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  • Nobody likes to make a mistake.

    譯者: Lilian Chiu 審譯者: Bruce Sung

  • And I made a whopping one.

    (掌聲)

  • And figuring out what I did wrong led to a discovery

    沒有人喜歡犯錯。

  • that completely changes the way we think about the Earth and Moon.

    而我犯了個超級大錯。

  • I'm a planetary scientist,

    我找出了我做錯什麼, 後續導致了一個發現,

  • and my favorite thing to do is smash planets together.

    完全改變了我們對於 地球和月球的看法。

  • (Laughter)

    我是行星科學家,

  • In my lab, I can shoot at rocks using cannons like this one.

    我最愛做的事情就是 把行星撞在一起。

  • (Cannon shot)

    (笑聲)

  • (Laughter)

    在我的實驗室,我可以用 像這樣的大砲對岩石開火。

  • In my experiments, I can generate the extreme conditions

    (大砲開火)

  • during planet formation.

    (笑聲)

  • And with computer models, I can collide whole planets together

    依我的經驗,我可以產生出

  • to make them grow,

    在行星形成時的極端條件。

  • or I can destroy them.

    用電腦模型,我可以 讓行星整個相撞,

  • (Laughter)

    讓它們長大,

  • I want to understand how to make the Earth and the Moon

    或是我也可以摧毀它們。

  • and why the Earth is so different from other planets.

    (笑聲)

  • The leading idea for the origin of the Earth and Moon

    我想要了解,如何能 製造出地球和月球,

  • is called the \"giant impact theory.\"

    以及為什麼地球 和其他行星如此不同。

  • The theory states that a Mars-sized body struck the young Earth,

    關於地球和月球最初 如何形成的主要想法是

  • and the Moon formed from the debris disk around the planet.

    所謂的「大碰撞說」。

  • The theory can explain so many things about the Moon,

    這個理論是火星大小的天體 撞擊了年輕的地球,

  • but it has a huge flaw:

    而月球是從該行星的盤狀分佈 碎片殘駭所形成。

  • it predicts that the Moon is mostly made from the Mars-sized planet,

    這個理論能解釋許多月球的狀況,

  • that the Earth and the Moon are made from different materials.

    但它有個巨大的瑕疵:

  • But that's not what we see.

    它預測,月球的主要成分 是那個火星大小的行星,

  • The Earth and the Moon are actually like identical twins.

    所以地球和月球是用 不同的材料生成的。

  • The genetic code of planets is written in the isotopes of the elements.

    但,我們看到的並非如此。

  • The Earth and Moon have identical isotopes.

    地球和月球其實像是同卵雙胞胎。

  • That means that the Earth and Moon are made from the same materials.

    行星的基因碼是寫在 元素的同位素中。

  • It's really strange that the Earth and the Moon are twins.

    地球和月球有相同的同位素。

  • All of the planets are made from different materials,

    那就表示,地球和月球 是用同樣的材料生成的。

  • so they all have different isotopes,

    地球和月球是雙胞胎, 這是很奇怪的事。

  • they all have their own genetic code.

    所有的行星都是由 不同的材料生成的,

  • No other planetary bodies have the same genetic relationship.

    所以它們都有不同的同位素,

  • Only the Earth and Moon are twins.

    它們都有自己的基因碼。

  • When I started working on the origin of the Moon,

    沒有任何其他行星體 有相同的基因關係。

  • there were scientists that wanted to reject the whole idea of the giant impact.

    只有地球和月球是雙胞胎。

  • They didn't see any way for this theory to explain the special relationship

    當我開始研究月球的起源時,

  • between the Earth and the Moon.

    有些科學家想要推翻 整個大碰撞說。

  • We were all trying to think of new ideas.

    他們不認為這個理論能夠解釋

  • The problem was, there weren't any better ideas.

    地球和月球之間的特殊關係。

  • All of the other ideas had even bigger flaws.

    我們都在試圖提出新的想法。

  • So we were trying to rescue the giant impact theory.

    問題是,沒有其他更好的想法。

  • A young scientist in my group suggested that we try changing the spin

    所有其他想法都有更大的瑕疵。

  • of the giant impact.

