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  • Hey guys, Joe here.

    嗨各位!我是 Joe。

  • So I'm a dad now.

    我現在當爸爸了。

  • And my wife got me these socks.

    我老婆給我買來這雙襪子。

  • They're covered in my son's face.

    上面滿滿是我兒子的臉。

  • Pretty much the cutest socks ever.

    簡直是世界上最可愛的襪子!

  • Now that I'm a dad, I realize I'm basically only going to watch animated movies for the next decade.

    當爸爸了嘛,我意識到接下來幾年我基本上都只會看動畫電影了。

  • And as I started thinking back about all the great Disney movies through the years, I noticed something weird has been happening to the princesses.

    當我開始回想過去幾年的迪士尼賣座電影時,我從公主身上注意到一件奇怪的事。

  • In the earliest Disney films, the princesses more or less look like real, human women.

    在最早期的迪士尼電影,公主長得比較貼近真實人類女性。

  • But through the years, something strange happens.

    但在接下來幾年,奇怪的事情發生了。

  • Heads get bigger compared to their bodies, and their eyes get bigger compared to their heads.

    相較於身體,頭部變大了。而眼睛在頭部的比例也越來越大。

  • By the time we get to Elsa, it's clear this 22-year old Frozen princess doesn't look like an adult female.

    到了 Elsa,很明顯這位芳齡 22 歲的《冰雪奇緣》公主長得不像個成人女性。她的身體比例相當於一位八歲小孩。

  • She has the body ratios of an 8 year old.

  • Moana is supposedly 16 years old, but she has the body ratios of a 4 year old.

    Moana 照理是 16 歲,但她的身體比例相當於一個四歲小孩。

  • Disney princesses have been looking more and more like children.

    迪士尼公主看起來越來越像小孩了。

  • And this case of the Benjamin Buttons isn't just happening to princesses.

    這種班傑明劇情般的返老還童奇幻旅程不只是發生在公主身上。

  • In fact, this is true all over Toon-Town.

    事實上,這是卡通界的通則。

  • The designs of almost all cartoon characters have changed over time, and almost always in the same way.

    幾乎所有卡通角色的設計都隨著時間演變,而且幾乎都朝同一個方向發展。

  • As they get older, they age in reverse.

    當他們歲數增大,外表卻越顯年輕。

  • As we develop, we get a literal "head start." Our arms, legs, and bodies catch up as we get older.

    當小胚胎發育時,我們真的是「從頭開始」。我們的手臂、雙腿和身體在我們年歲增加時才會慢慢追上。

  • That's why a newborn's eyes are already 75% of their adult diameter, and our brains hit 55% of their adult volume by 3 months of age.

    這也是為什麼新生兒的眼睛已經佔了成人頭部直徑的 75%,大腦則在我們 3 個月大時達到成人大小的 55%。

  • Small bodies, big heads, big eyes.

    身體小,頭大、眼睛大。

  • Biologist Konrad Lorenz speculated that these babyish features trigger an instinct in adult mammals to give love and attention.

    生物學家 Konrad Lorenz 推測,這種「類嬰兒」的特徵觸發成年哺乳類關愛的本能。

  • When I show you this photo of a kitten, something happens in your brain that makes you want to cuddle and feed it--unless you're some kind of unfeeling monster.

    當我給你看這張小貓照片時,對你的大腦造成了影響,讓你想要抱牠、餵牠,除非你是冷血的怪獸那就另當別論。

  • In other words, "cuteness" is nature's secret weapon to persuade adults into caring for babies.

    換句話說,「可愛」是大自然的秘密武器,用來說服成年者照顧幼兒。

  • Disney is just using the same biological trick to encourage audiences to root for their characters.

    迪士尼就是運用了這一個的生物學技巧,鼓勵觀眾支持他們的角色。

  • That's why cartoon protagonists tend to have juvenile characteristics, and the villainsnot so much.

    這也是為什麼卡通主角往往有年少的性格,而反派則是 ... 大大相反。

  • But this doesn't just happen in Fantasyland.

    但這不僅止於幻想世界。

  • Which would you rather cuddle?

    你比較想抱哪一個?

  • This cavalier king charles spaniel?

    這隻騎士查理王小獵犬?

  • Or this wolf?

    或是這隻狼?

  • This floppy-eared ball of snuggles has been selectively bred to be cute.

    這隻毛茸茸的小肉球被特別培育要長得可愛。

  • It retains juvenile features into adulthood, or, what biologists call neoteny.

    就算成年了,牠依然保有幼年特徵,也就是生物學家口中的「幼態持續」。

  • We see neoteny in many domesticated animals.

    在許多受到人類豢養的動物身上我們都看得到幼態持續。

  • Although selecting for cuteness can explain the spaniel, animals like pigs show neoteny too.

    雖然就小獵犬而言,可愛指數是經過特別培育的,但其他動物,比如豬,也會有幼態持續。

  • Why would ancient humans care about the cuddle-ability of something they were raising for bacon?

    為什麼老祖宗人類會在乎可愛程度啊?畢竟牠們是被養來要做培根的。

  • Well, maybe cuteness is just a side-effect?

    或許可愛只是一種副作用?

  • The most important trait in becoming a domesticated animal istameness.

