海產 —— 從鰭骨魚到甲殼類到海藻 —— 都不是野生捕撈的。

  • It's grown through aquaculture, or aquatic farming.


  • Farmed seafood is one of the fastest-growing food industries, expanding in volume by 5.8 percent each year

    海產養殖是其中一項成長最快速的食品產業,每年規模擴大 5.8%。

  • But different methods of aquaculture come with different advantages and issuessome of which echo the serious problems we've seen in industrial agriculture.


  • So how can we avoid repeating the mistakes we've made on land, at sea?


  • What aquaculture approaches are we currently using, and what does a sustainable way to farm the ocean really look like?


  • One of the most common aquaculture methods involves large pens made of nets, where fish are farmed offshore in floating cages roughly 1,000 square meters in size.

    其中一種最常見的水產養殖方式是用大網圈起來,將魚類養在大小約 1000 平方公尺的漂浮籠具內。

  • Commonly employed off the coast of Chile and in the fjords of Norway, these fish, like many industrially farmed animals, occupy stressful, overcrowded pens.


  • They produce massive amounts of waste, polluting the surrounding areas and potentially spreading diseases to wild species.


  • Worse still, since the antibiotics employed to fight disease aren't fully absorbed by the fish, they get excreted back into the environment.


  • Net pens are also susceptible to escapes, unleashing huge numbers of fish which compete for resources and weaken the local gene pool with genes adapted for captivity.


  • Escaped fish can even disrupt local ecosystems as invasive species.


  • Other techniques, such as man-made coastal ponds commonly used for shrimp farming in Southeast Asia, create additional environmental problems.


  • Just like net pens, these ponds are prone to spreading pollution and disease.


  • Their construction also frequently destroys important ecosystems like mangroves and marshes, which protect coastal areas from storms, provide habitats, and absorb tons of greenhouse gases.


  • One way to solve these problems is to farm fish on land in completely contained systems.


  • Tanks and raceways can recirculate and filter water to prevent pollution.


  • But even fully contained facilities still contend with another major hurdle: fishmeal.


  • About 10% of the seafood caught globally is used to feed animals, including carnivorous farmed fish.

    全球捕撈的海產有近 10% 被用在餵養動物,其中包含肉食性養殖魚類。

  • Researchers are working on fish feed made of insects and plant-based proteins, but for now many inland fish farms are connected to overfishing.


  • All these obstacles can make sustainable aquaculture feel a long way off, but innovative farmers are finding new ways to responsibly farm the seas.


  • The most promising solution of all may be to look lower on the food chain.


  • Instead of cramming large, carnivorous fish into pens, we can work with natural ocean systems to produce huge amounts of shellfish and seaweeds.


  • These low-maintenance flora and fauna don't need to be fed at all.


  • In fact, they naturally improve water quality, filtering it as they feed off sunlight and nutrients in the seawater.


  • By absorbing carbon through photosynthesis, these farms help battle climate change, and reduce local ocean acidification while creating habitats for other species to thrive.


  • Shifting to restorative ocean farming could provide good jobs for coastal communities, and support healthy plant and shellfish-based diets that have an incredibly low carbon footprint.


  • In just 5 months, 4,000 square meters of ocean can produce 25 tons of seaweed and 250,000 of shellfish.

    只需短短 5 個月,4000 平方公尺的海洋就能產出 25 噸的海藻和 25 萬噸的甲殼類。

  • With the right distribution network, a series of small farms, collectively the size of Washington State could feed the planet.


  • Farms like these are already popping up around the globe, and a new generation of farmers is stepping up to pursue a more sustainable future.


  • Done properly, regenerative ocean farming could play a vital role in helping our oceans, our climate, and ourselves.


  • If overfishing continues at its current rate will the ocean run out of fish?


  • Check out this video to learn more.


For 3 billion people around the world, seafood provides a significant source of protein and nutrition.

海鮮是世界上 30 億人主要的蛋白質和營養來源。

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