    所以,我們在試圖拯救大碰撞說。

  • Maybe making the Earth spin faster could mix more material

    我的團隊中有一位 年輕的科學家建議,

  • and explain the Moon.

    我們可以試著改變 大碰撞說的自轉。

  • The Mars-sized impactor had been chosen

    也許讓地球自轉速度更快, 就能混合更多材料,

  • because it could make the Moon

    並能解釋月球的形成。

  • and make the length of Earth's day.

    撞擊地球的火星大小行星 已經被選定,

  • People really liked that part of the model.

    因為它可以形成月球,

  • But what if something else determined the length of Earth's day?

    並形成地球白天時間的長度。

  • Then there would be many more possible giant impacts that could make the Moon.

    大家真的很喜歡模型的這個部分。

  • I was curious about what could happen,

    但,如果地球的白天時間長度 是由其他因素決定的呢?

  • so I tried simulating faster-spinning giant impacts,

    那麼,就會有更多大碰撞 都有可能形成月球。

  • and I found that it is possible

    我很好奇可能發生的狀況,

  • to make a disk out of the same mixture of materials as the planet.

    所以我試著模擬 自轉更快速的大碰撞,

  • We were pretty excited.

    我發現,的確有可能

  • Maybe this was the way to explain the Moon.

    用這個行星的材料組合 來生成一個盤。

  • The problem is, we also found that that's just not very likely.

    我們相當興奮。

  • Most of the time, the disk is different from the planet,

    也許這種方式就能解釋月球。

  • and it looked like making our Moon this way

    問題是,我們也發現, 這實在不太可能發生。

  • would be an astronomical coincidence,

    通常,生成的盤 都和這個星球不同,

  • and it was just hard for everyone to accept the idea

    看起來,若要用這種方式 生成我們的月球,

  • that the Moon's special connection to Earth was an accident.

    那會是天文學上的巧合,

  • The giant impact theory was still in trouble,

    大家很難接受

  • and we were still trying to figure out how to make the Moon.

    月球和地球的特殊關聯只是個意外。

  • Then came the day when I realized my mistake.

    大碰撞理論仍然在困境中,

  • My student and I were looking at the data from these fast-spinning giant impacts.

    我們仍然在試圖想出 月球是怎麼生成的。

  • On that day, we weren't actually thinking about the Moon,

    接著,有一天,我發現了我的錯誤。

  • we were looking at the planet.

    我和我的學生在看 快速自轉大碰撞的資料。

  • The planet gets super-hot and partially vaporized

    那天,我們其實 並沒有在想月球的問題,

  • from the energy of the impact.

    我們是在看那個行星。

  • But the data didn't look like a planet.

    因為撞擊的能量, 那個星球變得超級熱,

  • It looked really strange.

    且有部分已經蒸發。

  • The planet was weirdly connected to the disk.

    但那資料看起來並不像個行星。

  • I got that super-excited feeling

    它看起來相當奇怪。

  • when something really wrong might be something really interesting.

    這個行星和盤有著奇怪的連結。

  • In all of my calculations,

    我有種超興奮的感覺,

  • I had assumed there was a planet with a separate disk around it.

    當有非常不對勁的狀況時, 可能會有很有趣的發現。

  • Calculating what was in the disk as how we tested

    在我所有的計算中,

  • whether an impact could make the Moon.

    我都假設有一個行星, 它周圍有一個分開的盤。

  • But it didn't look that simple anymore.

    我們測試碰撞是否能夠 生成月球的方式,

  • We were making the mistake

    就是計算那個盤中有什麼。

  • of thinking that a planet was always going to look like a planet.

    但,看起來不再是那麼簡單了。

  • On that day, I knew that a giant impact was making something completely new.

    我們犯的錯

  • I've had eureka moments.

    是認為行星看起來 一定會是行星的樣子。

  • This was not one of them.

    那天,我知道

  • (Laughter)

    大碰撞產生出來的是全新的東西。

  • I really didn't know what was going on.

    我有過靈光一現的時刻。

  • I had this strange, new object in front of me

    這個時刻並非其中之一。(笑聲)

  • and the challenge to try and figure it out.

    我真的不知道到底怎麼回事。

  • What do you do when faced with the unknown?

