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  • Hey smart people, Joe here.

    嘿聰明人,我是 Joe。

  • Have you ever heard the phraseto drink like a fish?”

    你聽過「像魚一樣酗酒」這個片語嗎?

  • Well, unless you're a ocean dwelling species, that probably means staying sober.

    除非你是生活在海洋的生物,否則那可能表示沒喝醉。

  • Because freshwater fish don't drink!

    因為淡水魚不會喝酒!

  • Saltwater fish on the other hand?

    那麼鹹水魚呢?

  • They're constantly drinking.

    牠們一直在喝水。

  • But if some fish drink all the time and other fish don't drink at all, we're left with

    但如果有些魚一直在喝水而其他魚完全不喝水,

  • an obvious question: Do fish pee?

    就產生了一個明顯的問題:魚會尿尿嗎?

  • Whatyou've never wondered that?!

    什麼...你從來不好奇?!

  • Water is essential to life as we know it.

    如我們所知,水是生命所必需。

  • To keep their chemistry running smoothly, living things need just the right amount of

    為了保持生物化學作用順暢進行,活體生物體內

  • water in their bodies.

    需要恰好的水量。

  • You'd think that fish have it made when it comes to staying hydrated, but it's not so easy.

    你可能會想魚可以輕而易舉補充水分,但並非這麼簡單。

  • Fish gills lets oxygen flow into their bodies, but they're also letting water constantly escape.

    魚的鰓讓氧氣流入體內,但也讓水持續流失。

  • Ocean water is *saltier* than the inside of fish.

    海水比魚的體內更鹹。

  • So water wants to move from the inside out to balance that out.

    所以水分想要從體內移動出去以達成平衡。

  • That's a problem if you're a fish who wants to stay alive.

    如果你是一隻想要活命的魚,那會是個問題。

  • It's a process called osmosis, and we can demonstrate that with these eggs.

    這是一個叫做滲透作用的過程,我們可以用這些蛋來演示。

  • I've dissolved the shells away, leaving a membrane that'll allow water to pass through.

    我已經把殼去除了,留下一層可以讓水通過的膜。

  • One is covered in pure H2O.

    一顆放入純水中。

  • And one goes into sugar syrup.

    而另一顆放入糖漿中。

  • The syrup contains lots of sugar molecules, and not much water, so water passes out of

    糖漿含有很多糖分子,沒有那麼多水,所以水從蛋流出以達平衡,

  • the egg to balance it out, and the egg shrinks!

    而蛋就皺縮了!

  • Life is all about balance.

    平衡是生命大事。

  • Now, we keep the salts and dissolved chemicals in our blood balanced by flushing the extra

    現在,我們藉由腎臟沖出多餘物,口渴時飲入淡水,

  • through our kidneys, and by drinking fresh water when we're thirsty.

    以保持血中鹽分與溶解的化學物質平衡。

  • But ocean fish only have one option: drink salt water in order to get the H2O they need to stay alive.

    但海水魚只有一個選擇:喝鹹水以得到生存必需的水。

  • And most of them do that a *lot*.

    而他們多數都很常這麼做。

  • But they need to get rid of the salt without dehydrating, which they do using special cells

    但牠們必須在不脫水的前提下去除鹽分,牠們藉由鰓中

  • in the gills that pump out the extra.

    特殊的細胞排出多餘的鹽分。

  • Ocean fish only make a tiny amount of urine, and what little pee they make is almost as

    海水魚的尿很少,而牠們的尿幾乎和

  • salty as the pool they pee in.

    所尿入的池水一樣鹹。

  • Freshwater fish have the opposite problem.

    淡水魚的問題則相反。

  • Their insides are saltier than where they live, so water is constantly leaking *in*

    牠們體內比所居住的環境更鹹,所以水持續

  • through their skin and gills.

    經由皮膚和鰓流「入」。

  • It's just like the naked egg we put in pure water.

    就像我們放入純水的剝殼蛋。

  • The inside of the egg is saltier than the water around it, so water flows in

    蛋的內部比周圍的水還要鹹,所以水分流入

  • and the egg swells up!

    蛋就腫起來了!

  • Plus, they get even more water from their food.

    加上牠們從食物得到更多的水分。

  • So even in their wet world, they never have to take a drink.

