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  • Look at this picture.


  • You know the music we'll play.


  • Even if you have the volume off.


  • “I'll find you...”


  • Nope.


  • “I'm ready for my closeup…”


  • No.


  • Yep.


  • Why is this song the "graduation song?"


  • How did "Pomp and Circumstance" become the soundtrack to every...single...graduation?


  • Its path and fate is surprising.


  • And to understand it, you have to know about the British empire's war for gold.


  • Let's get technical first: this song is part of Edward Elgar's Pomp and Circumstance Military Marches.

    我們先講技術面的東西:這首曲子是 Edward Elgar 的「威風凜凜進行曲」。

  • Specifically, it's the tune from 1901's March No. 1 in D. "Land of Hope and Glory" is the version with words.

    確切來說,它的旋律出自於 1901 年 D 大調第一號進行曲;「希望與榮耀的土地」是它的有聲版。

  • But to get there, you have to go back.


  • In 1901, Queen Victoria was coming to the end of her 63 year, seven month reign.

    1901 年,維多莉雅女皇已經統治了英國 63 年又七個月。

  • That period marked a big expansion of the British Empire.


  • In 1901, a central conflict was the Boer War in South Africa.

    南非 1901 年爆發了一場很大的衝突—波耳戰爭。

  • It was basically fought over packed diamond and gold mines.


  • Boers were the Dutch South Africans opposing Britain.


  • Black South Africans were largely caught in the crossfire, though some fought with the Boers.


  • For all South Africans, the war was brutal.


  • The British destroyed a lot of territory and built incredibly harsh internment camps.


  • For the British, that was the march of empire.


  • That fight was in the background when Queen Victoria died in 1901.

    那場戰役的背景是維多莉亞女王 1901 年去世的時候。

  • When her eldest son, Edward VII, prepared to be coronated in 1902, he needed a program.

    當她的長子愛德華七世在 1902 要被加冕的時候,他需要一個節目單。

  • At that time, Edward Elgar was already famous, and so was his military march.

    那時 Edward Elgar 已經很有名了,他做的軍歌也很有名。

  • So Edward VII asked him to play it at the coronation and add some words.


  • Elgar got AC Benson to write lyrics, and they were….warlike.

    Elgar 請來 AC Benson 寫歌詞,結果歌詞蠻好戰的。

  • Here's an early recording sung by Dame Clara Butt.

    來聽聽看早期由 Dame Clara Butt 錄製的版本。

  • "Land of Hope and Glory, Mother of the Free! How shall we extol thee, who are born of thee?"


  • "Wider still and wider shall thy bounds be set;”


  • Just a second, Dame Butt.

    等等, Dame Butt。

  • Rewind that.


  • Wider still and wider.”


  • "Wider still" means empires expanding, for the coronation of a king.


  • And the namePomp and Circumstancecomes from an Othello quote about, well, here's Orson Welles: “Pomp and circumstance of glorious war.”

    而「威風凜凜進行曲」這個曲名源自於奧賽羅中的句子,就像美國知名導演兼演員 Orson Welles 說的—「威風凜凜進行曲」是一場光榮的戰役。

  • This song's about empire.


  • So why do Americans think it's about graduation?


  • Pomp and Circumstance was a near instant hit in America, too.


  • The tune was famous from its premiere, and it was quickly used in graduations.


  • In 1905, the University of Chicago and University of Cincinnati both used Edward Elgar's March at their commencements.

    1905 年,芝加哥大學和辛辛納提大學都在畢業典禮上播放了 Edward Elgar 的「威風凜凜進行曲」。

  • Later that same year, Elgar went to Yale to get an honorary degree for his world famous compositions.

    同年,Edward Elgar 以他舉世聞名的作曲拿到了耶魯大學榮譽學位。

  • In his honor, they played Pomp and Circumstance, without lyrics, as the ceremony ended.


  • The New Haven Morning Journal called it “a military march,” but early elite adoption helped it spread across universities.

    New Haven Morning 報紙稱它為軍歌,但早期菁英使用這首歌的方式已經讓它擴散到很多大學了。

  • For example, here's the University of Minnesota's commencement programs from 1900 to 1950.

    舉例來說,這些是明尼蘇達大學從 1900 到 1950 畢業典禮上的演奏節目表。

  • Here are the ceremonies where Pomp and Circumstance played.


  • In 1931, the tune was so popular that Elgar recorded it for a recordit was the very first session recorded at Abbey Road Studios.

    1931 年,這個旋律太受歡迎以致於 Elgar 將它錄製成了黑膠唱片,這是第一期在艾比路錄音室錄製的唱片。

  • Yes, the Beatles Abbey Road.


  • The song established a legacy.


  • That legacy just depended on which country you were hearing it in.


  • In the UK, Pomp and Circumstance remained like an unofficial national anthem, while in the US it became graduation kitsch.


  • That's obvious in the parodies: in Kubrick's Clockwork Orange, the song satirizes government.


  • In Disney's Fantasia 2000, the joke is about a graduation march.

    迪士尼的幻想曲 2000 也開了畢業進行曲的玩笑。

  • Elgar wears a mortarboard in America and a crown in the UK.

    Elgar 在美國是戴著方帽,在英國是戴著王冠。

  • But in either case, his military march endures, even if it's not fully understood.


  • The British Empire has shrunk, but the song Elgar wrote for it?

    大英帝國版圖萎縮了,那 Elgar 替它寫的曲子呢?

  • It grows mightier.


  • Take it away, Dame Butt: God, who made thee mighty, make thee mightier yet.

    唱吧 Dame Butt,上帝成就你偉業,使你堅而益強。

  • So this is probably not the first time this has happened, but I wanted to call out that we actually got the idea for this video from a comment.


  • So thank you for that commentand that is the reason that you have just learned the history of Pomp and Circumstance.


  • And that I have had this song stuck in my head for the past two weeks.


Look at this picture.


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為什麼畢業典禮上總是響起這首驪歌? (Why every American graduation plays the same song)

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    Ginger Liu 發佈於 2019 年 06 月 24 日