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  • In a nutshell, the lymphatic system is a drainage system that removes excess fluid from body tissues and returns it to the bloodstream.

    簡單來說,淋巴系統是一個引流系統,它使身體組織中多餘的液體排出,使其回到血液中。

  • It's actually a subsystem of both the circulatory and immune system.

    它其實是循環系統和免疫系統的子系統。

  • The major purpose of the circulatory system is to bring oxygen and nutrients to body tissues and remove wastes.

    循環系統的主要作用是將氧氣和營養物質輸送到身體組織中,並清除廢物。

  • This exchange happens in the smallest blood vessels called the capillaries.

    這種物質交換最小的微血管中進行。

  • Blood plasma containing nutrients moves out of capillaries at the arterial end of capillary beds, while tissue fluid containing wastes re-absorbs back in at the venous end.

    含有營養物質的血漿從微血管床的動脈端流出,而含有廢物的組織液在靜脈端被重新吸收。

  • However, not all of the fluid is drawn back to the bloodstream at this point.

    然而,此時並非所有的液體都重新回到血液中。

  • About 15% of it is left in the tissues and would cause swelling if accumulated.

    約有 15% 殘留在組織內,持續積聚會引起腫脹。

  • This is where the lymphatic system comes into play. It picks up the excess fluid and returns it to the circulatory system.

    此時,淋巴系統就會發揮作用。它會吸收多餘的液體,使其重返循環系統。

  • Unlike the blood circulatory system, which is a closed loop, the lymphatic system is a one-direction, open-ended network of vessels.

    淋巴系統與血液循環系統不同,它是單向、開放式的血管網絡。

  • Lymphatic vessels begin as lymphatic capillaries made of overlapping endothelial cells.

    淋巴管起源於淋巴微管,由管壁內皮細胞重疊而成。

  • The overlapping flaps function as a one-way valve.

    這些重疊的小瓣膜如同單向閥。

  • When fluid accumulates in the tissue, interstitial pressure increases, pushing the flaps inward, opening the gaps between cells, allowing fluid to flow in.

    當液體在組織中堆積時,間隙壓力增加並向內推擠瓣膜,打開細胞間的間隙,讓液體流入。

  • As pressure inside the capillary increases, the endothelial cells are pressed outward, closing the gaps, thus preventing backflow.

    隨著微血管內的壓力增加,內皮細胞被向外推擠,間隙閉合,從而防止回流。

  • Unlike blood capillaries, the gaps in lymphatic capillaries are so large that they allow bacteria, immune cells, such as macrophages, and other large particles to enter.

    淋巴微管與微血管不同,它的間隙很大,足以讓細菌、免疫細胞(如巨噬細胞)和其他大顆粒進入。

  • This makes the lymphatic system a useful way for large particles to reach the bloodstream.

    這使淋巴系統成為大顆粒進入血液的有效途徑。

  • It is used, for example, for dietary fat absorption in the intestine.

    舉例來說,它有助於腸道中膳食脂肪的吸收。

  • Once inside lymphatic vessels, the recovered fluid is called lymph.

    一旦進入淋巴管,回收的液體就稱為淋巴液。

  • Lymph flow is enabled by the same forces that facilitate blood flow in the veins.

    促進淋巴液流動和促進靜脈血液流動的力量一樣。

  • It goes from lymphatic capillaries to larger and larger lymphatic vessels and eventually drains into the bloodstream via the subclavian veins.

    它從淋巴微管進入越來越大的淋巴管,最終通過鎖骨下靜脈流入血液中。

  • On the way, it passes through a number of lymph nodes, which serve as filters, cleansing the fluid before it reaches the bloodstream.

    在此過程中,它會經過許多充當過濾器的淋巴結,在流入血液前完成淨化。

  • Lymph nodes are small bean-shaped structures scattered throughout the lymphatic network.

    淋巴結是散佈在淋巴網絡中的小型豆狀結構。

  • They are most prominent in the areas where the vessels converge.

    它們主要分布於血管匯集處。

  • Lymph nodes contain macrophages and dendritic cells that directly swallow up any pathogens, such as bacteria or viruses, that may have been taken up from an infected tissue.

    淋巴結內含有巨噬細胞和樹突狀細胞,它們可以直接吞噬感染組織中的病原體,如細菌或病毒。

  • They also contain lymphocytes: T-cells and B-cells, which are involved in adaptive immune response, a process that produces activated lymphocytes and antibodies specific to the invading pathogen.

    它們也含有淋巴細胞:T 細胞和 B 細胞,主要負責適應性免疫反應,促進淋巴細胞和入侵病原體的抗體的活化。

  • These are then carried by the lymph to the bloodstream to be distributed wherever they are needed.

    它們通過淋巴進入血液中,然後被分配到需要它們的地方。

  • The lymphatic system also includes lymphoid organs.

    淋巴系統也包括淋巴器官。

  • Primary lymphoid organs, the thymus and bone marrow, are the sites of lymphocyte production, maturation and selection.

    初级淋巴器官,包括胸腺和骨髓,為淋巴細胞生成、發育和篩選的地方。

  • Selection is the process in which lymphocytes learn to distinguish between self and non-self, so they can recognize and destroy pathogens without attacking the body's own cells.

    篩選是淋巴細胞學會區分「自我」和「非我」的過程,這樣它們才能在不攻擊自身細胞的情況下有效辨識並摧毀病原體。

  • Mature lymphocytes then leave the primary for the secondary lymphoid organs, the lymph nodes, spleen, and lymphoid nodules, where they encounter pathogens and become activated.

    接著,成熟的淋巴細胞離開初級淋巴器官,進入次級淋巴器官、淋巴結、脾臟和淋巴小結,並於遇到病原體時活化。

In a nutshell, the lymphatic system is a drainage system that removes excess fluid from body tissues and returns it to the bloodstream.

簡單來說,淋巴系統是一個引流系統,它使身體組織中多餘的液體排出,使其回到血液中。

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淋巴系統是怎麼運作的?一起來認識吧!(The Lymphatic System Overview)

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    Amy.Lin 發佈於 2023 年 07 月 26 日
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