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  • This map from 2019 was compiled using satellite and aerial imagery.

  • Leonardo da Vinci made this one around 1502 — while stuck on the ground.

  • How?

  • When infamous Italian politician Cesare Borgia brought Leonardo da Vincithe guy who

  • drew this portraitto the city of Imola, it was as a military engineer.

  • He'd already established a good military reputationand painted several famous works.

  • When Leonardo was installed at Borgia's newly acquired fort, one of his duties was

  • to help Borgia learn the territory.

  • At the time, a map like this one was the standard — a birdseye or hillside view.

  • Mythical creatures often popped upnot great for military operations.

  • The perspective also only showed some buildings, blocking the view of other ones.

  • These maps could be beautiful.

  • But they lacked proper shape and scale And highlighted landmarks' beauty at the

  • expense of clarity.

  • Leonardo needed to show Imola as anichnographicmapan idea that

  • Vitruvius — a Roman engineer and the guy who inspired thishad described.

  • In practice, it's a map where everything looks like you're directly above whatever

  • you show.

  • It gives you a clearer picture.

  • Look at the fort.

  • In Google Maps, the shadow effects change a bit, but the fort's perspective fundamentally

  • stays the same.

  • That's similar to a real view from far above,

  • where distance reduces the effects of shifting perspective.

  • But Leonardo didn't have a satellite to get up that far.

  • His plan of Imola was a feat of symbolic imagination.

  • And he had to make it accurate.

  • Based on sketches, previous work, and the design of his Imola map, we can guess at how

  • Leonardo made it.

  • He probably used a type of disk that could measure degrees and had a little pointer to

  • mark the angles of streets in relation to a stable point, usually North.

  • He probably used a compass to record the orientation of the town's surrounding walls.

  • He did this at every turn, which helped him accurately translate the walls onto paper.

  • Note the circular shape here, overlaid on the map.

  • To establish scale, Leonardo also needed to measure the distance between all of these angles.

  • He probably paced this out by foot, or maybe using an odometer, with wheels that turned

  • gears that measured distance by dropping a ball into a bucket at set intervals.

  • With the angles and distance together, he could create a planhundreds of years

  • before anyone could check if he got it right.

  • This stunning map from 1551, by another Leonardo, shows the potential Leonardo da Vinci's

  • method had.

  • All these early ichnographic maps have asterisks - this one was spotted with its own inaccuracies

  • and artistic flourishes, a reflection of the scope of the project.

  • In turn, Leonardo's Imola had quibbles toohe probably used parts of previous surveys

  • and other artistic techniques.

  • It also appears that he measured the town's walls precisely, but took more liberties with

  • the angles in the town's interior.

  • But even with artistic license, this remains a map of more than a fort and town.

  • It's a transition from a geography of myth and perception to one about information, drawn plainly.

  • It's a map of Imola, but in the early 1500s, it was a map of the future, too.

  • Hey, if you're curious about this video or any of the videos in Almanac or Overrated,

  • I'm going to be doing a live Q&A in the Videolab where we answer a ton of questions

  • about that and the Vox process.

  • The nerdier your questions the better — I hope to be asked about my favorite Adobe Premiere

  • shortcut and also Leonardo's odometer.

  • So, if you have those questions drop them in the comment below and head over to

  • and you can ask me directly on the stream.

  • This is a stream thing I'm doing with my hand.

  • Pretty cool.

This map from 2019 was compiled using satellite and aerial imagery.


影片操作 你可以在這邊進行「影片」的調整,以及「字幕」的顯示

B1 中級 美國腔

達文西是如何做到的 (How Leonardo da Vinci made a )

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    April Lu 發佈於 2021 年 01 月 14 日