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  • Remember when you were a kid and everything was simple and you were told there were just

    還記得當我們還是孩子的時候,事情都很簡單,大人告訴我們,

  • three states of matter: solid, liquid, and gas?

    物質只有三態:固態、液態和氣態。

  • And then you got older and learned that plasma existed and you thought, “Ok, now I know

    當我們年紀漸長,得知有血漿這種物質存在,我們就會想:「好吧,現在,

  • everything, it can't possibly get more complicated”?

    我懂得更多事了,事情應該不可能更複雜了吧?」

  • Well, it just got more complicated.

    然而,事情就是更複雜了。

  • Scientists have found a new state of matter that is a solid and a liquid at the same time,

    科學家使用人工智能發現了一種固態與液態可以同時存在的新物質,

  • and they used artificial intelligence that could lead to future discoveries about what's happening inside planets and stars.

    這種人工智能,已經引領著人類預測未來在行星與恆星內部發生的事件。

  • Scientists at the University of Edinburgh discovered that under extreme pressure,

    愛丁堡大學的科學家發現,在極端壓力下,

  • the metal potassium starts behaving very strangely.

    金屬鉀的表現格外異常。

  • In normal conditions, a bar of pure potassium is pretty unremarkable.

    正常狀況下,一條純鉀是非常不起眼的。

  • I mean, aside from its tendency to explode if you get it wet.

    我的意思是,如果你弄濕了鉀,它是有可能會爆炸的。

  • But dry potassium atoms link up and form orderly rows that conduct heat and electricity well.

    但乾燥的鉀原子有順序地連接排列,是很好的熱能和電能傳導體。

  • For a long time, scientists thought that was all there was to potassium's structure,

    長久以來,科學家們認為這就是鉀的結構,

  • until over a decade ago when scientists put sodium under extreme pressure.

    直到十多年前,科學家們將鈉置於極端壓力之下,

  • At 20,000 times earth's atmospheric pressure, sodium transforms from shiny to transparent,

    在 20,000 倍的大氣壓力下,鈉從閃亮變成透明,

  • and from a conductor to an insulator.

    從導體變成絕緣體,

  • X-ray images showed the crystal structure had gone from simple to complex.

    X 射線圖像顯示晶體結構已經從簡單變為複雜。

  • Sodium is an alkali metal just above potassium on the periodic table, so scientists reasoned

    鈉是元素週期表中鉀正上方的鹼金屬,因此科學家們合理推論

  • if it behaves oddly under pressure, maybe potassium does too.

    納在壓力下表現異常,鉀應該也是這樣。

  • And indeed, at extreme pressures, potassium atoms rearrange themselves from orderly rows

    的確,在極端的壓力下,鉀原子會從有順序的行

  • into a much more complicated structure.

    重新排列成更複雜的結構。

  • They form five tubes, arranged in an X shape.

    它們會形成五個管狀,排列成 X 形。

  • Edge on it would look like a five on a playing die.

    從邊邊看,就像骰子上面的 5 的形狀,

  • In between the outer tubes are chains of potassium atoms.

    外面的管子之間是鉀原子鏈結,

  • Researchers describe it as two loosely linked sublattices, with the tubes acting ashost

    研究人員將其描述為兩個鬆散連接的亞晶格,管子充當「主體」原子,

  • atoms while the chains wereguestatoms.

    而鏈結則是「客體」原子。

  • When researchers turned up the heat on their high-pressure potassium, that's when things got weird.

    當研究人員將高壓狀態下的鉀加熱時,事情就變得不一樣了。

  • X-ray images showed the chains disappeared.

    X 射線圖像顯示,那些鏈結消失了,

  • To figure out where they went, they turned to computer simulation.

    為了知道這些鏈結到哪裡去了,科學家們使用電腦模擬實驗。

  • They trained a neural network using small groups of potassium atoms until the artificial

    他們用一小組鉀原子模擬神經網絡,直到人工智能

  • intelligence understood quantum mechanics well enough to simulate it on a larger scale, up to 20,000 atoms.

    可以解算量子力學之後,就大規模模擬,上限可達 20,000 個原子。

  • Can we just take a moment to appreciate that computer science is at the point that software

    讓我們在這裡感嘆一下電腦科學軟體

  • can teach itself quantum mechanics?

    能夠自學量子機制。

  • When the computer model simulated potassium atoms at 20,000 to 40,000 times atmospheric

    當電腦模組在 20,000 至 40,000 倍大氣壓力及 400 至 800 度 K 的環境,

  • pressure, and between 400 and 800 Kelvin, it showed that the chains between the tubes

    模擬鉀原子時,實驗顯示,管子之間的鏈結融化成液態,

  • melted into liquid, while the tubes remained solid.

    而管子仍維持固態,

  • The potassium was in both states at once.

    這種狀況下的鉀是兩種狀態並存著。

  • The researchers described it as though you had a sponge that leaked waterexcept the

    研究人員描述,這種狀況的鉀,就像你有一塊在漏水的海綿…

  • sponge is also made of water.

    這個海綿也是水。

  • They dubbed this new phase of matter thechain-melted state.”

    他們稱這個新的物質階段為「鏈結融化狀態」。

  • While that is objectively fascinating, you may be wondering, “So what?

    這種發明在客觀上也許是很令人驚艷,但是你可能會覺得:「那又如何呢?」

  • When is potassium going to be under those conditions?”

    「鉀什麼時候會有機會處於那種環境呢?」

  • Potassium could exist in this state in the earth's mantle, though it's rarely in

    鉀在地幔中是處於這種狀態,雖然它很少以純的方式呈現,

  • its pure form, what with its preponderance to react violently and explode.

    它的優勢在於它能夠劇烈反應並爆炸。

  • The machine learning technique that developed the computer model, however, can be used for

    機械學習技術提升了電腦模組,然而,這樣的技術可以用在

  • other elements in extreme situations beyond potassium.

    除了鉀以外,極端情形下的原素。

  • Conditions are pretty tame on Earth's surface, but in the universe, extreme temperatures

    地球表面的條件相當溫和,但在宇宙中,極端的溫度

  • and pressures are the norm.

    和壓力狀況是常態。

  • Inside planets and stars matter could be doing all sorts of odd things.

    行星和恆星內部物質會產生各種不尋常的事情。

  • Thanks to artificial intelligence we might be able to peel back the skin of alien worlds

    由於人工智能,我們可以剝去外星世界的表皮層,

  • to take a peek at what's going on under the surface.

    一窺表面下所發生的事件。

  • Fun Fact: This computer model worked really well, not only simulating the chain-melted

    事實上,電腦模組非常有效,不僅可以模擬鏈結融化的狀態,

  • state, but all of potassium's fourteen known phase transitions.

    還可以模擬鉀的 14 種已知相變,

  • That's more phases than I went through in high school.

    這比我在高中時所學到的還要多。

  • If you love matter science check out this video here about scientists finding a new

    如果你喜歡物質狀態,可以看一下這個視頻,有關科學家在地幔中

  • state of water hidden in our earth's mantle.

    發現了水的新物質狀態。

  • Don't forget to subscribe and I'll see you next time on Seeker.

    別忘了訂閱我們的頻道,下次 Seeker 見嘍!

Remember when you were a kid and everything was simple and you were told there were just

還記得當我們還是孩子的時候,事情都很簡單,大人告訴我們,

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B2 中高級 中文 美國腔 物質 狀態 科學家 壓力 管子 智能

這種新物質狀態既是液體又是固體! (This New State of Matter Is a Liquid and a Solid at the Same Time!)

  • 147 4
    Jerry Liu 發佈於 2021 年 01 月 14 日
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