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  • Chickens are the most populous bird on the planet.

    雞是地球上數量最眾多的鳥類。

  • There are 23 billion of them at any given time.

    一直維持在 230 億隻的數量。

  • That's 10 times more than any other bird.

    比其他種類的鳥多出十倍。

  • It's an astonishing achievement for a bird that originated as a small, wild, jungle bird in South East Asia.

    對於這種源自東南亞,且體型小的野生叢林鳥來說,這樣的成就是很驚人的。

  • It's by far the fastest growing meat product but pound for pound, the price of chicken has fallen sharply.

    雞肉是目前成長最快速的肉品,但其單價下跌幅度很大。

  • How as this happened?

    原因為何?

  • This farm is at the forefront of a technology revolution that has drastically changed chicken farming.

    這家走在科技最前端的農場徹底改變了養雞業。

  • It's run by David Speller.

    由 David Speller 經營。

  • He's pioneered the use of CCTV and CO2 monitors in chicken sheds.

    他是第一個使用監視器與二氧化碳監測器來監控養雞棚的人。

  • Along with his own farm, he works as a consultant overseeing the raising of around three million chickens in the UK.

    包括自己的養殖場,他做為顧問監控全英約三百萬隻雞的生長過程。

  • You can't get away from the scale.

    一切要按部就班。

  • There are 45,000 birds in this barn managed by one computer.

    一台電腦監控倉庫內四萬五千隻雞。

  • Two men will run 200,000 birds for me.

    兩名員工負責管理二十萬隻雞。

  • Chickens were first domesticated over 8,000 years ago.

    雞最早在八千年前被馴化。

  • But it wasn't until the 1940's that major efforts were made to create a super breed.

    但直到 1940 年代,現代的食用雞才被開發出來。

  • The chicken-of-tomorrow competition in America would change chickens forever.

    因為美國舉辦的「明日之雞」大賽,雞的命運從此改變。

  • The aim of that competition was to try and encourage the development of a fast growing chicken that could provide a larger amount of protein at an affordable cost.

    大賽的目的是為了嘗試與鼓勵速成雞的發展,以更親民的價格提供更大量的蛋白質來源。

  • The success of the contest rose conclusively that it is possible to breed chickens with superior meat-type characteristics.

    大賽的成功確實可能讓雞以優良肉品為前提來飼養。

  • Today, the life cycle of broilers, chickens that are bred purely for their meat, is entirely pre ordained.

    現今,肉雞 (即為純當肉品而繁殖的雞) 的生命週期是早已注定的。

  • They grow faster and bigger than ever before.

    比起以往,牠們生長得更快、更大。

  • And they can only live supported by human technology.

    而且只能仰賴人類的科技存活。

  • Modern industrialized farming requires the use of artificial light, artificial temperature, the whole life of these birds is effectively controlled through technology.

    現代工業化的養殖業需要使用人造光源與人工控溫,這些雞的一生完全被科技掌握著。

  • Chickens have changed so quickly they are now four times the size they were in the 1950's.

    與 1950 年代相比,雞的體型大了四倍,其改變之快。

  • 90,000 chicks at a time get delivered.

    一次運送九萬隻雞。

  • It's our job to nurture them and farm them up to a bird that's then ready to go back to processing.

    我們的工作是養育、養殖牠們直到可以進行加工為止。

  • That starts around day 34, the biggest birds for us off of this farm are around 39 days of age.

    加工大約在第 34 天開始,而本養殖場的雞大概長到第 39 天時,體型最大。

  • Then we have a really frantic seven to ten days to clean everywhere, get it all nice and warm and fresh ready for the next batch of chicks.

    接著的七到十天,我們要瘋狂地清理環境,讓一切就緒等待下一批的小雞。

  • We do that seven and a half, eight times a year.

    一年要反覆進行 7.5 到 8 次。

  • This efficiency is passed on to the consumer.

    這樣的效率會傳遞給消費者。

  • It's good value, I don't like referring to it as cheap.

    一切很超值,我不喜歡稱之為「便宜」。

  • These are not cheap, these are animals.

    牠們不廉價,牠們是動物。

  • They have a worth, but it is great value, it's uniform.

    牠們是有價值的,只是一直很物超所值,品質維持良好。

  • It's healthy for you and consumers love it!

    雞肉對你健康有益,而消費者也很愛!

  • The reality of farming any animal for meat is you take it to its optimal place and then you take it to turn it to human consumption.