    我前面有著這個奇怪的新物體,

  • How do you even start?

    面對著要試圖搞懂它的挑戰。

  • We questioned everything:

    當你面對未知時,該怎麼做?

  • What is a planet?

    到底要如何開始?

  • When is a planet no longer a planet anymore?

    我們質疑一切:

  • We played with new ideas.

    什麼是行星?

  • We had to get rid of our old way of thinking,

    何時行星不再算是行星?

  • and by playing, I could throw away all of the data,

    我們開始玩新的想法。

  • all of the rules of the real world,

    我們得要擺脫過去的思考方式,

  • and free my mind to explore.

    透過「玩」,我可以 丟掉所有的資料、

  • And by making a mental space

    真實世界中的所有規則,

  • where I could try out outrageous ideas

    解放我的大腦,讓它去探索。

  • and then bring them back into the real world to test them,

    我製造了一個心智空間,

  • I could learn.

    在那裡,我可以嘗試 無法無天的想法,

  • And by playing, we learned so much.

    接著把這些想法 帶回真實世界做測試,

  • I combined my lab experiments with computer models

    我能學習。

  • and discovered that after most giant impacts,

    透過「玩」,我們學了好多。

  • the Earth is so hot, there's no surface.

    我把我的實驗室實驗 和電腦模型結合,

  • There's just a deep layer of gas that gets denser and denser with depth.

    發現在大部分大碰撞之後,

  • The Earth would have been like Jupiter.

    地球都非常熱,熱到沒有表面。

  • There's nothing to stand on.

    只有一層很深層的氣體, 越深的地方密度越高。

  • And that was just part of the problem.

    地球本來可能像木星一樣。

  • I wanted to understand the whole problem.

    沒有立足之地。

  • I couldn't let go of the challenge to figure out what was really going on

    那只是問題的一部分。

  • in giant impacts.

    我想要了解整個問題。

  • It took almost two years

    我無法放手這個挑戰,我想要想通

  • of throwing away old ideas

    在大碰撞中到底發生了什麼事。

  • and building new ones

    花了近兩年時間,

  • that we understood the data

    不斷把舊想法丟棄,

  • and knew what it meant for the Moon.

    建立新想法,

  • I discovered a new type of astronomical object.

    我們才了解了那些資料,

  • It's not a planet.

    搞懂那對月球的意涵是什麼。

  • It's made from planets.

    我發現了一種新的天文物體。

  • A planet is a body whose self-gravity

    它不是行星。

  • is strong enough to give it its rounded shape.

    它是由行星生成的。

  • It spins around all together.

    行星是一個天體,它自己的重力

  • Make it hotter and spin it faster,

    強到可以讓它形成圓形的形狀。

  • the equator gets bigger and bigger until it reaches a tipping point.

    它會形成一個整體一起自轉。

  • Push past the tipping point,

    若讓它更熱,自轉更快,

  • and the material at the equator spreads into a disk.

    赤道就會越來越大, 直到達到臨界點。

  • It's now broken all the rules of being a planet.

    若超過了臨界點,

  • It can't spin around together anymore,

    赤道的材料會散佈成盤狀。

  • its shape keeps changing as it gets bigger and bigger;

    現在,它就打破了 所有身為行星的規則。

  • the planet has become something new.

    它不再能整體一起自轉了。

  • We gave our discovery its name:

    隨著它越長越大, 它的形狀不斷改變;

  • synestia.

    這個行星變成了某種新東西。

  • We named it after the goddess Hestia,

    我們把這項發現命名為:

  • the Greek goddess of the hearth and home,

    索內斯蒂亞(synestia)。

  • because we think the Earth became one.

    我們採用的是女神 Hestia 的名字,

  • The prefix means \"all together,\"

    掌管爐灶和家庭的希臘女神,

  • to emphasize the connection between all of the material.

    因為我們認為地球 變成了這樣的角色。

  • A synestia is what a planet becomes

    字首 syn 意思是「全部一起」, 強調所有材料之間的連結。

  • when heat and spin push it over the limit of a spheroidal shape.

    當高熱與自轉速度將一個行星 推過了圓球形的極限時,

  • Would you like to see a synestia?

    它就變成了索內斯蒂亞。

  • (Cheers)

    你們想要看看索內斯蒂亞嗎?

