Placeholder Image

字幕列表 影片播放

  • [Theme music]

    (主題曲)

  • Hi everyone, welcome to civilization.

    大家好,歡迎來到文明的世界。

  • Actually, you've probably been living in a civilization for your entire life if you're watching this.

    事實上,如果你正在看這支影片,你可能這輩子都活在文明的世界中。

  • So what is it? Why have different peoples formed civilizations?

    所以,文明是甚麼呢?為什麼會有不同的族群形塑出不同的文明?

  • There are traits that all civilizations have.

    接下來要介紹所有文明都會有的特質。

  • To avoid any confusion, civilization discussed here is different in the modern idea of, "behaving in a civilized manner,"

    為了避免混淆,這裡討論的「文明」跟現代「有禮且恰當的行為舉止」的概念不同。

  • So, it's not about queuing or standing in line, manners or attending cultural performances.

    所以不是在討論有關排隊、禮貌或是參與文化表演活動。

  • The first civilizations formed in Africa and Asia.

    最早的文明是從非洲與亞洲形成的。

  • Before civilization, people were often moving to find sources of food along rivers.

    形成文明之前,人們經常沿著河流尋找資源或食物。

  • And free Wi-Fi.

    還有免費無線網路。

  • Wait, there was no Wi-Fi back then!

    等等,那個時候哪來的無線網路!

  • Fresh water, not Wi-Fi was especially important as it was impossible to live without drinking,

    不是無線網路,當我們沒有飲用水就無法生存時,淡水是相當重要的,

  • but it also provided food, transportation and protection from enemies, because rivers are harder to cross than land.

    但水資源也提供了食物、運輸以及避免敵人侵襲的功能,因為比起陸地,河流難跨越得多。

  • People migrated from Africa through the Middle East and then throughout the world, settling near water in search of the best places to live.

    人們從非洲向中東移居,然後擴張到全世界,為尋求最好的地方居住,大多都安頓在水源邊。

  • And so, water was also important for another discovery that led to civilization: agriculture.

    所以,水源對其他引導文明發展的發現也相當重要:農業。

  • Agriculture, you might call it farming,

    農業,你可能會稱之為耕種,

  • was discovered independently

    是獨立發現的

  • and it was the start of the earliest civilizations in Africa, Asia and the Americas.

    而且農業是非洲、亞洲與美洲最早文明的開始。

  • Successful civilizations provided food for everyone and stayed in the same place.

    成功的文明提供所有人食物並且停留在相同地方。

  • After all, moving farmland is impossible, and even now moving is never fun.

    畢竟要移動農田是不可能的,而且搬家從來都不是有趣的事。

  • To protect the farms and the people, civilization built cities.

    為了保護農田與人民,文明便造就了城市。

  • Walls kept out enemies and city sheltered people.

    城牆將敵人阻擋在外,並透過城市庇護人民。

  • Cities were able to grow larger as farms fed more people.

    當農田能餵飽更多人時,城市就能成長茁壯。

  • Civilization also created specialized jobs.

    文明也創造出專業化的分工。

  • Before, it was everyone's job to hunt and gather food.

    在此之前,狩獵與採集食物是所有人的工作。

  • But farmers could just grow food for everyone,

    但農夫可以為所有人種植食物,

  • which allowed other people to do different jobs.

    這使其他人能夠從事不同的工作。

  • Specialized jobs are another characteristic of civilization.

    專業化的分工是文明的另一個特徵。

  • When everyone made tools, hunted and gathered,

    當每個人都要製作工具、狩獵與採集時,

  • technology advanced slowly.

    技術進展就會很慢。

  • With people in specialized jobs, those that

    而人們只做專業化的工作時,

  • only made tools, art, buildings, writings and so on, became much better at them.

    那些只負責製造工具、藝術、建築、書寫等等,能夠做得更好。

  • Writing! Writing is another important characteristic of civilization.

    書寫!沒錯,書寫是文明的另一個重要特徵。

  • With writing, civilizations were able to pass

    透過書寫,文明才能夠

  • down information to other generations for them to build upon.

    將知識傳承給其他世代讓他們繼續積累。

  • Writing was able to put laws in stone (but often clay)

    書寫也能夠將法律記錄在石頭上 (但通常是泥板)

  • so that these laws can be recorded for everyone to see.

    如此一來這些法律才能被記錄下來給所有人看。

  • Laws and government also were a characteristic of civilization.

    法律與政府也是文明的一項特徵。

  • They tried to make rules for cities that made life more peaceful.

    統治者為城市建立規則,讓生活更加和平。

  • The Code of Hammurabi is the most famous of these laws and is

    《漢摩拉比法典》是眾多法典中最有名的一部

  • one of the oldest pieces of readable language on Earth.

    也是地球上最古老的可讀語言之一。

  • The Code of Hammurabi

    《漢摩拉比法典》

  • has 282 laws about property,

    裡面有 282 條法律規範財產、

  • relationships and work with punishments

    親屬關係還有工作上的懲罰

  • depending on social status: slaves or free people.