    肉品養殖業的真相就是:將動物養在最理想的地方,接著將其製成人類的食品。

  • These birds, 38, 39 days is as far as we want to take them for the product that we want to buy.

    這些生長期 38 到 39 天的雞,要製成我們也想購買的產品。

  • A barn yard chicken can live up to 10 years, showing the huge evolution of change the broilers have undergone.

    穀倉院裡飼養的雞可以活到十年之久,顯示出肉雞的改變進化之大。

  • But selective breeding on a global scale comes at a cost.

    但全球的選擇性養殖方式需要付出代價。

  • If the chickens live beyond their planned life, they develop huge medical problems.

    如果雞的壽命被延長,牠們會併發一些嚴重的健康問題。

  • These birds can't then sustain that rapid weight growth beyond the points of which they're normally slaughtered.

    等到一般被宰殺的時候,雞已經無法承受劇烈的生長變化。

  • Because their bodies can't cope with it and also puts huge amounts of pressure on their internal organs as well.

    因為其身體無法應付體重的劇變,對內臟也會造成壓力。

  • And there are concerns the chicken industry is relying on an increasingly small gene pool.

    也有人擔心養雞業正仰賴著逐漸變小的基因庫。

  • -Pretty chicks? -Yes Sir.

    -小雞美嗎? -是的先生。

  • Alike as two peas in a pod.

    宛如雙胞胎一樣 (同一豆莢中的豌豆)。

  • If all of these chickens have the same genetics, they're all fed the same food, they're actually very vulnerable to diseases that come in.

    若這些雞的基因相同,又都吃一樣的飼料,那牠們對疾病的抵抗力其實非常弱。

  • Because they're all identical so if one bird is effected all the birds will be effected.

    由於全部都一樣,所以只要一隻雞有狀況,其他隨之受影響。

  • Keeping chickens in battery cages was banned in the EU in 2012.

    2012 年,歐盟禁止將雞飼養在格子籠裡。

  • But some people want to create better lives for broiler chickens.

    但有些人想為肉雞創造更優質的環境。

  • Free range birds have more access to open air runs, while organic chickens are typically free from antibiotics, hormones, and other synthetic chemicals.

    放山雞有更多在室外活動的空間;有機雞通常不施打抗生素、荷爾蒙,以及其他合成化學物。

  • Organic chickens get to live the longest.

    有機雞的壽命最長。

  • 81 days compared to intensively reared birds which live between 35 and 40 days.

    其壽命達 81 天,而集中飼養的雞則是 35 到 40 天。

  • Free range chickens get the most access to open air runs.

    放山雞可以在室外活動的空間最大。

  • But when it comes to living space, organic and free range fair far better than intensively reared birds where as many as 17 adult birds live in a single square meter.

    但論生活條件,有機雞與放山雞好很多,平均每一平方公尺要容納 17 隻集中飼養的成雞。

  • Organic farming might offer animals a greater quality of life but consumers are largely driven by cost.

    有機養殖可能提供更好的生活品質,但驅使消費者更多的是價格。

  • And in an average UK supermarket, an intensively reared chicken costs several times less than it's free range or organic cousins.

    在一般英國的超市,集中飼養的雞比放養或有機養殖的雞便宜數倍。

  • You are talking significant cost difference and I think that's why we see the demand is not there.

    消費者看到的是巨大的價格差異,我認為這就是癥結所在。

  • If the demand was there we'd all be doing it.

    如果有市場需求,我們自然會因應市場。

  • Over 95% of broiler chickens are intensively reared in the UK.

    在英國,超過 95% 的肉雞都是集中飼養的。

  • Organic and free range chickens make up the rest.

    剩下的 5% 即有機雞與放山雞。

  • So what's key for me in being a farmer of chicken is to understand what consumer wants to buy.

    因此,對身為雞農的我來說,最重要的是了解消費者的需求。

  • We are purely market driven.

    我們完全依附著市場。

  • For as long as shoppers want cheap and plentiful chicken, they will continue to be bred evermore intensively.

    只要消費者想要便宜又大碗的雞肉,雞就會永遠被集中飼養。

Chickens are the most populous bird on the planet.

雞是地球上數量最眾多的鳥類。

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B1 中級 中文 美國腔 飼養 消費者 肉品 養殖 集中 大賽

為什麼雞肉這麼便宜?| 經濟學家》雜誌 (Why Is Chicken So Cheap? | The Economist)

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    Liang Chen 發佈於 2021 年 01 月 14 日
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