  • In this visualization of one of my simulations,

    (歡呼)

  • the young Earth is already spinning quickly from a previous giant impact.

    這裡透過視覺呈現出來的 是我的其中一項模擬,

  • Its shape is deformed, but our planet would be recognizable

    年輕的地球已經因為 先前的大碰撞而在快速自轉,

  • by the water on its surface.

    它的形狀變形了,但仍然 可以認出這是我們的星球,

  • The energy from the impact vaporizes the surface,

    因為它的表面有水。

  • the water, the atmosphere,

    碰撞的能量讓蒸發了地表、

  • and mixes all of the gases together in just a few hours.

    水、大氣,

  • We discovered that many giant impacts make synestias,

    只花了幾個小時的時間 就把所有的氣體混合在一起。

  • but these burning, bright objects don't live very long.

    我們發現,許多大碰撞 會產生索內斯蒂亞,

  • They cool down, shrink and turn back into planets.

    但這些燃燒、明亮的物體 沒有很長的生命。

  • While rocky planets like Earth were growing,

    它們會冷卻、縮小,轉變回行星。

  • they probably turned into synestias one or more times.

    當像地球這種岩石行星在成長時,

  • A synestia gives us a new way to solve the problem of the origin of the Moon.

    可能會有一次或數次 轉變為索內斯蒂亞。

  • We propose that the Moon formed inside a huge, vaporous synestia.

    索內斯蒂亞讓我們有了一個新方法 可以解決月球起源的問題。

  • The Moon grew from magma rain

    我們提出,

  • that condensed out of the rock vapor.

    月球是在一個大型、 蒸汽的索內斯蒂亞中形成的。

  • The Moon's special connection to Earth

    岩石蒸汽濃縮成岩漿雨,

  • is because the Moon formed inside the Earth

    月球則從岩漿雨中生成。

  • when Earth was a synestia.

    月球和地球的連結會如此特殊,

  • The Moon could have orbited inside the synestia for years,

    是因為月球在地球內部形成,

  • hidden from view.

    當時地球是個索內斯蒂亞。

  • The Moon is revealed by the synestia cooling and shrinking

    月球有可能在這個索內斯蒂亞 內部運行了很多年,

  • inside of its orbit.

    這時是看不見的。

  • The synestia turns into planet Earth

    當索內斯蒂亞在月球軌道 內部冷卻並縮小時,

  • only after cooling for hundreds of years longer.

    月球就顯現出來了。

  • In our new theory,

    這個索內斯蒂亞再經過 數百年的冷卻之後,

  • the giant impact makes a synestia,

    就轉變成了地球。

  • and the synestia divides into two new bodies,

    在我們的新理論中,

  • creating our isotopically identical Earth and Moon.

    大碰撞造成了一個索內斯蒂亞,

  • Synestias have been created throughout the universe.

    而這個索內斯蒂亞 分開成了兩個新天體,

  • And we only just realized that by finding them in our imagination:

    創造出我們的地球和月球, 且讓它們擁有相同的同位素。

  • What else am I missing in the world around me?

    在宇宙各處都有 索內斯蒂亞被創造出來。

  • What is hidden from my view by my own assumptions?

    我們會了解這件事,是因為 我們在我們的想像中找到它們:

  • The next time you look at the Moon,

    在我周遭的世界中, 我還遺漏了什麼?

  • remember:

    有什麼是被我自己的假設 給遮蔽了,讓我無法看見?

  • the things you think you know

    下次當你抬頭看月亮時,

  • may be the opportunity to discover something truly amazing.

    別忘了:

  • (Applause)

    你認為你知道的事,

Nobody likes to make a mistake.

譯者: Lilian Chiu 審譯者: Bruce Sung

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A2 初級 中文 美國腔 TED 月球 行星 地球 形成 材料

【TED】莎拉-T-斯圖爾特。月球是從哪裡來的?A new theory (Where did the Moon come from? A new theory | Sarah T. Stewart) (【TED】Sarah T. Stewart: Where did the Moon come from? A new theory (Where did the Moon come from? A new theory | Sarah T. Stewart))

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    林宜悉 發佈於 2021 年 01 月 14 日
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