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  • Every 26 months, Mars and Earth are at their closest distance, which is about 57 million kilometers apart.

    每隔 26 個月,火星和地球會處於最近的距離,彼此相距約 5,700 萬公里。

  • During this time, if an unmanned NASA spacecraft were to leave Earth, traveling at 58,000 kilometers

    在這期間,如果 NASA (美國航太總署)的無人太空船以每小時 58,000 公里的速度離開地球,

  • per hour, it would take a little over 40 days to get to the Red Planet.

    那到達紅色星球需要 40 多天。

  • Not bad, right?


  • Well, a quick trip would only be possible if the spacecraft followed a direct path, undisturbed by the wrath of the solar system and weight of life sustaining resources.


  • Unfortunately, space travel is far more complicated than a straight line.


  • So ideally, how long does it take to get to Mars?


  • The solar system is constantly shifting, and the orbital mechanics behind each of the planets makes space travel really complex.


  • Because Earth and Mars have elliptical orbits, the distance between them varies considerably,


  • and in order to send a spacecraft to Mars, the planets have to line up just right.


  • It takes Earth one year to orbit the Sun, while it takes Mars about 1.9 years.

    地球繞行太陽需要一年,而火星需要 1.9 年。

  • So, every time Mars completes a single orbit, Earth goes around the sun almost twice.


  • Historically, for NASA, the best launch window to Mars occurs every 2 years and 2 months or 26 months.

    從歷史上來看,對 NASA 來說,火星的最佳發射窗期是每兩年兩個月,或 26 個月一次。

  • During this time, a spacecraft can utilize what is considered the most energy efficient path to Mars known as the Hohmann Transfer orbit.


  • On this trajectory, the spacecraft follows an elliptical orbit around the Sun that intersects the orbit of Mars.


  • It uses fuel to increase speed and velocity to break free of Earth's gravity field.


  • And the spacecraft uses more fuel to decelerate in order to be captured into the Martian orbit.


  • Then, it can ride Mars's orbital wave until it's ready to touch down on the surface.


  • While the Hohmann transfer is considered the most efficient trajectory to get to Mars,


  • the journey is still estimated to take roughly 260 days or eight to nine months with a manned spacecraft powered by chemical propulsion,

    但對使用化學推進器的人為操縱太空船來說,預估仍需要花上 260 天或 8 至 9 個月,

  • so NASA and private companies are trying to develop more efficient propulsion systems that can get humans to Mars faster than the chemical rockets used in the past.

    因此,NASA 和私人公司正努力開發更有效的推進系統,讓人類比以往使用的化學火箭更快到火星。

  • Specifically, a type of electric propulsion system that propels a spacecraft by accelerating a stream of electrically charged atoms, known as ions.

    具體來說,是一種電力推進系統,加速帶電原子團 (又稱離子) 來推動太空船。

  • And a nuclear thermal propulsion system that uses low-enriched uranium as its power source.


  • But even if we do engineer a faster way to get to Mars, a round trip is still estimated to take multiple months.


  • And that means we also have to solve problems of human health and resource requirements during extended deep space missions.


  • Clearly, time is just one of many obstacles standing in the way of our Martian dreams.


  • But still, NASA says it plans to send humans to Mars in the 2030s.

    但 NASA 仍計劃在 2030 年將人類送往火星。

  • So do you think it's actually going to happen?


  • Let us know in the comments below and tell us what other obstacles you want us to explain.


  • If you want to see more Space Crafts check out this playlist here.

    如果你想看看更多 Space Crafts 的影片,那就看看這邊的播放清單。

  • And be sure to let us know in the comments what astronomical phenomena you want to learn more about.


  • Thanks for watching Seeker! Don't forget to subscribe.

    謝謝觀看 Seeker 的影片!別忘了要訂閱。

Every 26 months, Mars and Earth are at their closest distance, which is about 57 million kilometers apart.

每隔 26 個月,火星和地球會處於最近的距離,彼此相距約 5,700 萬公里。


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