    端看你的社會地位:奴隸或是自由民。

  • Many ancient civilizations had slaves

    許多古老文明都有奴隸,

  • and they were often captured during wars with other cities.

    他們通常是在城市間戰爭時被俘虜的。

  • Within civilizations there was a social structure that define how people acted with each other:

    文明中有個社會結構定義人們如何與他人互動:

  • slaves, farmers, merchants, artists, religious leaders, and royalty

    奴隸、農夫、商人、藝術家、宗教領袖與皇室

  • all had different rules and how to talk to each other,

    全部都有不同規則以及與他人對話的方式

  • or if they could even talk to each other all.

    或者說,如果他們可以跟其他人說話的話。

  • People in civilizations shared common cultures.

    在同一個文明中的人共享相同的文化。

  • Cultures is many things, people's language,

    文化包括許多事物,人們的語言、

  • dress, arts, food, manners, and beliefs that are all common among the group.

    服裝、藝術、飲食、規矩還有信仰在同一群人裡往往也是相同的。

  • Cultures develop naturally, everything is built on

    文化自然而然地便會發展,所有事物都建立在

  • what others have done before, and climate

    其他人先前做過的事,還有氣候

  • and environment also influenced culture.

    跟環境也會影響文化。

  • Artists create art by looking and learning from art and artists around them.

    透過觀察、學習藝術及周邊的藝術家,讓藝術家得以創造藝術。

  • Food choices come from what is available in the area,

    食物的選擇來自於那個區域可以取得的食材,

  • clothes are created to be practical in the weather

    服裝則視氣候來因地制宜。

  • and social media if there was free Wi-Fi.

    還有社群媒體,如果這裡有免費無線網路。

  • Oh yeah, there was still no Wi-Fi.

    噢對,這裡還是沒有無線網路。

  • Belief systems were also created within civilizations.

    信仰系統也是從文明產生而來的。

  • Beliefs about ideas like nature, seasons, flood and drought are part of a civilization's culture,

    信仰有關自然、季節、洪患、乾旱的概念都是文明的一部份文化,

  • and these stories often were called myths.

    而且這些故事通常被稱為神話。

  • Myths told stories about how life on Earth began,

    神話述說地球生命起源的故事、

  • why the sun rises and even what happens after death.

    太陽升起的原因、甚至述說死後發生的故事。

  • These systems also tried to teach people

    這些信仰系統也想要教導人民

  • about what was thought to be good behavior.

    理想恰當的行為舉止是甚麼樣的。

  • Things like listening to your parents, cleaning up after yourself and not stealing your neighbor's Wi-Fi.

    像聽父母的話、要自己動手清理還有不要偷鄰居的無線網路。

  • Well, more like not stealing in general.

    好吧,應該更像在說不要偷竊啦。

  • Belief systems created rituals for life events like birth, adulthood, marriage and death

    信仰系統創造了生命大事的宗教儀式,像是出生、成年、結婚與死亡

  • as well as rituals to create good fortune, better health, and even tried to make it rain.

    還有祈福、身體健康甚至是祈雨的宗教儀式。

  • These belief systems are very powerful, they gave people feelings of being in control,

    這些信仰系統相當強大,它們給予人們被管理的感受、

  • a sense of purpose and being part of something larger than themselves.

    給予人們意義還有認為自己能成為更偉大存在者的一部分。

  • These belief systems could also cause disharmony, they sometimes hurt people,

    這些信仰系統也會導致混亂、有時候會傷害人們

  • and they didn't always tolerate new ideas.

    還有它們總是不能容忍新想法。

  • Civilization started when many people were able to grow their own food

    當人們能夠生產他們自己的食物時,文明也隨之而起

  • so they stayed together in one place and then created ways to keep many people together peacefully.

    所以他們一起駐足在同一個地方,然後創造一個讓許多人和平共處的方法。

  • The traits of civilization once again are: cities,

    再說複習一次文明特徵是:城市、

  • specialized jobs, writing, laws and government, social structure,

    專業化分工、書寫、法律與政府、社會結構、

  • arts and culture, and a belief system or religion.

    藝術與文化,還有信仰系統或宗教。

  • Throughout the World, different groups have used these same ideas.

    綜觀這個世界,不同的族群都會用到相同的概念。

  • Even where you live today has these six traits.

    即使是你現今居住的地方也有這六個特質。

  • Goodbye for now. Thanks for joining us!

    現在又到時候說拜拜。感謝你加入我們!

  • [Outro music]

    (片尾音樂)

[Theme music]

(主題曲)

字幕與單字

單字即點即查 點擊單字可以查詢單字解釋

B1 中級 中文 美國腔 文明 信仰 書寫 專業化 文化 法律

文明的特徵 (Traits of Civilization)

  • 37 1
    April Lu 發佈於 2021 年 01 月 14 日
影片單字