    動物成為家畜最主要的一點是馴養程度。

  • Whether it's a companion, a worker, or a food source, you can't have a productive relationship with fearful or aggressive animals.

    不論是當做伴侶、工作夥伴或是食物來源,你都無法和恐怖、有攻擊性的動物發展關係。

  • That fight or flight response is something that most animals only acquire as they get older--baby animals are pretty chill with humans.

    「戰或逃反應」是大多數動物到了成年才會有的,動物寶寶基本上和人類相安無事。

  • So an animal that somehow never "grows up" in that sense might make the best candidate for domestication.

    所以「永遠不會長大」的動物,在某方面上,或許就成了最適合豢養的對象。

  • Beginning in the 1950s, Soviet scientist Dmitry Belyaev began a breeding experiment to study this idea, using wild silver foxes.

    最早在 1950 年代,蘇聯科學家 Dmitry Belyaev 開始了一項野生銀狐的育種實驗,試圖探討這個理論。

  • The foxes were tested for their reaction to human contact, and only the foxes that were friendly toward experimenters were allowed to breed.

    實驗測試狐狸對人類接觸的反應,只有那些能夠親近的才會被繁殖。

  • After just 20 generations, his foxes had not only changed in behavior, but also in appearance.

    過了僅僅 20 代,他的狐狸不僅在行為方面改變,外貌也有轉變。

  • Floppy ears, smaller jaws, and shorter tails that now wagged whenever humans were around.

    鬆軟的塌耳朵、小巧的下巴、短短的尾巴,牠們看到人類靠近就會摇尾巴。

  • Belyaev noted changes in hormones and brain chemistry that he suspected were capable of reshaping the foxes' external features.

    Belyaev 注意到他預期的荷爾蒙和腦部化學物質改變,這些都會重塑狐狸的外觀特徵。

  • What does this tell us?

    這意味著什麼?

  • If you select for one childish trait, a bunch of others tend to come along with it.

    當你選擇了一項幼兒特質,就會附贈其他一大堆。

  • Evolutionary biologist Stephen J. Gould noticed that the same was true of the world's most famous cartoon character: Mickey Mouse.

    演化生物學家 Stephen J. Gould 發現,這演變也發生在全世界最有名的卡通角色身上,那就是米奇。

  • OG Mickey was... kind of a jerk.

    初代的米奇其實 ... 挺混賬的。

  • But as his personality got softer and sweeter, so did his appearance.

    但隨著他的個性變得更圓滑、甜美,他的外貌也跟著轉變。

  • By the 1950s, Mickey had not only become the child-like mouse we know today, he'd become a nice guy.

    到了 1950 年代,米奇不僅成為了我們今日熟知、小孩般的老鼠,他也變成了一個好好先生。

  • But beyond pets or cartoons, you can also see neoteny in yourself.

    但不只是寵物和卡通,你在自己身上也看得到幼態持續。

  • Most biologists agree that humans are, in many ways, big babies.

    多數生物學家同意,人類其實在很多方面就是個大寶寶。

  • Compared to other adult primates, we grow less body hair, have shorter limbs, and flatter faces.

    相較於其他成年靈長類,我們比較少體毛、四肢比較短、臉也比較扁平。

  • And if you compare how much a chimp's skull morphs as it matures, you can see that our skull shape changes much less.

    而當你比較猩猩在發育時的頭骨演變,就會發現我們的頭骨不怎麼會改變。

  • Our neoteny offered us lots of evolutionary advantages.

    幼態持續給了我們許多演化優勢。

  • Less body hair meant we could run farther in that African heat, and our faces were more visible to each other as social interaction became more important.

    較少體毛意味著我們在非洲艷陽下能夠跑更遠,而當社會互動越來越重要時,我們的臉也顯得比較好互相辨識。

  • Also, suppressing our own fight or flight response meant we could cooperate and organize in larger numbers.

    還有,幼態持續抑制了我們的戰或逃反應,讓我們更能夠以大群體合作。

  • And most importantly, these big brains need a lot of room and time to develop, which is why we rely on our parents for much longer than most mammals.

    最重要的是,這些大腦袋需要大空間還有時間發育,這也是為什麼我們比其他哺乳類花更多時間仰賴父母。

  • It might not be a coincidence that the more complex our society gets, the more time humans need to become independent.

    這或許不是巧合,我們的社會結構越複雜,我們就的確需要更多時間才能獨立。

  • Childhood is a time for experimentation and learning--most animals get locked into pretty rigid programs by the time they're adults.

    童年是拓展和學習的階段,多數動物到了成年期就已經完全脫離幼年。

  • By extending our childhood into adulthood, we can learn and change as long as we live.

    透過將我們的童年延長至成年,我們就能持續學習、演變。

  • Maybe that's why so many of us still love cartoons.

    或許這也是為什麼我們許多人依然熱愛卡通。

  • Because we may get old, but we never grow up. That's what makes us human.

    因為我們或許是會變老,但我們不會「長大」。人類就是如此。

  • Stay curious.

    永保你的好奇心!

Hey guys, Joe here.

嗨各位!我是 Joe。

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B1 中級 中文 美國腔 公主 成年 卡通 動物 生物學家 迪士尼

為什麼迪士尼公主看起來都有寶寶臉? (Why Do Disney Princesses All Look Like Babies?)

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    April Lu 發佈於 2019 年 03 月 24 日
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