    所以即使在牠們潮濕的世界裡,牠們從不需要飲水。

  • Freshwater fishes have to *get rid* of water constantly to keep their cells from bursting,

    淡水魚必須持續「排出」水分以免細胞爆掉,

  • which means they pee *a lot*.

    也就是說牠們尿「很多」。

  • They're pretty much peeing all the time.

    牠們幾乎無時無刻不在尿尿。

  • If I peed as much as a freshwater fish, I'd release up to 28 liters a day, which is about

    如果我的尿量和一隻淡水魚一樣多,我一天會排出高達 28 公升的尿,大約是

  • 20 times more pee than I usually make.

    我一般尿量的 20 倍。

  • For fish, peeing in the yard is a big help to their neighbors.

    對魚來說,在後院小便對鄰居而言是一大助益。

  • Fish pee is full of ammonia, a nitrogen containing compound, and phosphorous, both nutrients

    魚的尿富含氨,一種含氮物質,還有磷,

  • that plants crave.

    兩者都是植物所必需的養分。

  • These also help feed algae and coral reefs, like a liquid fertilizer that helps keep aquatic

    這些物質也為海藻和珊瑚礁提供養分,就像是幫助維持水生

  • ecosystems healthy.

    生態系統健康的液體肥料。

  • Fish are little swimming, urinating, nutrient recycling plants.

    魚是游泳、排尿、養分循環的小工廠。

  • Some fish get crazy with this salt-and-water balancing act.

    有些魚對這種鹽水平衡行為陷入瘋狂。

  • Some are able to live in water so salty it's hard for them to even stay below the surface.

    有些魚可以生活在鹹到甚至牠們都很難待著的水中。

  • Others, like salmon, can tweak their body chemistry to move between salty and fresh water.

    其他如鮭魚可以改變身體的化學組成,可在鹹水和淡水之間移動。

  • Sharks and their relatives are especially weird when it comes to salt balance.

    鯊魚和牠們的親戚在鹽類平衡尤其怪異。

  • Using a special enzyme, they stuff ureaanother nitrogen containing compoundinto their tissues.

    利用一種特別的酵素,牠們將尿素 - 另一種含氮物質 - 塞入牠們的組織。

  • By loading their insides with another ion, they keep water from wanting to rush out of their bodies.

    體內藉由另一種離子承載,防止水分從體內跑出去。

  • It's also why their meat smells like pee.

    這也是為什麼鯊魚肉聞起來像尿。

  • Thankfully, we (sniff sniff armpit) don't do that.

    謝天謝地,我們 (聞腋下) 不這麼做。

  • I smell great.

    我聞起來好極了。

  • But we do owe our ability to regulate water and salt to our fishy ancestors.

    但我們調節水和鹽的能力確實歸功於我們的魚祖先。

  • Scientists think that a healthy salt level for the bodies of most living animals is about

    科學家認為對多數活的生物體健康的鹽度大約

  • the same concentration as the ancient oceans where life began.

    與生命起源的古老大海濃度一致。

  • You even have evidence of this in your body.

    你的體內甚至有證據。

  • Before we're born, human embryos develop three different types of kidneys.

    在我們出生前,人類胚胎發育出三種不同的腎臟。

  • Two get absorbed, and one eventually becomes the final pair.

    兩種被吸收了,而一種變成最後一對。

  • The extra organs are an evolutionary leftovers: early kidneys that we also see in primitive

    多出來的器官是演化的殘留物:原始魚類體內也可見的早期腎臟,

  • fish, who use it to balance their salty bodies.

    用來平衡牠們體內的鹽分。

  • It reminds me of the famous poem by I.P. Freely:

    這使我想起了 I.P. Freely 有名的詩:

  • Tinkle tinkle, little fish Homeostasis is what you wish

    叮噹叮噹,小魚兒。平衡是你所願。

  • The ocean's your toilet, and even though you soil it

    大海是你的便所,即使你將它弄髒,

  • Urea-ly have mastered your niche.

    尿素也會予你助益。

  • Stay curious.

    保持好奇。

Hey smart people, Joe here.

嘿聰明人,我是 Joe。

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魚會尿尿嗎? (Do Fish Pee?)

  • 102 2
    Liang Chen 發佈於 2021 年 01 月 14 日
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